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Art Glossary
Art Glossary Terms: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

TermDescription

Icon

A venerated representation of a subject, usually a painting or mosaics,it references religious subjects and is particularly associated with Byzantine, Russian and Greek Orthodox churches. Icons first appeared as objects of devotion as Christian cult images at the end of the fifth century. In Russia, the production of icons has continued into the 20th Century. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; Kimberley Reynolds & Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"

Iconography

A word with several meanings, one being a work of art that is composed of venerated symbols shared by a cultural group. An example would be the painting, "The Annunciation" by Jan Van Eyck (1385-1441). A second meaning is the study of images and symbols in works of art. The term Iconography is derived from the Greek, which translated to English means "story written out by symbols." Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; Kimberley Reynolds & Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"

Ideogram

A general term, it refers to graphic symbols of ideas or concepts and embraces both Pictograms and Logograms. It is a Pictogram if it has physical resemblance to the idea such as an X through a circle indicating no U-Turn. Or if it is descriptive of symbolic writing systems such as hieroglyphs or Sumerian cuneiform, it is a Logogram. Source: Ideogram, Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ideogram

Illinois Institute of Design

Founded in 1937 in Chicago, the leader was Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, who had taught at the Bauhaus in Germany from 1923 to 1928 and was invited to Chicago by the Board of the Chicago Association of Art and Industry to start a school of industrial design. He named it the New Bauhaus, and it was housed in the Prairie Avenue mansion, which had been owned by Marshall Field. Financially stressed the school closed in 1938, but reopened the next year as the Chicago School of Design, having received support from Walter Paepcke, Chair of the Container Corporation of America. In 1944, it became the Institute of Design, and in 1949 became part of the Illinois Institute of Technology university system. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Bauhaus

Illinois Institute of Technology

See Illinois Institute of Design

Illumination

From the French term "enlumine", meaning to brighten and associated with gold and silver, it is the art of manuscript decoration with designs, calligraphy and pictures. Illumination was especially prevalent in Medieval art but declined after the 15th Century. Egyptian papyrus rolls including "The Book of the Dead" are the oldest discovered Illuminations and continued through the Greek, Roman and Byzantine civilizations and also into the Middle East. In Medieval Europe, Catholic monks did most of the manuscript illumination. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; Kimberley Reynolds & Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"

Illusionism

A pictorial technique to convey through unreality a sense of reality, the method often employs light and shadow and perspective to manipulate the visual response. Illusionism dates back to Roman wall painting and relief sculpture, and in American art is related to Trompe l'Oeil (fool-the-eye) painting as well as Magic Realism and Photo Realism. American painters who used illusionism include James Carter, Anna Eliza Hardy, William Harnett, Aaron Bohrod, John Singleton Copley, and Charles Rain. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; AskART biographies.

Illustration Academy, Kansas

A summer school of intense workshop immersion, it is located in Fairway, Kansas. Its mission is to shorten the span between schooling and career illustration assignment. Driven by real-world examples and deadlines, the students are encouraged to focus on concepts, techniques, and to pursue a personal point of view to make their work unique. Along side the technical demonstrations of media and life drawing skills, the Academy focuses on the functional business practices in the field of illustration. These include self-promotion, advertising, contracts, taxes and accounting. Among teachers are John English, George Pratt and Brett Watkinson. Source:www.theartdepartmentschool.com/additional-programs/the-illustration-academy

Illustration Board, Drawing Board

Cardboard on which paper has been pasted, it has a variance of quality from the finest to cheap drawing paper. Illustration Board is used by illustrators and draftsmen and others creating two-dimensional visuals intended for much handling and reproduction. It is not durable for permanent fine art. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Illustration/Illustrator

Pictures created to supplement, promote and interpret printed text such as books, advertisements and magazines, illustration brought prestige to many who became highly adept such as N.C. Wyeth, Norman Rockwell, Frederic Remington, Charles Russell, Joseph Pennell, Maxfield Parrish and Howard Pyle. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; Kimberley Reynolds & Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"; AskART database

Ilya Repin Arts Academy, State Academic Institute

An institution founded in 1757, it remains the largest arts educational institution and one of the most important scientific centers in Russia. For almost two and a half centuries the Academy has been promoting the traditional and classical fine art of Russia and plays a key part in the preservation of its native style. Presently there are more than seven-hundred students during the day and over five hundred attending evening courses at the Academy taught by 100 professors, associate professors, and 60 other teachers. The Academy has five faculties: Fine Art, Graphic Arts, Sculpture, Architecture, and Art Theory and History. Source: http://www./Ilya+Repin+St.+Petersburg+State+Academic+Institute+of++Fine+Arts,+Sculpture+and+Architecture/408.html

Imagism

See Chicago Imagism

Immaculates

See Precisionist Painters

Impasto

A thick, juicy, or lumpy and multi-layered application of paint, it is appled to canvas or other ground support. Emphasis is on texture and obvious paint strokes, as distinguished from a smooth, flat surface. Dutch artist Vincent Van Gogh was noted for his Impasto technique. American artists that used Impasto include Joan Brown, Frank Duveneck, David Park, and Nicolai Fechin. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; Kimberley Reynolds & Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"; AskART database

Imperial Academy of Arts

See Russian Academy of Arts

Impressionism

Considered the first significant modern art movement because of deviating from academic realism and opening the door to abstraction, it is a painting style focused on changing effects of light and color. Often done outdoors, "en plein aire", and facilitated in late 19th century France by the invention of oil paint in tubes, it is achieved with disconnected, hastily applied brush strokes. Impressionism was publically introduced with an 1874 Paris exhibition that included Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, Pierre Renoir, Camille Pisarro and Berthe Morisot. Monet's painting, "Sunrise", prompted critic Louis Leroy to refer to it snidely as "Impressionism", and the name stayed with the style. Two schools of Impressionism have evolved---American and French with French Impressionists less concerned with form than the Americans. Source: Charles Moffat, "The Birth of Impressionism", http://www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/impressionism/French-Impressionism.html

Impressionism-American

A style that evolved from French Impressionism, it was brought to the United States by many of the American art students who were in Paris in late 19th century France when the movement began. However, the Americans tended not to be as deviating from realism as the French. Chief exponents were William Merritt Chase, who in 1878, founded one of the first outdoor painting schools, which was at Shinnecock on Long Island; and his student, Charles Hawthorne, who founded the Cape Cod School of Art at Provincetown in 1899. They espoused painting 'en plein aire' (finishing the work on location in the open air), and depicting the changing effects of light with masses of color while modeling and defining the forms with distinct color variations. Source: Cynthia McBride, McBride Gallery, Annapolis, MD

In Situ

Meaning 'on site' or 'in place', the term references the creation of artwork at the location where it remains as something permanently installed. It can also refer to restoring a work of art in its permanent location such as a painting hanging on the wall. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Independents (New Hope, Pennsylvania)

See New Hope Modernists

Indian Group of Seven

See Professional Native Indian Artists Incorporation

Indian River School

A name applied to Floridian artists in the 1950’s and 1960’s, they were heavily influenced by nature. Most of the artists in this movement were African American. Their work is characterized by quick strokes and eschews traditional methods of paintings.? Their main influence was a man named A.E. Backus, a Bohemian white man who mentored the group of young black artists. The group used to congregate in his studio and learned to paint from ‘Beanie’ (as he was called) as a way out of their lower class labor jobs. ?? Their work was powerful, dramatic yet captured the serenity and beauty of the Florida countryside. No one knows how many artists A.E. Backus mentored, but experts put the number at about 20, many of whom he put through college. Many are still painting and sell their work in galleries and online. Note some of their work is difficult to find because it exists in only private collections.? Members of the group in addition Backus include ?Don Brown?, James Hutchinson?, Therese Knowles?, Margaret Z. Smith, Julie Enders?, Annie Nobles Miller?, Jackie Schindehette and Jackie Brice. Online Source: Written By Melissa Montgomery "The Indian River School of Art", The Art Institutes, www.arthistoryguide.com/Indian_River_School.aspx (Accessed 5/19/2013)

Indian Space Painters

Coined in 1943, it was an association of New York artists inspired by a 1936 Museum of Modern Art exhibition focused on abstraction, symbolism and mysticism of Indian art. Members had met as students at the Art Students League, and also had studied privately with modernist Hans Hoffman. Steve Wheeler was founder; Howard Daum coined the term; and others included Peter Busa, Robert Barrell, Gertrude Barrer, Ruth Lewin, Helen DeMott and Will Barnet. The ISP held only one exhibition, which was in 1946 at Gallery Neuf on East 79th Street. Abstract Expressionism was the 'death knell' for the public interest in the groups originality. Source: Joseph Jacobs, 'Indian Space Painters', "Art & Antiques", February 2007, p. 59

Industrial Design

Applied art, it is machine made rather than hand created but retains aesthetic concerns of fine art relative to shape, quality of materials, colors, texture, sound and comfort to the user. Source: “Wikipedia/Industrial Design” (See Applied Art)

Informalists

Plein-air painters given the name from a 1996 exhibition, they paint in a "fluid expressionist" style and are dedicated to the legacy of the early Monterey Peninsula Art Colony led by Armin Hansen and William Ritschel. Informalists focus on special atmospherics and often lesser-known areas rather than tourist-popular landmarks. Members are Jeff Daniel Smith, Cyndra Bradford, Johnny Apodaca, Gerard Martin, Jr., Richard Woodson, Barry John Raybould, Mark Farina, and Howard Bradford, whose Carmel Galerie Plein Aire has exhibited their work. Source: www.thepleinairscene.com/blog/the-informalists/

Inimage

A surrealist technique, it is the opposite of collage: rather than pieces being glued together to make a composite image as in collage, pieces are cut away from an existing picture to make an image. Source: Daniel Boyer, Artist

Ink/Ink Drawing

A colored fluid, it has several types: 1)Writing Ink from Tannic and Gallic acids and dye, which creates a strong, black stain on paper. This ink remains legible for centuries if kept away from direct light, but it fades and changes color, so is not sufficient for drawing. 2) Drawing Ink, often called India Ink in the U.S., and popular among commercial artists because the image is sharp, reproduces well and is long-lasting. It consists of carbon pigments such as lampblack in a water binder of shellac or borax and has added preservative. When dry, it is water-resistant so it can be combined with water-soluble mediums. 3) Printmaking Ink, which has thick paste, oil-paint consistency and is bound in a drying oil. It is usually applied to a printing surface with rollers so it covers evenly and thinly. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; Kimberley Reynolds & Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"

Inker

Part of the traditional comic book or graphic novel process, the inker, usually working with black India ink, gives permanency to the initial work of the line-drawing penciller. Sometimes the same person is penciller and inker. Frequently the penciller receives most of the public credit as creator, but often, in fact, the skill of the inker has led to the finished product, which has made the work popular with the public. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inker

Inkpot Awards

Since 1974, Comic-Con International has awarded them annually for lifetime achievement. The categories include: Comic Arts, Science Fiction/Fantasy, Illustration, and Fandom/Committee. Some of the awardees are Mort Drucker, Will Eisner, Hal Foster, Ted (Dr. Seuss) Geisel, Chester Gould, Chuck Jones, Hank Ketcham, Jack Kirby, Mell Lazarus, Don Martin, Patrick Oliphant, Charles Schulz and Joe Shuster. Source: San Diego Comic-Con International – http://www.comic-con.org/cci/cci_inkpot.php.

Inlay (Intarsia, Marquetry, Parquetry)

In woodworking, a technique in which small pieces of wood, veneer or other materials, often with varying grains and colors, are glued together within a solid piece. Intarsia is the Italian word for Inlay. Marquetry is mosaic pieces of Inlay that form a pattern, and Parquetry is Marquetry with a geometric pattern. Herter Brothers, a 19th-century New York furniture making and decorating firm, were famous for skillful Inlay work, especially Marquetry, sometimes with mother of pearl. During the Depression of the 1930s, this type of decorating was uncommon, but in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, it is having a resurgence. Source: Nancy A. Ruhling, 'Making Its Mark', "Art & Antiques", December 2006.

Inpainting

A conservation process, it is repairing by retouching and/or coloring a damaged area of a piece of art so that it blends with the rest of the work. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Inscribe/Inscription

A term meaning to write, print, or engrave, it can also refer to dedication (inscription) to a person or event. Source: Merriam-Webster's Online Dictionary

Insect Music

A type of surrealist collage, it was invented by Penelope Rosemont and refers to collage whose background is sheet music. Source: Daniel Boyer, Artist

Installation

A term originally applied to the hanging or arranging of artwork for exhibition, its meaning has changed since the 1970s, primarily in the United States. Now the term also refers to site-specific artwork. Often this type of installation is composed of many items which create a message-bearing environment. Late 20th-century installation artists include Mathew Barney, Nayland Blake, Christian Boltanski, Walter De Maria, Chris Burden and Kiki Smith. Source: Robert Atkins, "Art Speak"

Institute Allende, Instituto Allende

In San Miguel de Allende, Mexico, it is an art school organized in the late 1940s and housed in a Spanish Colonial building dating to 1734. Founders were Cossio del Pomar, James Pinto, Stirling Dickenson, Enrique Martinez and Nell Harris, wife of Martinez. By 1960, the Institute, which has international enrollment, was offering offering a B.F.A. degree in visual arts through the University of Guanajuato. Twenty-first century workshops include Drawing, Painting, Jewelry, Weaving and Photography. Among North American Institute students have been William Kurelek, Ronald York Wilson, and Robert Bruce, and teachers include Richard Kozlow, Eleanor Coen and Leonard Brooks. Sources: http://www.instituto-allende.edu.mx/eng/index.php; AskART biographies

Institute of American Indian Arts, Santa Fe

Focused on Native American art, it is a college chartered by the U.S. Congress and created by Executive Order of President John F. Kennedy in 1962. The curriculum includes museum studies, studio art, creative writing and media art, and students can obtain either two or four-year undergraduate degrees. Among the faculty members have been Allen Houser, Fritz Scholder and Melanie Yazzie. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Institute_of_American_Indian_Arts

Institute of Painters in Water Colours

See Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours

Intaglio

See Collagraph/Intaglio Print

Intarsia

See Inlay/Intarsia

Intensity

The degree of purity or brilliance of a color, the term is also known as Chroma or Saturation. Source: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"

International Association of Art Critics

With the acronym AICA, it is a non-governmental division of UNESCO founded in 1950 with the objective of supporting art criticism in all forms worldwide and to keep pace with its changing disciplines. AICA’s head office is in Paris, and personnel oversee world-wide activities of the Association’s several-thousand members, who are grouped into 62 different Sections. Expenses are entirely financed by subscriptions of three-levels of membership: Ordinary Members, Honorary Members and Patrons. Membership is restricted to art scholars, and candidates are elected by their peers with secret ballots. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke, Art Historian and Collector, West Vancouver, British Columbia. Source: International Association of Art Critics

International Style

A term coined in 1932 by architects Philip Johnson and Henry Russell Hitchcock, it applies to modernist architecture cubic shapes, great open spaces including large windows, and absence of disruptive visual affects such as moldings. Adopted widely in the mid to late 20th century, many office buildings reflected the International Style, and subsequently were criticized for being bland and debasing of the word "architecture". However some buildings such as Lincoln Center in New York City and Sheldon Memorial Art Gallery in Lincoln, Nebraska, both designed by Johnson, have been cited as structures of immense distinction with their sweeping openness, marble exteriors, etc. Source: Gail Leggio, 'Homegrown', "American Arts Quarterly", Winter 2006, p.24

Intisme/Intimism

A French term from the 1890s, its English translation is 'intimate' and references artwork of Edouard Vuillard and Pierre Bonnard, prominent artists of that period who combined aggressive modernism with cozy, 'intimate' domestic genre scenes. A frequent subject was a female figure oblivious to being watched. French "Intimism" often involved scenes of raucous night life with female nudes, drinking and cabaret. American "Intimism" was tamer with females arranging flowers or other 'lady-like' domestic activity. Source: Robert Atkins, ART SPOKE; 'Art Terms', "Quarterly", Richard Love Gallery, Fall-Winter 2008

Intonaco

The final or painted coat of plaster on fresco, it usually has five parts lime putty and seven parts sand or marble dust. Application is to small sections with a trowel and finish is with a float or flat-faced tool. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Inuit

Inuit are the Aboriginal people of Arctic Canada. About 45,000 Inuit live in 53 communities in: Nunatsiavut (Labrador); Nunavik (Quebec); Nunavut; and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region of the Northwest Territories. Each of these four Inuit groups have settled land claims. These Inuit regions cover one-third of Canada's land mass. The word "Inuit" means "the people" in the Inuit language called, Inuktitut and is the term by which Inuit refer to themselves. The term "Eskimo," applied to Inuit by European explorers, is no longer used in Canada. The Canadian constitution recognizes three groups of Aboriginal people: Indians, Métis and Inuit. Source: Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke whose source is the Canadian government website www.aadnc-aandc.gc.ca/eng/1100100014187/1100100014191

Inuit Art

Before the arrival of Europeans, the concept of creating objects for primarily aesthetic purposes – art – does not appear to have existed among the Inuit people or their predecessors the Thule and Dorset. While many of the items produced by these “prehistoric” people, such as combs, needle cases, harpoon heads, masks, and amulets, are now appreciated, as artifacts, for their craftsmanship, their original purpose was entirely functional and utilitarian, motivated by the physical need to survive, and therefore they would not naturally fall into the categories of Fine Art or Applied Art. In the 16th century this changed; then the Inuit began creating things that could be defined as art. These dolls, replica tools and animal figurines, carved from ivory, antler or bone were souvenir trade items to be exchanged with whalers, sailors and explorers who had begun visiting the Arctic. However, the dedicated production of carvings and prints, for the art market, didn’t begin among the Inuit until the 1950s. Coincidentally, like the pre-16th century utilitarian objects, the creation of these fine art objects by the Inuit was fundamentally motivated by the physical need to survive. From the start of this modern period, Inuit Art was seen by Canadian authorities as a solution to the evolving economic problems of the eastern Canadian Arctic, where, largely due to dwindling game animals, the traditionally nomadic Inuit began settling in communities where they became dependent on consumer goods and needed money to buy them. Engaging the Inuit in making art was seen as a means of assimilating them into this modern economy. The creation of the Inuit Art business was largely facilitated by the government of Canada which provided instruction and supervision through co-operatives and a central marketing agency. James A. Houston (see AskART), the civil administrator for Cape Dorset (near the south west end of Baffin Island) was a key figure in this development. In response to a successful sale, by the Canadian Handicrafts Guild (now Canadian Guild of Crafts) in Montreal in 1949, he organized an Inuit carving industry in the early 1950s and he started an Inuit print industry in 1957. Since then, carving and printmaking have become a major source of income among the Inuit. Most modern Inuit artists can be classified as either carvers, sculptors, print makers or draftsmen. Their mediums include stone, ivory, antler, whalebone (see glossary), animal bones, mixed mediums, stone cut prints, stencils, lithography, graphite, ink and colored pencil. Their subjects are predominantly narrative or illustrative; they include portraits, figures, Inuit genre, traditional ceremonies, family, hunting and fishing activities, Arctic animals, birds, shamans, legends, fantasy, eroticism and mythology. Their styles include Expressionism, Fauvism, Minimalism, Naïve Art, Primitive Art, Realism and Surrealism; pure Abstraction is rare. Important 20th and 21st century Inuit artists include Akeeaktashuk, George Arluk, Karoo Ashevak, Kenojuak Ashevak, Luke Iksiktaaryuk, John Kavik, and John Pangnark. Sources: Museum of Anthropology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.; “Sculpture of the Inuit” (1972), by George Swinton (see AskART book references); and “The Canadian Encyclopedia” Second Edition (1988), edited by James H. Marsh (see AskART book references). Prepared and contributed by M.D. Silverbrooke.

Inuit Artists' Print Database

The Inuit Artists' Print Database assembles information on over 8000 prints produced by Canadian Inuit artists from 1957 to the present. The information derives from the inspection of prints in many collections. It is not a catalogue of prints in the collection of the National Gallery of Canada. The database is an online version of the Inuit Artists Print Workbook, edited by Sandra B. Barz (3rd edition. New York: Arts & Culture of the North, 2004). It is designed to help researchers, museum staff, exhibition curators, collectors, dealers and anyone interested in Inuit prints to identify them and to learn more about them. It can be accessed at the following link: http://www.gallery.ca/inuit_artists/search.jsp?Lang=EN. Source: National Gallery of Canada. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke.

Inuit Disc Number

Refers to the Canadian government disc numbers, they were issued to the Inuit (Eskimos) starting in the 1940s and continued into the 1970s. They were imprinted on fibre discs and were to be worn around the neck. The disc numbers were to be used in place of names. The numbers were preceded by an E or W indicating if the wearer came from the Eastern or Western Arctic. The next single or double digit stood for where the wearer came from. The last one to four numbers were particular to that person. The numbering system was used in what is now the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. It is these disc numbers that Inuit artists from that time period inscribe on the bottoms of their sculptures. "Project Surname" was initiated to replace the disc numbers of the Inuit with first and last names. From 1968 to 1971 Abe Okpik travelled through the former Northwest Territories speaking with families, explaining the need for first and last names. When the project was over every Inuit had a first and last name. For a disc number translator see http://www.katilvik.com/content/bio/index.php. Source: Inuit Art.Waddingtons.ca. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke.

Irascibles

A small, rebelious mid-century group of 28 artists, it included Willem de Kooning, Jackson Pollock, Clyford Still, Theodoros Stamos and Hedda Sterne, the only female participant. In 1950, they challenged artwork in Metropolitan Museum of Art's juried exhibition, held to decide additions to the museum's contemporary art. 'Irascibles' banded together and signed a petition accusing the curator and director of loading the jury with critics hostile to "advanced art," particularly Abstract Expressionism. This demonstration proved a great catalyst for the movement, drawing significant press coverage and public awareness. Source: Levis Fine Art

Irish Exhibition of Living Art

Founded in 1943 in Dublin and continuing into the 21st century, it has, through annual exhibitions, been the major vehicle for introducing avant-garde art into Irish culture and to loosening the dominant grip of the traditionalists" promoted by the Royal Hibernian Academy. Early IELA members included Maine Jellett, Evie Hone, James Sleator, Louis le Brocquy and Sean O'Sullivan, and later participating artists included Brian Maguire, Michael Mulclalhy and Michael Kane. Source: Online Encyclopedia of Irish and World Art, http://www.visual-arts-cork.com/irish-exhibition-of-living-art.htm

Island Arts & Crafts Society

See Victoria Sketch Club

Ism

A suffix that forms a noun that refers to a theory or doctrine. "The rapid proliferation of isms characterized modernism's artistic and intellectual ferment" such as in the words Expressionism, Impressionism, and Futurism. Source: Robert Atkins, ART SPOKE

Itinerants

See Wanderers

Ivory

Animal tusk material, it is hard, calcareous and creamy white. Source are elephants, walrus, hippopotamus and narwhal or medium-sized toothed whales. Since ancient times, ivory has been used for carving because it has desirable appearance, is easily carved with sharp steel tools and is durable and long lasting. Negatives are tendency to warp and scarcity, especially in recent times when laws protecting animal sources have been enacted. Modern substitutes are plastics made to resemble Ivory. Eskimos are most noted among American artists for their carving of ivory such as Johnny Aculiak and Happy Jack Angokwazhuk. Other artists painted miniature portraits on ivory such as George Baker, John Carlin, and Eulabee Dix. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; AskART Biographies
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