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 Charles Emile Jacque  (1813 - 1894)

About: Charles Emile Jacque
 

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Lived/Active: France      Known for: bucolic subject painting, engraving

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BIOGRAPHY for Charles Jacque
Facts/Data
Birth
1813 (Paris, France)
 
Death
1894 (Paris)

Lived/Active
France




Often Known For
bucolic subject painting, engraving

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Biography from US Auction House:
Please note: Artists not classified as American in our database may have limited biographical data compared to the extensive information about American artists.

Charles Emil Jacques (French, 1813-1894) was heavily influenced by 17th-Century Dutch landscape traditions, but also reflected the Barbizon school and was associated with Theodore Rousseau and Jean Francois Millet.

Biography from Schiller & Bodo European Paintings:
Please note: Artists not classified as American in our database may have limited biographical data compared to the extensive information about American artists.

Charles Jacque was among the first generation of painters to leave the city for the forest of Fontainebleau, where helped to establish the Barbizon School. Also a founding and influential member of the “Men of 1830” (also called l’Ecole francaise du paysage), a loose movement of artists who, spurred on by the Revolution of 1830, sought out new directions in landscape painting.  His strong, realistic, yet sensitive depictions of shepherds and their flocks form one of the most cohesive and important bodies of work produced by the movement.

Born in 1813 in Paris, Jacque began his training in etching rather than painting, as an apprentice to a map engraver.  In this area, Jacque was unsurpassed among his colleagues in the Barbizon school.  After military service, he went to England, where he worked as an engraver for La Charivari.  Returning to France after two years abroad, he made his Salon debut in 1833 and regularly contributed paintings every year until 1870.  Winning medals for both etching and painting, he was awarded the Legion d’honneur in 1867.

During the 1840s, he and his friend, Jean-Francois Millet moved to the village of Barbizon where they felt they could more realistically portray nature.  Jacque bought a house there and, influenced by Diaz’s technique and Millet’s themes, found his inspiration in hen-houses, pigsties and flocks of sheep at pasture.  He was also involved in non-artistic activities, such as land speculation and poultry breeding, about which he wrote a book, Le Poulailler, monographie des poules indigences et exotiques, published in 1848.  He left Barbizon in 1854 and continued to paint in the outskirts of Paris until he died on May 7, 1894.

Museums:
Amsterdam, Stedelijk; Baltimore Museum of Art; Boston, Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum; Budapest, Museum of Fine Art.; Cincinnati Museum of Fine Art; Edinburgh, National Gallery of Scotland; Glasgow Museum of Art; Kansas City, MO, Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art; Milwaukee, Layton Art Gallery; Minneapolis Institute of Arts; Muncie, IN, Ball State University Art Gallery; New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art & Brooklyn Museum; Northampton, MA, Smith College Museum of Art; Oxford, England, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford University; Philadelphia Museum of Art, John G. Johnson Collection; Museum of Quebec; Saint Petersburg, Hermitage Museum; Seattle, Henry Art Gallery; Southampton Art Gallery, England; Williamstown, MA, Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute; Paris, Louvre, Musée d’Orsay; The Hague, Netherlands; Reims Musée des Beaux-Arts;

Selected Bibliography:
Fanica, Pierre-Olivier. Charles Jacque, 1813-1894, Graveur original et peintre animalier. Art Bizon, Montigny-sur-Loing, 1995.
Herbert, Robert. Barbizon Revisited. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 1962.
Jones, Kimberly A. In the Forest of Fontainebleau. National Gallery of Art, Washington and Yale University Press, New Haven and London, 2008.

Biography from Anderson Galleries, Inc.:
Please note: Artists not classified as American in our database may have limited biographical data compared to the extensive information about American artists.

Charles Jacque was a primary and influential member of the Barbizon School or "Men of 1830".  His strong, realistic yet sensitive depiction of shepherds and their flocks form one of the most cohesive and important bodies of work produced by the movement.

Born in Paris, Jacque began his training, not in painting but in etching, as an apprentice to a map engraver.  In this area, Jacque was unsurpassed among his colleagues in the Barbizon School.  After military service, he went to England where he worked as an engraver for La Charivari.  Returning to France after two years abroad, he made his Salon debut in 1833 and regularly contributed paintings every year until 1870.  Winning medals for both etching and painting, he was awarded the Legion d'honneur in 1867.

During the 1840s, he and his friend Jean Millet moved to the village of Barbizon, where they felt they could more realistically portray nature.  He was also involved in non-artistic activities, such as land speculation and poultry breeding (about which he wrote a book, Le Poulailler, monographie des poules indigences et exotiques, published in 1848), which kept him from fully devoting his life to art.  However, even with his outside interests, Jacque continued to produce a great many works in the two mediums of painting and etching.

Employing a new and more vigorous style helped make him a popular artist with many patrons in the Lowlands, the British Isles and the United States.

Museum collections:
Hermitage Museum, Leningrad
Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston, MA
Louvre, Paris
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York
Norton Simon Museum, Pasadena, CA
Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute, Williamstown, MA

Biography from Odon Wagner Gallery:
Please note: Artists not classified as American in our database may have limited biographical data compared to the extensive information about American artists.

In 1830, following a difficult childhood, Charles Jacque was apprenticed at the age of seventeen to an engraver of maps and learned the technique of dry point.  That same year, he produced his first etching, a copy of a head after Rembrandt.  Disappointed by his apprenticeship, he enlisted in the army from 1831 to 1836.  During his military service he made some sketches and drawings, which he later tried to have published, and he is reputed to have submitted two works to the Salon of 1833 in Paris.

In 1838, after a two-year stay in London, where he is known to have made some woodcuts illustrating the works of Shakespeare, Jacque returned to France with a solid reputation as a printmaker.  He made frequent trips to Burgundy where his parents had settled in 1830; rural landscapes, farm interiors and animals became his favorite subjects.

Although well-known as an engraver, from 1845 Jacque turned more and more to painting.  It was at about this period that he discovered Barbizon and its surroundings. Enchanted, he settled there in 1849 with his friend Millet.  Painting almost exclusively in the environs of Fontainebleau, Jacque made increasing numbers of animal studies at local farms, and became known for his bucolic subjects, such as henhouses, pigsties and flocks of sheep in pasture.

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