Primarily a mural painter, Edward Simmons, a marginal member of the Ten, also excelled in plein-air figure and landscape painting. His mother's brother was Ralph Waldo Emerson and his father was a Unitarian minister named George Frederick Simmons, making Edward a product of a rather austere, hearty, New England stock. Through the years, the parlor in his family home resembled the set of an American history pageant. He remembered seeing Emerson, Charles Sumner, former senator from Massachusetts, known for his anti-slavery stance, John Brown, Thoreau, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and the painter Charles H. Davis.
Simmons, born in Concord, Massachusetts on October 27, 1852, studied at Harvard, then traveled to Cincin
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