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 Fernando Cueto Amorsolo  (1892 - 1972)

About: Fernando Cueto Amorsolo
 

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Lived/Active: Philippines      Known for: Philippino landscape, wartime scenes and portrait painting

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BIOGRAPHY for Fernando Amorsolo
Facts/Data
Birth
1892 (Calle Herran, Paco, Manila)
 
Death
1972

Lived/Active
Philippines




Often Known For
Philippino landscape, wartime scenes and portrait painting

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This biography from the Archives of AskART:
Please note: Artists not classified as American in our database may have limited biographical data compared to the extensive information about American artists.

Fernando Amorsolo painted and sketched more than ten thousand pieces over his lifetime using natural and backlighting techniques.  His most known works are of the dalagang Filipina, landscapes of his Philippino homeland, portraits and WWII war scenes.

Born in Calle Herran in Paco, Manila, on May 20, 1892, Fernando Amorsolo began drawing and sketching as a young boy.  The family lived in Daet until the death of his father.  At that time his mother moved the family to the home of her cousin, artist Don Fabian dela Rosa in Manila.  Amorsolo was 13 years old at the time and in order to help provide for his family, he sold his drawings and began to study art under dela Rosa. 

In 1909, he began studies at the Liceo de Manila and graduated from the University of the Philippines in 1914.  After designing the logo for Ginebra San Miguel, Amorsolo received a grant to attend the Academia de San Fernando in Madrid from businessman Enrique Zobel de Ayala in 1916.  A major influence in his painting style during this period was painter Diego Velasquez.

Fernando Amorsolo used family members as subjects for many of his sketches and paintings.  When WWII broke out, Amorsolo continued to paint from his home in Manila.  Instead of painting landscapes with bright sun filled skies, he did works that portrayed the human suffering and wartime scenes along with self portraits and the Japanese occupation soldiers of the time.  Many of these paintings were exhibited in the Malacanang presidential palace in 1948. 

Following the war he returned to painting landscape scenes of the countryside and portraits.  He painted oil portraits of all of the Philippine presidents, revolutionary leader General Emilio Aguinaldo, and General Douglas MacArthur.   

Due to the popularity of his works he cataloged them and developed a technique to paint them quicker to meet the demand.

Throughout his life Fernando Amorsolo worked as an instructor, a draftsman for the Public Works, chief artist for the Pacific Commercial Company, illustrator for children’s books and magazines, and served as Director at the School of Fine Arts before he retired in the early 1950s.  

In the twilight years of his life, Amorsolo’s continued painting through declining health.  He was married twice and had 13 children before a heart attack eventually took his life on April 24, 1972.

Sources:
Fernando C. Amorsolo Art Foundation 39 Cordillera St. Quezon City, Phillippines  
www.fernandocamorsolo.com
Lopez Memorial Museum – article “Remembering Papa” by Sylvia Amorsolo Lazo
www.lopezmusum.org
Cultural heritage – www.globalpinoy.com
Encyclopedia of World Biography. Thomson Gale, 2004. – www.encyclopedia.com

Biography from Tobin Reese Fine Art:
Please note: Artists not classified as American in our database may have limited biographical data compared to the extensive information about American artists.

On May 30, 1892 a boy named Fernando Amorsolo was born in the Paco neighborhood of Manilla, and he became the first designated a National Artist of the Philippines. President Ferdinand Marcos awarded him this honor posthumously, four days after his death. Amorsolo’s popularity was attributed to his glorification of the Philippine culture, his rejection of Western ideals of beauty, but mostly the perfection of his brush stroke. Although he lived during a tumultuous and violent time in the Philippines and experienced much personal tragedy, he chose to see and paint the positive facets of life. This decision proved to be the most admired and most criticized aspect of his work. His career and productivity reached a peak between 1915 and 1940, also known as the “Golden Period”.

When Fernando was seven months old, his father moved the family to the small town setting of Daet in Camarines Norte where Amorsolo developed his love for the simple rural life, which would become the foundation for his artistic output throughout his career. After the death of Amorsolo’s father when Fernando was age eleven, the family returned to Manila where Fabian de la Rosa, first cousin to Amorsolo’s mother and a prominent Philippine painter, became a mentor to the young, aspiring artist. This move was pre-arranged by Amorsolo’s father before his death, as he asked his wife to promise that Fernando would receive a superior education in art.

Despite family financial hardships, Amorsolo graduated with honors in painting and drawing from the Art School of the Liceo de Manila. After graduating from the Liceo in 1909, he entered the University of the Philippines' School of Fine Arts at the young age of seventeen, where de la Rosa worked as an instructor at the time. Amorsolo won top prizes in competitions at both of his schools. During college, contemporary Spanish masters Joaquín Sorolla Bastida and Ignacio Zuloaga most heavily influenced Fernando Amorsolo. Other primary influences included the Spanish people, court painter Diego Velázquez, John Singer Sargent, Anders Zorn, Claude Monet, and Pierre-Auguste Renoir.

In 1916 Amorsolo graduated with honors and simultaneously obtained employment as an art teacher and commercial artist. The same year he also visited Spain for seven months under a sponsorship by a Spanish citizen named Enrique Zobel de Ayala, and was exposed to European modern artists and French Realists, Impressionists, and Post-Impressionists. Next, he briefly visited New York City, where he would later hold a solo exhibition in 1925. These short, but international trips, enlarged Amorsolo’s artistic toolkit and helped him gain recognition outside of the Philippines. Amorsolo married twice and fathered fourteen children, five of which became painters.

Amorsolo set up a studio when he returned to Manila and painted diligently and quickly in the 1920s and 1930s. His painting, Rice Planting (1922) was the favorite of the Commonwealth of the Philippines and was featured on posters and tourist brochures. From 1938 to 1952, Amorsolo served as the director of the Art Department at the School of Fine Arts at the University of the Philippines. He received numerous distinctions including a first prize at the New York’s World Fair for Afternoon Meal of Rice Workers (1929), an UNESCO gold medal of recognition (1959), the Rizal Pro-Patria Award (1961), the Araw ng Maynila award (1963), and the Gawad CCP para sa Sinig, from the Cultural Center of the Philippines. Beginning in the 1950’s Amorsolo produced approximately ten paintings a month. The following museums include work by Amorsolo: The Ayala Museum (Manila), The Central Bank of the Philippines (Manila), The Lopez Museum (Manila), and The National Museum of the Philippines (Manila).

Amorsolo was known as “The Painter of Philippines Sunlight” because his illuminated landscapes displayed the magnificence of the country’s sunshine and portrayed traditional Filipino customs, culture, fiestas, and ordinary occupations, such as rice harvesting and mango picking. His pastoral works presented “an imagined sense of nationhood in counterpoint to American colonial rule” and were important to the formation of Filipino national identity.

Amorsolo’s use of chiaroscuro—an Italian term for a backlighting technique meaning “light-dark” that involves the interplay of light and dark—became his artistic trademark as well as his greatest contribution to Philippine painting. In a typical Amorsolo painting, figures are outlined against a characteristic glow, and intense light on one part of the canvas highlights nearby details. Only one painting by Amorsolo is believed to include rain, as sunlight was his constant element. Art historian Eric Torres describes Amorsolo’s sunlight paintings as “…overflow[ing] with sweetness and optimism.” Others consider his countryside paintings to be the “true reflections of the Filipino Soul.”

Amorsolo also painted a series of historical paintings on pre-Colonial and Spanish colonial and wartime events, portraits of prominent politicians (e.g., General Emilio Aguinaldo), nudes, the dalagang Filipina (a tanned, clear-complexioned, slim, and soft-featured Philippine maiden), and a series on the Japanese occupation of the Philippines during World War II—which presented a stark contrast to his illuminated landscape paintings because they depicted scenes of death and suffering by the Filipino people. Many of his wartime paintings were displayed at the Malacanang Presidential Palace in 1948 and are considered to not only be a reference for Philippine history, but also the artist’s unspoken intolerance of foreign occupation. A family tragedy occurred during the war when Amorsolo’s younger half-brother, also an artist, was executed by his own countrymen, albeit Filipino guerillas—on suspicion of sympathizing with the Japanese.

Within the Vatican City, three Amorsolo paintings are displayed. One is hung at the Vatican Radio headquarters and the remaining two are at the Propaganda Fire—a missionary congregation. The paintings at the congregation serve as an important symbol of the Filipino contribution to the spread of the Catholic faith to other countries.

Amorsolo’s major works, such as Maiden in a Stream (1921), The Conversion of the Filipinos (1931), The Bombing of Intendencia (1942), The Rape of Manila (1942), Defense of a Filipina Woman’s Honor (1945), and Sunday Morning Going to Town (1958), relate to distinct events in Philippine history.

The volume of paintings, sketches, and studies of Amorsolo is believed to exceed 10,000 pieces. His craftsmanship and speed of production have been compared to the efficiency of machines on the assembly line. Even as his health deteriorated due to diabetes, cataracts, and arthritis, he continued to produce a substantial volume of works, in part to support his large family. His emotional state also greatly suffered after the death of two of his sons, one in 1964 and another in 1971. Fernando Amorsolo died on April 24, 1972 due to heart failure.

Amorsolo’s friends and family describe his beautiful paintings as a mirror to his even more beautiful and pure soul. His children founded an art foundation in his honor in 2003 to ensure his legacy, style, vision, and dedication to the promotion of Philippine national heritage survive for decades to come. His grave marker in Marikini City reads: “Dedicated to a husband and father who led a life of simplicity and beauty and left a wealth of virtues…” –Amorsolo Family

Biography from Geringer Art, Ltd.:
Please note: Artists not classified as American in our database may have limited biographical data compared to the extensive information about American artists.

The paintings of Fernando C. Amorsolo “…overflow with sweetness and optimism,” says art historian Eric Torres. Amorsolo, Torres asserts, managed to “capture on canvas the vibrant tropical Philippine sunlight.” A shy man, whose only real genius was in painting, Fernando Amorsolo also helped shape and stylize the image of the ideal Filipina.

Fernando Amorsolo’s enormous popularity, both during his lifetime and after, resulted from his luminous and idealized treatment of Philippine genre and landscape subjects. His best known paintings feature peasants in colorful costumes, scenes of rice planting and harvesting, genre and society portraits, and sensual female bathers. Amorsolo’s painterly technique, and his skill in rendering the figure, is said to have peaked during the era known as his “Golden Period” between 1915 and 1940.

Fernando Amorsolo was born on May 30, 1892 in Paco, Manila to Pedro Amorsolo, a bookkeeper, and his wife Bonifacia Cueto. One of five brothers, Fernando grew up in Daet, Camarines Norte, until moving to Manila upon the death of his father. Before he passed away, Amorsolo’s father Pedro had made his wife promise to give Fernando a proper art education.

The family moved in with his mother’s first cousin, Fabian de la Rosa, a genre painter who had been trained at Manila’s Escuela de Bellas Artes y Dibujo (School of Fine Arts and Design) and who had also traveled in Europe. In 1905 Fernando Amorsolo, aged 13, was apprenticed to de la Rosa. The young man’s first commercial success came when he sold watercolor postcards for 10 centavos each.

In 1908, Amorsolo won the second prize for the painting Levendo Periodico at the Bazar Escolta, a competition sponsored by the Asociacion Internacional de Artistas. The following year, Amorsolo enrolled at the Art School of the Liceo de Manila where a genre scene of figures in a garden would earn him a first prize in his graduation year. In 1909 he began attending the University of the Philippines School of Fine art, where his uncle Fabian de la Rosa was serving as an instructor. During his university years Amorsolo supported himself by doing illustration work that appeared in novels and religious publications. He graduated with honors in 1916 and began a dual career as an art instructor and commercial artist.

In 1916 Enrique Zobel de Ayala, a Spanish citizen who was a leading businessman in the Philippines, sponsored Amorsolo to study at the Adademia de San Fernando in Madrid. While in Spain, Amorsolo became widely exposed to the works of key European modern artists including French Realists, Impressionists and Post-Impressionists. He also discovered the works of the Spanish luminist Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida, and the great Baroque master Diego Velasquez, who became the artists he most greatly admired and emulated. The seven months that Amorsolo spent in Spain, and the brief visit he made afterwards to New York, gave him the stylistic tools he needed to transform himself from a provincial artist to an international figure. “Informed by Western Impressionism,” states art historian Floriana Capistrano-Baker, “Amorsolo used swift, broken brushwork and thick impasto, with emphasis on landscapes and daily scenes.”

After returning to Manila, Amorsolo set up a studio and began an enormously productive period. Using subject matter that he had borrowed from Fabian de la Rosa – scenes of rice planting and harvesting -- he created a series of paintings that captured the popular imagination. His 1922 painting Rice Planting soon appeared on calendars, posters, and travel brochures. Amorsolo also created powerful images of Philippine colonial history including The First Mass in the Philippines. During the long span of his career, Amorsolo’s paintings would continue to be reproduced in textbooks, commercial images, magazines and newspapers, and became the accepted standard for historical imagery.

Commercially successful from his thirties on, Amorsolo was the subject of international exhibitions including a one-man show in New York City held in 1925. He was very much in demand for portraits of society figures, including foreigners, and was willing to make copies of his own works, always slightly altered, on a commissioned basis. He would sometimes bring out a photo album of his better known paintings and ask a client which subject matter they would like.

Amorsolo continued to teach at the University of the Philippines, and served as the Director of the school’s Art Department between 1938 and 1952. After the 1931 death of his first wife – with whom he had 6 children – he remarried and fathered 8 more children. In total, 5 of his children also became painters. During the Japanese occupation of the Philippines Amorsolo sketched war scenes from the window or roof of his rented apartment, while his wife and family lived separately in a safer location. His drawings and paintings from this grim period document wartime suffering and atrocities. In particular, Amorsolo depicted the sufferings of mothers and children. During the war, Amorsolo’s younger brother Pablo, also an accomplished artist, was branded a Japanese sympathizer and was executed by Filipino guerillas. His wartime paintings are considered among his finest work and were exhibited at Malacanang Palace in 1948.

From the 1950s onward, Amorsolo created an average of 10 paintings per month. His popularity was so great that the first generation of Philippine modernists generally cited his work as an academy that needed to be rebelled against. In a sense, this was a kind of compliment to the aging artist. In Amorsolo’s waning years health problems, including diabetes and cataracts, created obstacles, but he continued to paint productively to support his large family. The deaths of two of his sons, Fernando Jr. in 1964, and Milo in 1971, affected him deeply. Fernando Amorsolo died of heart failure on August 24, 1972.

In 2003, Amorsolo's children founded the Fernando C. Amorsolo Art Foundation, which is dedicated to preserving Fernando Amorsolo's legacy, promoting his style and vision, and preserving a national heritage through the conservation and promotion of his works.
Source:
“100 Years of Philippine Painting,” Essay by Emmanuel Torres, copyright the Pacific Asia Museum, 1984

Fernando C. Amorsolo Art Foundation, 39 Cordillera St. Quezon City, The Philippines

Biography by Edwin A. Martinez, www.fernandocamorsolo.com

“Pioneers of Philippine Art,” Essay by Floriana H. Capistrano-Baker, copyright the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco, 2006


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