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Art Glossary
Art Glossary Terms: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

TermDescription

Tachism, Tachisme

Both a term and an art movement, the art movement is named for the French work "tache", which is a French style of abstract painting. The movement occurred in the 1940s and 50s and was the French equivalent of Abstract Expressionism. Its exponents were related in style to Action Painting and Lyrical Abstraction. The term "Tachism" was first applied to art in 1951 by French critics and was widely circulated in the 1952 book "Un Art autre" by Michel Tapie. Artists associated with the movement include Karel Appel, Norman Bluhm, Jean Dubuffet, Sam Francis, Georges Mathieu, and Pierre Alechinsky. Source: http://www.answers.com/topic/tachisme

Tactile/Tactile Values

A quality that refers to sense of touch, the term was coined by art historian Bernard Berenson when he used the phrase Tactile Values in his 1896 book "Florentine Painters of the Renaissance". His was referring to that which distinguished paintings which create the illusion of three-dimensionality from less-skilled works that convey only two dimensionality. Berenson asserted that three-dimensional seeming paintings imparted a special sense of touch that was uniquely characteristic of Renaissance paintings. He opined that these Renaissance paintings with Tactile Values were superior to other 'two-dimensional' paintings. Sources: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"; Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Tail Art

See Nose Art/Tail Art

Talbotype

The earliest photographic technique on paper, aka "salt print", it was named after William Henry Fox Talbot, and was a process used from 1839 to the 1850s. American portrait painter William Currie was a Talbotypist. Source: Peter Falk, "Who Was Who in American Art"

Tamarind Institute, Workshop

A center for fine-art lithography, it is a training school for master printers, a place for teaching and research, and a professional collaborative studio for artists. Tamarind is at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, and is dedicated to the growth of contemporary printmaking around the world. In the professional shop, master printers work in partnership with artists under publishing agreements or by contract for custom printing to make fine, limited edition lithographs. During its 40-year history, Tamarind has produced an archive (now housed in the University of New Mexico Art Museum) of approximately 10,000 lithographs by artists of diverse aesthetic interests. Tamarind has trained nearly one-hundred master printers and has offered advanced training in lithography to hundreds of print makers from around the world. The Workshop originated in Los Angeles from the studio on Tamarind Avenue of June Clair Wayne, who in 1960, wrote and obtained a grant from the Ford Foundation to establish a structure to upgrade the status of lithography in the United States by establishing an institution for the pursuit of innovative methods of lithography. The venture was successful, but Wayne grew tired of supporting it herself because it was a diversion from her own work. In 1970, she established the Tamarind Institute at the University of New Mexico. Sources: Jules and Nancy Heller, "North American Women Artists"; Charlotte Streifer Rubinstein, "American Women Artists"; www.unm.edu/~tamarind/

Tambour

A classical architectural term, it means 'drum' in French, and refers to the inverted bell of the Corinthian capital on which Acanthus leaves are carved. It also means a drum shaped segment of a column, which is built up. Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tambour

Tanager Gallery

Operated in New York City from 1952 to 1972 and located on East Tenth Street, it was organized primarily to exhibit work by Abstract Expressionist artists. Founding members were Charles Cajori, Angelo Ippolito, William King, Fred Mitchell, and Lois Dodd, the only female. (See Tenth Street Galleries) Source: "Tanager Gallery Records", research.frick.org

Tanagra

A community in Greece north of Athens, it was known in antiquity, 4th century B.C., for its mass produced, mold cast terracotta figurines. French sculptor Pierre Lefaguays (1892-1962) was much influenced by Tanagra figurines. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanagra; AskART biography

Taos Art Colony

A well established gathering of Caucasian artists in Taos, New Mexico by 1920, it was the first community in that state to become an art colony. Earliest participants were Joseph Henry Sharp, Bert Geer Phillips and Ernest Blumenschein, and they were joined by Oscar Berninghaus, Eanger Couse, Buck Dunton, Victor Higgins and Walter Ufer. A larger group banded together with these men to form the Taos Society of Artists, which sponsored exhibitions and worked with the Santa Fe Railroad to sell their paintings in the East. The Colony attracted hundreds of painters, but diminished with World War II, although the area, with exotic scenery and Native American and Hispanic inhabitants, continues to be a popular place for working artists. Sources include Arrell Morgan Gibson, The Santa Fe and Taos Colonies.

Taos Field School of Art

Founded in 1930, its focus was to carry out the vision of the New Mexico Art League for an educational facility in Taos, a museum at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, and acquisitions for the museum. The School was operated by the University of New Mexico and functioned during the summers for eight weeks at the Harwood Foundation. It included classes in sculpture, commercial art, painting and architecture, and instructors included Victor Higgins, Walter Ufer, Kenneth Adams, Ernest Blumenschein, Oscar Berninghaus, Buck Dunton, Joseph Imhoff and Bert Geer Phillips. Initial enrollment was 130 students. One of its most famous student was Agnes Martin, who studied there in 1947. Sources: Arrell Morgan Gibson, "The Santa Fe and Taos Galleries"; harwoodmuseum.org/gallery4.php?tag=about

Taos School of Fine Arts

Established in Taos, New Mexico in 1932 by Emil Bisttram, it had winter and summer classes in his home. Curriculum focus was Abstract and Transcendental Art with underlying themes of spatial relationships or Dynamic Symmetry. Subjects were Art, Dance, Music and Drama. Among his students were Alfred Morang, Marion Koogler McNay, Florence Miller Pierce and Horace Towner Pierce. Source: Arrell Morgan Gibson,"The Santa Fe and Taos Colonies".

Taos Society of Artists

An organization formed in 1915 in Taos, New Mexico, its first members were resident painters Joseph Henry Sharp, Ernest Blumenschein, Bert Geer Phillips, Oscar Berninghaus, E. Irving Couse, W. Herbert Dunton, Walter Ufer and Victor Higgins. The organization grew from this early group, who had called themselves "Los Ochos Pintores" to 18 members with Kenneth Miller Adams being the last elected artist and Catharine Critcher being the only female member. Criteria for membership was residency in Taos for three successive years and prizes received in a national art exhibition. The organization purpose was to combine their resources to generate paintings to be shipped east on the Santa Fe Railroad and to secure exhibition venues. Chief sponsor was the railroad, which acquired a now-valuable collection of work by the TSA artists. By 1922, a traveling TSA exhibition was circulating twice a year to major American cities, and was successful in bringing attention and sales to Taos artists. However, the association did not hold together because of members' personality and artistic differences. Sources: Arrell Gibson, "The Santa Fe and Taos Art Colonies"; Dean Porter, etc., "Taos Artists and Their Patrons"

Tate Britain

The official national gallery of British art, it is located in London on Millbank on the Thames River. The museum went through a transition period of being the home of the British art collection of sugar magnate, Henry Tate, who funded the building, to one that housed both British and international art. Since the late 20th century, Tate Britain has returned to being the collection for British art only. In 1987, the J.M.W. Turner collection of 300 oil paintings became a major addition. Three other museums handle overflow from what seemed out-of-control expansion of the museum. The Tate Modern, built in 1990 on the south bank of the Thames River houses the international modern collection; Tate Liverpool, 1988, and Tate St. Ives in 1993, house additional works from Tate Britain. Source: http://www.tate.org.uk/britain/building/

Tate Gallery

See Tate Britain

Tate Liverpool

See Tate Britain

Tate Modern

See Tate Britain

Tate St. Ives

See Tate Britain

Tatlinism

See Constructivism

Taylor Art School

See Saugatuck (Oxbow) School of Painting

Technique

The method or skill of an artist in manipulating a medium or mediums to create a work of art, mastery of technique is critical to artistic expression. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Teco Art Pottery

Characterized by a "soft waxy matte green" color with glaze that resembles the "patina of ancient bronze artifacts", the name TECO is derived from the first two letters of the words "terra cotta". The method was created under the direction of William D. Gates in 1881 in Terra Cotta, Illinois, and marketing of what became over 500 pottery designs began in 1902. Gates was the founder of The Terra Cotta Tile Works, which produced drain tile and brick for buildings and architectural decoration. Influenced by the turn-of-the-century Arts and Crafts movement, he sought to create pottery as art expression, and experimenting with clays and colored glazes, decided that color and texture were very important in determining public acceptance. Every piece of TECO pottery has a distinguishing bold rectangular stamp with the company name. The Chicago Art Institute was the source of some of the designers including Hardesty Maratta (1864-1942). Other designers were from a group of young Chicago architects espousing Frank Lloyd Wright's Prairie Style, which emphasized ornamentation as merging gracefully with building materials and building design. Source: http://www.tecopottery.info/catalog.html; Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Teco_pottery

Tempera

A powdered pigment painting medium in which the binder is usually egg yolk or gum so that an emulsion is created that is suspended in water, it dates to the ancient Greeks and Romans and possibly earlier. Egg tempera is documented from the 12th century in Medieval Europe. It was the medium for easel and panel painting until the 15th century when oil painting was developed. Fra Angelico and Sandro Botticelli in Italy and Rogier Van der Weyden and Jan Van Eyck in Holland are famous artists who did tempera painting. In the 20th century, Tempera painting has had a revival, especially among artists who have suffered reactions to the chemicals of oil paints. A key person in the revival was Daniel V. Thompson, Technical Adviser of The Courtauld Institute of Art in London, who wrote a book in 1936, "The Practice of Tempera Painting." In addition to being non-toxic, tempera is quick drying, and when dried is durable and water-resistent and has a matte-like surface that an artist can polish to a high gloss with a soft cloth. Panel is the traditional support or ground, although paper is occasionally used. American tempera painters include Peter Hurd, Andrew Wyeth, Grandma Moses, Reginald Marsh, Jacob Lawrence, Isabel Bishop and Charles DeMuth. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"; www.noteaccess.com/Texts/Thompson/index.htmAskART database

Template

A pattern or guide, it is usually made of clear plastic, and used by a draftsman for drawing standard shapes such as squares, circles and triangles. Usually all of the cutouts of a single Template are size variants of the same shape such as all rectangles, etc. Source: Ralph Mayer, A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Ten American Painters

Known as The Ten, a term assigned to them by members of the Press, this group of New York and Boston-based artists was formed in 1898 and withdrew from the Society of American Artists in order to focus on the quality of their exhibitions and also to rebel against the National Academy by encouraging a fresh approach to art to avoid mediocrity. Leaders were J. Alden Weir, Childe Hassam and John Twachtman. Other members were Frank Benson, William Merritt Chase, Joseph DeCamp, Thomas Dewing, Willard Metcalf, Robert Reid, Edward Simmons, and Edmund Tarbell. Source: AskART biographies.

Tenebrist/Tenebrism

From the Italian words "tenebroso" and “tenebrae” and linked to the English root word of "murky, the reference is to a heightened form of Chiaroscuro. A tenebrist artist is one who paints in extreme contrasts of light and dark, which was characteristic of Old Master Spanish, Italian and Dutch painters such as El Greco, Titian, Caravaggio, Tintoretto and Rembrandt. Sources: Rudolf Wittkower, "Art and Architecture in Italy, 1600-1750"; Wikipedia; BC Library Notes, 2008

Tenth Street Galleries

A collective co-op of galleries on the east side of Manhattan in the 1950s and 1960s, it was artist run and low budget and an avant-garde alternative to the upscale Madison Avenue and 57th Street galleries. About 250 artists were members whose assessed dues paid for marketing and a unifying social scene. The association is credited as playing a significant part in the growth of American art and included artists from Tanager Gallery, James Gallery and Comino Gallery. Noted artist members included Alex Katz, Tom Wesselmann, George Segal and Wolf Kahn. Source: Wikipedia

Tenth Street Studio Building

Located originally in 1857 at 15 West 10th Street in Greenwich Village, New York City and designed by William Morris Hunt, it was a three-story brick building described as "the catalyst most responsible for transforming Greenwich Village into a hub for the visual arts."(greyart). Demolished in 1955, it was the first purpose-built artist-studio facility in the U.S. The original address was 15 West 10th Street, but the number changed to 51 West 10th Street in 1867. There were 25 studios, for which leading original occupant artists paid two-hundred dollars a year rent. It was luxurious space for that era with coal stoves, privacy and plenty of light. The 'Building' was at the center of the New York Art Scene. Some of the most prominent occupants were Albert Bierstadt, William Merritt Chase, Frederic Church, Martin Johnson Heade, John La Farge, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Eastman Johnson, John Kensett, Willard Metcalf, Worthington Whittredge and Winslow Homer. As a group, occupants worked on marketing strategies such as quality framing and visitor hosting. From August 21 to November 16, 1997, the National Academy in New York held an exhibition devoted to Tenth Street Studio Building artists, many who were Academy members. The exhibition also had a reconstruction of the elaborate studio of William Merritt Chase, the building's most famous occupant. Sources: tfaoi.com; www.nyu.edu

Terra cotta

An Italian word meaning baked earth, it is a term used in pottery to describe unglazed clay objects that have had an initial firing. Generally terra cotta refers to unfired clay that ranges in color from red to black, the most common being reddish-brown. The Sea of Marmora in the Dardenelles of Turkey has been a prolific area for terra cotta, distributed to world-wide markets. Source: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"; Nancy Joaquim, "Sophia".

Tertiary Colors

Six colors positioned between the primary and secondary colors on the color wheel.

Tessallation

Repeated geometric patterns, tessallation refers to small squares of blocks to create a mosaic effect with a checkered pattern. It is a method often used by Geometric Abstractionists who fill in the squares with paint. A tessell is a small square stone. (See Tessera) Source: "Random House Dictionary of the English Language, Unabridged Edition", 1969

Tesserae/Tessara

Small pieces, usually cubes, they are used to create a mosaic. (A single piece is a Tessara.) The most common materials are colored glass, ceramic, stones or metal. Traditional Tesserae from Venice, used from the Middle Ages, are opaque glass in myriads of colors, and are usually set into the mosaic with the fractured side exposed to create a sparkle from reflected light. Mosaics from ancient Greece and Rome and other civilizations were composed of larger Tesserae, many which were naturally colored pebbles. Byzantine mosaics were made with gold Tesserae, which was gold leaf placed between two layers of clear glass. Sources: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"; Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Texas Centennial Exposition

Held in 1936 in Dallas, Texas to celebrate 100 years of statehood, it included an exhibition at the Dallas Museum of Fine Arts of 164 paintings, representing what curators thought was the best and most representative of Early Texas Art. Also included were over six hundred works of art for the general exhibition, one-third of which covered the development of European art from the primitives through the twentieth century. The remainder of the exhibition was devoted to American art with sections on historical works, the twentieth century, and the Southwest. Included in the Exposition were paintings by Everett Spruce, Jerry Bywaters, Emma Cherry, Edward Eisenlohr, Peter Hurd and Inez Elder. Source: Bill Cheek of The Centennial Committee of CASETA, which includes Cheek, Scott Grant Barker, Michael Grauer, and Dr. Mark Thistlethwaite.

Texas Fine Arts Association

Founded in 1911, it provided strong, organized support for the arts. One of its first successes was lobbying the legislature to appoint the Texas Commission for the Arts. Association members also promoted art education in the public schools, created an endowed chair in art at the University of Texas, and in 1927, organized the first exhibit of Texas artists outside of Texas, which was held in Nashville, Tennessee. Texas Fine Arts Association members also founded a series of local art leagues, many which, in turn, created local art schools and supported artist camps. Source: William E. Reaves, Jr., "Texas Art and a Wildcatter's Dream"

Texas Wildflower Competitive Exhibitions

Held in San Antonio, Texas in 1927, 1928 and 1929, the exhibitions were organized by Edgar B. Davis of Luling, Texas. He was a "legendary oil wildcatter", who was one of the wealthiest men in Texas in the roaring 20's. He had a special affection for Texas wildflowers and successfully envisioned a national art competition that would bring leading American painters of the day to Texas to paint his designated subject. One-hundred thirty five painters participated, likely encouraged by the fact that the prizes were the most lucrative to date offered in the world of American Art exhibitions. Over 80,000 viewers attended during the three years, and Davis and the San Antonio Art League purchased the winning paintings. The event raised awareness of art among Texans and made other Americans aware of art activity and potential subject matter for painting in Texas. An unintended result of the competitions was the opening of discussion about avant-garde art, which was introduced by some of the competition entrants, especially the younger ones such as Jerry Bywaters and Alexandre Hogue, who objected to some of the decisions of conservative judges. Source: William E Reaves, Jr., "Texas Art and a Wildcatter's Dream"

Texture

The actual or illusion feel such as roughness or smoothness of a surface, it was often achieved with depiction of contrasting patterns or varying objects or in actuality with varying materials in surfaces. Source: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"

Thangka/Tangka/Thanka/Tanka Painting

A painted, embroidered or blockprinted Buddhist banner, it is hung at family altars or monasteries and sometimes carried in religious processions by Buddhist monks. The word "thang" means flat in the Tibetan language; hence the reference is to paintings done on flat surfaces. Thangka paintings can also be rolled up as scrolls, and are popular among traveling monks. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thangka

The Art Bank

Established in 1958 with funds from a Rockefeller Foundation Grant, it was designated for the artist-members of the San Francisco Art Association who exhibited each year at the California Palace of the Legion of Honor. All members were required to meet rigorous standards of achievement prior to acceptance into the SFAA. Among recipients were Richard Diebenkorn, David Park, Robert Bechtle, Elmer Bischoff, Paul Wonner, James Weeks, John Saccaro and Lucienne Bloch. The Art Bank published only four catalogues: 1958, 1960, 1962, and 1964. More information on The Art Bank can be found on page 234 of the catalog “San Francisco and the Second Wave”. Submitted by Peter Hastings Falk, Editor of "Who Was Who in American Art"

The Art Institute of Ontario

The Art Institute of Ontario was incorporated in 1951 to circulate art exhibitions, lecturers, and instructional programmes to venues in smaller communities. The AIO was an alliance of several Ontario visual arts institutions and organizations. Its founding members were the Art Gallery of Hamilton, Art Gallery of Toronto (now Art Gallery of Ontario), Hart House (University of Toronto), London Public Library & Art Museum, National Gallery of Canada, Ontario Association of Architects, Ontario Society of Artists, Royal Ontario Museum, Willistead Library and Art Gallery (Windsor) and the Windsor Art Association. It was absorbed into the extension programme of the Art Gallery of Ontario in 1968.’ Source: Amy Marshall, E. P. Taylor Research Library and Archives, Art Gallery of Ontario. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke.

The Charcoal Club

See Charcoal Club

The Eight

See Eight, The

The Four (Spook School)

Prominent members of the late 19th and early 20th century modernist movement known as the Glasgow School, they were Margaret MacDonald, painter and glass artist; Charles Rennie Mackintosh, architect; and painters Francis and Herbert MacNair. They are credited with defining the Glasgow Style, a modern art movement that combined influences of Celtic Revival, Arts and Crafts and Japonisme. With this combination, they had a strong impact on the definition of Art Nouveau. (Also, see Glasgow School) Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_School

The Glascow School of Art

Scotland's only independent art school it was founded in 1845 as the Glasgow Government School of Design and had a name change in 1853. It is located on Renfrew Street, and has schooled "most of Scotland's leading contemporary artists." Among its students are Christine Borland, Ken Currie and Alexander Goudie. Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glasgow_School_of_Art

The Green Mountain Boys

In American Art, a term referencing an informal association of modernist artists and the writer/critic, Clement Greenberg, in the 1970s centered in Bennington, Vermont at Bennington College. Artist participants were Isaac Witkin, Anthony Caro, Peter Stroud, Kenneth Noland, Paul Feeley and Jules Olitski. Olitski, Feeley, Stroud and Witkin were on the Bennington art faculty. Signaling independence and non-conformity in the style and materials of their abstract art, they borrowed the name from the Colonial America armed bands of men led by Ethan Allen, who fought to prevent Vermont from becoming part of New York state. Sources: Ken Johnson, Witkin obituary, "The New York Times", April 29, 2006, A11; http://www.bartleby.com/65/gr/GreenMtnB.html

The Kubert School

See Joe Kubert School of Cartoon and Graphic Art.

The London Group

See Camden Art Group

The New School

See New School for Social Research

The Pastel Society, London

See Federation of British Artists

The Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts

Founded in 1805 by Charles Willson Peale, it is the oldest art academy in the United States, and described as "the foremost 'picture gallery' in Philadelphia, was the city's public gallery.” (Carter 23) The original location was Tenth and Chestnut Streets. In 1845, a fire occurred at the Academy, and in order to save one of its most famous early paintings, “Death on a Pale Horse” by Benjamin West, firemen cut the canvas out of its frame and carried it to safety. By the 1870s, classes at the Academy had become so popular they were suspended for six years while a new building was constructed at 118 North Broad Street, the corner of Broad and Cherry Streets. At that time Christian Schussele was primary instructor, a position he held briefly because of ill health. He was replaced by Thomas Eakins, who became controversial and was removed because of his insistence that women students be allowed in classes with nude models, a violation of tradition. Other famous Academy teachers were Thomas Sully, Thomas Anshutz, William Merritt Chase, Robert Henri and Charles Sheeler. In the late 20th century, the campus has two buildings: the Frank Furness-designed historic landmark building and a late 20th-century structure, the Samuel M.V. Hamilton Building. Sources: 'Pennsylvania Academy Receives 2005 National Medal of Arts', "Antiques and Arts Weekly", November 25, 2005; Alice Carter, “Cecilia Beaux”.

The Philadelphia Ten

See Philadelphia Ten

The Ramblers

See Washington Landscape Club

Theorem Painting/Stenciling

An early American decoration technique, it dates to the Colonial period and lasted in popularity to the post-Civil War period and mostly flourished in New England, New York and Pennsylvania. The word "Theorem" means formula or expression of relationships. The effect is achieved with stencils, either commercially-made or hand-made, which are placed adjacent to each other in overlays on paper or cloth such as velvet. Resulting designs are colored, usually with watercolor or oil. This technique was popular among women because the results could be attractive in home decorating, were well-received as gifts, and could be achieved by non-professionally trained persons. Still-life was the most popular subject, especially fruit in bowls, with each piece constructed from a separate stencil. In those days mastery of handiwork was considered essential to being an accomplished woman, and young ladies often received instruction in drawing, painting and needlework. As the country prospered, increasingly more women had time for leisure activities that were purely decorative. Do-it-yourself Theorem instruction books were available as were ‘drawing cards’, sold in decks, with designs for copying. Ready-made stencils were for the less creative who did not want to make their own designs and patterns, and women’s magazines offered Theorem patterns. However, many young women took their Theorem painting very seriously. Portfolios of some of them contain detailed study notes, color samples, sketches, etc. The method is not widespread today because of the lack of widespread publication of the patterns, most of which were passed down through the generations. American artists who were Theorem painters include Emma Jane Cady and Sarah Ward. Sources: Jean Hansen Publications, http://www.jeanhansen.com/content/Theorem_Painting/3; Jean Lipman and Alice Winchester, “The Flowering of American Folk Art”

Thinner

Quick-drying liquid such as turpentine, it dilutes paint and varnishes in the painting process and also cleans oil-paint brushes. Source: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"

Thomas B. Clarke Prize

Named for New York art collector, and lace and linen manufacturer, Thomas B. Clarke (1848-1931), it was awarded at the annual exhibitions of the National Academy of Design. Recipients include Charles Ulrich, John Folinsbee, Gifford Beal and Hugo Ballin, who want the award twice. Source: Wikipedia; AskART biographies

Thouron Prize

Established in 1960 by Sir John R. H. Thouron and Esther du Pont Thouron, the goal was to strengthen the special relationship between the U.S. and United Kingdom through student exchanges between British Universities and the University of Pennsylvania. Since that time, more than 650 students have been funded for two years including Roy Nuse, Arthur Carles, Maurice Molarsky and Beatrice Edgerly. The Thouron family has remained very involved and has issued an invitation to each recipient to visit them personally in their homes. Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thouron_Award; AskART biographies

Three Schools of Art, Toronto

This refers to a single educational establishment consisting of the amalgamation of three “alternative” art schools and the Poor Alex Theatre, all of which shared a common administration and facilities in downtown Toronto. The Artist’s Workshop (founded in 1950) was open to anyone on a first come first served basis, it had no entry requirements; the New School of Art (founded in 1965) was for advanced artist’s, its students were selected by interview; and the Hockley Valley School (founded in 1962) was a summer school for individuals and families which only operated when funds permitted (last classes were in 1973). The schools were a cooperative of artist/teachers, students and administration; the courses offered included drawing, painting, graphic design, sculpture, dance, music, acting, writing and film. There were no diplomas, grades or examinations, and the curriculums were flexible to accommodate the needs and interests of the individual students or group of students. The artists/teachers included Dennis Burton, Robert Hedrick, Jack Bush, Graham Coughtry and Gordon Rayner. Due to lack of funding, the school closed in 1981. Sources: The New School of Art Calendar 1978 – 1979; Toronto Star, July 24, 1981; and Sylvie Roy, National Gallery of Canada. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke.

Throwing

Shaping clay on a potter's wheel. Source: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"

Thumbnail Image

A reduced version of a picture from the original image or subject, it is used for quick recognition and usually is not intended as a quality reproduction. For computers, it is intended to reduce download time while providing a good reference to the original. In 2003 a US case ruled in Kelly v. Arriba Soft Corporation that it was fair use to help web users find what they were looking for.

Thumbnail Sketch

A small drawing, done rapidly, it serves as the basis for a larger work by capturing the essence of the subject matter. Origin of the term is attributed to English painter William Hogarth who, sitting in a tavern, wanted to record a scene he was witnessing. Having no paper handy, he reportedly sketched the scene on his thumbnail. Sources: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"; Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Tiffany Foundation Grants

Founded in 1918 by Louis Comfort Tiffany to operate Laurelton Hall, his estate at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, it was designed as a way of funding a summer retreat for artists and crafts persons. In 1946, the Foundation was directed to providing artist grants and was a diversion from supporting the summer program. Grant recipients include Guy Anderson, Noel Rockmokre and Karen LaMonte. Source: 'The Louis Comfort Tiffany Foundation',"Wikipedia", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Louis_Comfort_Tiffany_Foundation

Tile

A flat, thin piece of earthenware or terra-cotta, it is often used for both decorative and practical purposes such as covering walls, counters and floors. Hand-decorated tiles are a specialty of potters and ceramic artists. Catalina Island in California is known for decorative tiles. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; AskART database

Tile Club

Founded in 1877 and active until 1887, it was an exclusive but informal club in New York City of notable painters, illustrators, sculptors, architects and journalists. Meeting proceedings were secret, but many of their activities were deliberately attention getting to enhance members professional reputations. Writer Laura Claridge described the Club as functioning “like a grown-up boys fraternity."(31) Founding members in America banded together to promote tenets of the British Arts and Crafts Movement led by William Morris Hunt. China painting or painting on tiles was a component that inspired the name. Members were devoted to camaraderie as well as self-serving public activities such as plein-air, impressionist painting excursions to relatively undeveloped regions. Periodicals of the day including “Scribner’s”, “Harper’s Weekly” and “Century Magazine” had numerous articles on the Club’s activities, some of which they had sponsored, which, of course, enhanced the publications as well as the fame of the members and the places they visited. The Tile Club had no by-laws, officers, initiation fees, or dues, but membership, limited to twelve, required the decorating of a tile for the fireplace of the Club’s meeting place. The first annual dinner in 1878 was held in the studio of Winslow Homer. Among members were architect Stanford White; painters William Merritt Chase, J Alden Weir, John Twachtman, Napolean Sarony, Frank Hopkinson Smith; and sculptor Augustus St. Gaudens. John Singer Sargent requested permission to join as part of his consideration to move to New York City. In 1997, art scholar Ronald Pisano curated an exhibition of the Tile Club at the Stony Brook Museum. He wrote an accompanying book: "The Tile Club and the Aesthetic Movement in America". The Heckscher Museum in Huntington, New York is the repository of the largest collection of Tile Club memorabilia including a tile painted by Winslow Homer and William Merritt Chase’s personal copy of Stanford White’s “Book of the Tile Club”, which he published in 1887. Sources: Eleanor H. Gustafson, ‘Museum Accessions’, “The Magazine Antiques”, December 2005, p. 30; Laura Claridge, "Emily Post", pp. 30-31

Tint

Color variation, it results from mixing the dominant color with a small quantity of another color. For example, white paint has the tint of pink because of the addition of a small amount of red to white. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"

Toledo Tile Club

Founded in the early 1890s in Toledo, Ohio and led by George Washington Stevens, Director of the Toledo Museum, the group was dedicated to establishing an art museum in Toledo. They felt the need for a place for exhibitions similar to the kind people were able to see in other big cities such as New York and Boston. In Toledo, they were successful, with a key facilitator being Edward Drummond Libbey of the Libbey Glass Company, who provided substantial funding. Source: Edward Bentley, Fine Art Researcher, Lansing, Michigan.

Tonalism

An art movement in the late 1900s emanating from Barbizon, France, it eminated from a group of French painters led by Thomas Couture (1815-1879) and Camille Corot (1796-1875). Characteristic of the style are serene landscapes minus human activity but often with the suggestion that someone had just been present; harmonious and sombre colors; traditional or academically informed composition; conveyance of the artist’s personal vision and emotion; emphasis on soul and spirit or poetics; subdued tones; and studio-created canvases painted from sketches rather than plein-air. In its adherence to academic principles of composition, it was traditional, but with the subjective emphasis on the artist’s emotions, the approach was groundbreaking. It is unknown when the term was first used, but it’s origin can be linked to Henry Ward Ranger, one of its chief American proponents who used the word Tonalism in 1914 in his book “Art-Talks with Ranger”. Ranger was also the founder of Old Lyme Colony in Connecticut, which began as a gathering place for American Tonalist painters. Other American artists associated with the movement include William Morris Hunt, James McNeill Whistler, George Inness, Charles Eaton, Birge Harrison, Alexander Wyant and Homer Dodge Martin. By 1905, Tonalism was overtaken by Impressionism followed by the Ashcan School and Social Realism. Sources: Ralph Sessions, Introduction, and William Gerdts, essay in “The Poetic Vision: American Tonalism” by Spanierman Gallery, LLC, (2005)

Tondo

A painting or bas-relief sculpture, it has circular shape. Source: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"

Tone/Tonal

A term referring to manipulation with media, usually paint, by artists to create a sense of light and color relationships. It is a method to convey various times of day and night as well as seasons. Linked to the words tone and tonal is the 19th century French style of Tonalism, whose emphasis is on muted and harmonious diffusion of light, especially in landscapes. Sources: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddons, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"; William Gerdts, 'American Tonalism: An Artistic Overview', "The Poetic Vision: American Tonalism", p. 17

Topeka Art School

Begun in 1890 as art lessons by George E. Hopkins on the second floor of the Topeka Public Library, it was an early art education facility. In 1894, cartoonist Albert T. Reid took over the courses. This entity and the Reid-Stone Art School became the basis of the first art curriculum at Washburn University. Among Topeka Art School students were Walter Launt Palmer, Paul Cornoyer and Henry Mosler. Source:www.tscpl.org/gallery/comments/new_art_exhibit_kansas_impressions/

Topography/Topographer

A term meaning 'drawing the earth', it is an accurate drawing or painting of a particular location with no artistic enhancement. Skillful Topographers were very crucial members of 19th-century American exploratory expeditions in a pre-photography era. They provided the data for map making and visual records for official reports on geography, flora and fauna. Many topographers also became noted painters such as Washington Allston, Ralph Blakelock, William Bradford and Jasper Cropsey. Source: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddons, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"; AskART database

Toronto Art Students' League

An important Canadian artists’ association, founded in 1886 and folded in 1904, the Toronto Art Students' League began as a sketch club where members could draw from a live model. It later conducted regular outdoor sketching excursions and became not only a school but a setting where members met to draw, discuss, comment on each other's work and create projects together. It also held exhibitions and published its members illustrations in popular calendars. Its core philosophy of promoting distinctly Canadian subjects gave birth to several successors including the Mahlstick Club, the Canadian Art Club, the Graphic Arts Club (later the Canadian Society of Graphic Art) and ultimately the Group of Seven. The League’s founders and charter members included Alfred Harold Howard, Robert Holmes, Charles MacDonald Manly and John David Kelly. Subsequent members included Frederick H. Brigden, C.W. Jefferys, Gertrude Spurr Cutts, Henrietta Hancock, J.E.H. Macdonald and Edmund Morris. Sources: “Canadian Art - Its Origin and Development” (1943), by William Colgate; “The Group of Seven: Art for a Nation” (1995), by Charles C. Hill; and “A Concise History of Canadian Painting” (1973), by Dennis Reid (see AskART book references). Prepared and contributed by M.D. Silverbrooke.

Tortillon/Stump

A blending tool for soft media such as pastel and charcoal, it is made of a stick of rolled up, compressed paper. Source: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"

Tramp Printers

Itinerant masters of the art of printing, they were called tramp painters because of their independent lifestyle and consistent travel. Primarily men they traveled the country doing handset type, and working with printing presses. Until computers replaced them in the late 20th Century, these skilled workers were especially sought after by non-unionized printing plant operators. John Thomas Nolf, who became a fine art painter, was described early in his career as a "tramp printer". Source: www.discoverypress.com/trampweb/hist1.html; Courtesy Tom Shaw

Transcendental Painting Group (TPG)

New Mexico artists dedicated to educating a resistant public to abstract and non-objective art, they were active with exhibitions between 1938 and 1942. Organizing members were Raymond Jonson, Emil Bisttram, Lawren Harris, Ed Garman, Robert Gribbroek, William Lumpkins, Agnes Pelton, Florence Miller Pierce, Horace Towner Pierce and Stuart Walker. Dane Rudhyar and Alfred Morang may have been members, but scholars are debating their status. Rudhyar began painting seriously in the TPG modernist style somewhat later than the others, and Morang was active with the foundation but conflicting references exist about his TPG status. Their stated purpose in their manifesto was "to carry painting beyond the appearance of the physical world through new concepts of space, color, light and design, to imaginative realms that are idealistic and spiritual." They formed the American Foundation for Transcendental Painting, which expanded facilitating tasks to persons beyond the TPG painters and resulted in systematic collection methods and permanent location for exhibitions and collections. The TPG, influenced by Wassily Kandinsky and Piet Mondrian, reflected a movement towards abstraction in other parts of the country that came to ascendancy from the mid 20th Century. Although the Transcendental Painting Group had long-term stylistic influence on Southwest artists, it terminated as a formal entity with World War II. The Jonson Gallery of the University of New Mexico Art Museums, opened in 1950, houses work by Transcendental painters and is named for TPG leader, Raymond Jonson. Source: Tiska Blankenship, "Vision and Spirit: The Transcendental Painting Group", exhibition catalogue, Jonson Gallery, May 27-August 15, 1997. Courtesy, Paul Parker

Transfer

The moving of an image from one surface to another, it is usually achieved by placing a clean, blank sheet of paper on the image and rubbing the back of the paper so that the image is copied. However, there are many methods such as using carbon paper, special graphite papers and technical printing processes. Source: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"

TRAP, Treasure Relief Art Project

An acronym for Treasury Relief Art Project, TRAP began in 1935 and was part of the Federal Emergency Relief Appropriation, which utilized unemployed artists to decorate federal buildings. Known as the "Ritz" because of exclusivity, it had several hundred carefully selected artists, most on public relief. Edward Rowan was Director, and monthly wages varied from $69 to $103. TRAP ended in 1937, with the creation of 89 murals, many for post offices; 65 sculpture projects and about 10,000 easel paintings. Participating artists included Reginald Marsh, Milford Zornes and Kady Faulkner. Source: Robert Puschendorf, "Nebraska's Post Office Murals"; www.Britannica.com; http://www.rr1.net/users/methomwi/

Trawick Prize

Given by the Bethesda, Maryland Art & Entertainment District, it is an annual award of $14,000 divided among four artists, with the first place winner receiving $10,000. Among the winners are James Rieck and Sara Pomerance. Source: www.bethesda.org/bethesda/trawick-prizehttp://www.bethesda.org/bethesda/trawick-prize

Tree Studio Building

Established in Chicago in 1894 by Judge Lambert Tree and his wife, Anne Tree, it was an artist studio-lodging building that also had commercial space so that rent could be kept low. It was located behind the Tree mansion on Wabash Avenue between Ohio and Ontario Streets and created as an entity by a legal trust providing that only artists could be residents. The second floor had large studios that faced an open courtyard, which provided natural lighting, something that was limited in Chicago. The Studio Building was established by the Trees to keep and attract artists who had exhibited at the Chicago Exposition in 1893. Inhabitants included Albin Polasek, John Storrs, Ruth Ford and Pauline Palmer. The Trust remained until 1959, when the building's neighbor, the Medinah Temple, occupied it. Source: Susan Weininger, "Chicago Modern, Pursuit of the New", pp. 144; Wikipedia

Triangle Arts Association

Located in Brooklyn, New York, it is a not-for-profit arts organization whose mission is to support emerging and mid-career international and national visual artists, encouraging dialogue and experimentation through workshops, residencies and exhibition opportunities. Triangle runs two main programs: the biennial Triangle Artists’ Workshop and the year-round Triangle Residency. Both programs pair international artists with their New York colleagues, creating an environment for exchange and creative experimentation. The workshop is considered their flagship program. It was founded in 1982 and since 1990 has taken place every two years. Workshop participants have included Anthony Caro, Larry Poons, Andre Fauteux, Otto Rogers, Frank Gehry and Clement Greenberg. Source: The Triangle Arts Association. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke

Triptych

A three-part work of art whose panels bear a relationship to each other, it is usually a painting, meant for placement on an altar, with three hinged panels that fold together. Usually the middle panel has the primary theme, with side panels being supplementary. Often the Triptych is set on a base or platform called a Predella, which often has decoration corresponding to the Triptych. Altarpiece Triptychs were very common in Byzantine and western churches during the Medieval and Renaissance periods, and some modern artists such as Max Beckmann continue the tradition. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Trompe l'Oeil Society of Artists

An organization dedicated to carrying on the tradition of the 19th century trompe l'Oeil (fool-the-eye) American Masters, the Society offers fresh insights both conceptually and perceptually. Objective of Society members is to educate the public with museum and gallery exhibits across the nation with Fine Art Trompe l'Oeil. Founded by Donald Clapper and Larry Charles, who then selected others to become charter members, this group includes, Eric L. Conklin, Gary T. Erbe, Michael Gallarda, Gerald Hodge, Michael Molnar, Gayle B. Tate and Gregory West." Source: Louis A. Zona, exhibition catalogue introduction, "Eleanor Ettinger Gallery presents the Tromple l'Oeil Society of Artists", March 6-30, 2003.

Trompe l’Oeil

A French term meaning “deception of the eye”, it references a method of painting rendered in such a photographically realistic manner as to ‘trick’ the viewer into thinking it is three-dimensional reality. The success of William Harnett’s painting, “After the Hunt”, created the vogue, which is sometimes called 'illusionism'. A version of Harnett's painting hung in a New York saloon and widely seen, word about it quickly spread. In order for the optical illusion to be created, the objects need to appear close to the viewer. Some critics regard Trompe l'Oeil painting as merely technical exercise rather than an aesthetic profundity. Various stories are associated with this type of painting. Reportedly Classical Greek painter, Zeuxis, painted such realistic grapes that the birds tried to eat them, and students of Dutch painter, Rembrandt, painted coins so realistically that he bent down to pick them up. Offshoots of Trompe l'Oeil painting are Photo-Realism, Magic Realism and Surrealism. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"

Tropical Landscape

A term derived from the 19th-century definition of The Tropics, which referred to Central and South America, it has come to mean a broader geographical area, which includes Africa and the South Pacific. Nineteenth-century American expedition artists began exploring South America in the 1830s, especially attracted by the lush landscape. Among these painters were Frederick Catherwood, Norton Bush, Martin Johnson Heade, Jacques Burkhardt, George Catlin, Frederick Church, Titian Peale and James Whistler. Source: Katherine Emma Manthorne, "Tropical Renaissance: North American Artists Exploring Latin America".

Trucage/Truquer

Creation of a fake or forgery, it means a copy of a painting by someone, the 'Truquer', who is not the original artist. Source: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddons, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms'

Tsumugi Weaving Technique

A ritualistic Japanese silk weaving method from Ohshima, it references a long tradition of silk production. The process involves these steps: 1)Making the design on graph paper. 2)Starching and drying a group of threads with a seaweed based glue 3) Gluing the necessary number of these threads together 4)Weaving preliminary blocks by binding silk thread (woof) with cotton cotton thread (warp). The number of binding spots can reach several million. 5)Dyeing the binding threads with a mixture of broken pieces of the local Teichigi tree, which has been boiled for 14 hours. This dye process is repeated 30 or 40 times to achieve a dark red. 6)Applying a secondary dye by immersing three or four times in Mud. When readied by these processes, the silk threads are arranged on the Takahata, a weaving machine. Polly Barton of Taos, New Mexico is a weaver whose work both references and transcends Tsumugi methods. Source: http://www.csuchico.edu/~mtoku/vc/Exhibitions/ohshima/process.html; AskART Biography

Tubelining

A ceramic decoration technique for art pottery, it involves the squeezing of a thin line of clay through a nozzle and then making clay lines on the ware. Frederick Hurten Rhead and his sister, Charlotte Rhead were especially known for this technique. Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tubelining

Tucson Plein-Air Society

Founded in 1998 in Tucson, Arizona, TRAPS became a non-profit corporation in April 2002. The group organizes and hosts "paint-outs" twice a month on location or with still life set-ups or models. Along with annual competitions TPAPS has non-juried and juried member shows as well as traveling shows. Members include Robert Goldman, Peggy Marlatt and Chauncey Homer. Source: www.TRAPS.com

Tucson Seven

Artists from Tucson, Arizona, they banded together for social and professional reasons to share their common love of Western subjects and common background of commercial art. Members are Don Crowley, Ken Riley, Duane Bryers, Harley Brown, Tom Hill, Howard Terpning and Bob Kuhn.

Turner Prize

Annual award of 40,000 pounds given to a British artist under the age of 50, it is sponsored by the Tate Gallery beginning 1984, and is named in honor of J.M.W. Turner, famous English artist featured at the Tate Gallery in London. Recipients, many whom are Conceptualists, include Malcolm Morley, Howard Hodgkin, Richard Deacon, Tony Cragg, Anish Kapoor, Rachel Whiteread, Damien Hirst, Antony Gormley and Tomma Abts. Sources: Wikipedia; ARTnews, April 2007, p. 112

Twenties Group

Founded in 1930 by Lucy Carrington Wertheim (1883 – 1971) the owner of a private gallery in London, it specialized in the work of young artists. Members, all between the ages of 20 and 30, included Barbara Hepworth, Roger Hilton, Robert Medley, Victor Pasmore, Christopher Wood, Elizabeth Rivers and Norah McGuinness. On the outbreak of war in September 1939 the Wertheim Gallery closed, and the Twenties Group folded. Source: Maxwell Bates. Net http://www.maxwellbates.net/english/artwork_index.asp. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke, Art Historian; Vancouver, British Columbia

Tyler School of Art

Also known as the Stella Elkins Tyler School of Art, it is located in Philadelphia at Temple University. The school was founded in 1935 by sculptor and wealthy, prominent benefactor Stella Elkins Tyler (1884-1963) and her teacher, Boris Blai on a 14 acre estate in Elkins Park, six miles from the center of Philadelphia. In 2009, the school was relocated to the Temple University campus. Programs include fine arts, design, art history, art education and architecture. Among its student alumni are Robert Colescott, Robert Gober and Alma Thomas. Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyler_School_of_Art; AskART biography of Stella Elkins Tyler.

Typography

The art and technique of arranging type, it also involves creating and modifying type designs, selecting typeface, line length and spaces between letters. Source: Wikipedia/Typography
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