(1873 - 1939)
Ernest Lawson was active/lived in New York, Connecticut / Canada, France. Ernest Lawson is known for landscape, floral, genre and nocturne painting.
Biography from the Archives of askART
Biography from the Archives of askART
Part of a group of New York painters called "The Eight*," Ernest Lawson
was fascinated by the urban environment of early 20th-century New York
and also the bucolic landscape of the Hudson River. His style was
close to pure Impressionism*, and many of his works focus on the
influence of human beings on the landscapes, quite often with the
suggestion that someone has just been a part of the scene. He
also completed numerous snow scenes as well as depictions of the
less-than-beautiful side of life that including squatter's shacks,
railroads and urban city views. Although he associated with the
Social Realists* led by Robert Henri, he did not adopt that subject
matter as the focus of his painting. On his canvases, he used a
palette knife and heavy impasto with bold, bright colors.
in Nova Scotia, he spent his boyhood in Ontario because his father, a
doctor, had taken a job in Kansas City, and Lawson decided not to move
until he turned age 15. When he joined his family, he studied at
the Kansas City Art Institute. The next year he traveled in
Mexico with his father and worked as a draftsman and studied at the
Santa Clara Art Academy. In 1890, he went to New York to enroll
in the Art Students League* and from 1892-1894, spent time at the
summer school of Cos Cob, Connecticut with his friends and Art Students
League teachers John Twachtmann and J. Alden Weir and other
Impressionist* painters at that art colony. There, he first painted "en
plein air"*, meaning outside in the 'open air', and reportedly his
exposure to new ideas at Cos Cob shaped the remainder of his career.
From Weir, he heard these comments: "You are trying to get the whole
world on one canvas. Simplify everything and stick to your first
impressions." (Spencer, 165)
From 1893 to 1898, he was in France
which included study in Paris at the Academy Julian* with Jean Paul
Laurens and Benjamin Constant. In Paris, he shared a studio with
Somerset Maugham, who used him as the prototype for Frederic Lawson in
his novel, Of Human Bondage
In France, Lawson studied
only briefly at the Academy and spent most of his time painting in the
countryside pursuing his new love of working "en plein-air". Returning
to New York City in 1894, he settled there for many years, living from
1898 in Washington Heights, which then was a rural area with much
wooded landscape and grazing animals. He painted the bucolic
landscape around him, especially the Hudson River in winter, and
generally led a quiet life although he continued to travel including
back to France and to Spain and throughout New England including Cos
Cob, Connecticut and Cornish, New Hampshire. He was active
somewhat in Canada, where he exhibited in Toronto with the Canadian Art
Club, of which he was a member and which resulted in having his first
painting purchased by the National Gallery of Canada. He also
returned to Kansas City to teach at the Art Institute in 1926 and the
Broadmoor Academy* in from 1927 to 1928.
In 1908, he
participated in the 1908 exhibition of "The Eight" at Macbeth Gallery*.
Unlike Henri and the other Social Realists of "The Eight," Lawson
preferred vistas to intimate views and was the only artist in that
exhibition who painted landscapes rather than street life. His
affiliation with The Eight was interesting because most members of the
group, excepting the highly individualistic Maurice Prendergast, were
in rebellion against the prettiness of Impressionist landscape painting
which, Lawson, of course represented.
In 1912-1913, he was one
of the founders of the National Association of Painters and
Sculptors*. This organization planned the 1913 Armory Show* that
remains famous in art history for being a large-scale introduction of
modernist art to the American public. In 1917, he was elected a
Full Member of the National Academy of Design*.
In his later
years, he moved frequently because he was troubled with personal,
financial and health problems. He taught briefly in Hartford,
Connecticut and was distraught because he could earn so little
money. In 1939, near Miami, Florida, he died from drowning, which
some thought suicide. From 1931, he had visited Florida regularly
to seek help for his chronic arthritis and in 1934 had moved there.
Michael David Zellman, 300 Years of American Art
Peter Hastings Falk, Editor, Who Was Who in American Art
Harold Spencer, (Intro), Connecticut and American Impressionism
M.D. Silverbrooke, Art Historian and Collector, West Vancouver, Canada. Email to Lonnie Pierson Dunbier, AskART.
* For more
in-depth information about these terms and others, see AskART.com Glossary
ERNEST LAWSON (1873-1939)
Biography from the Archives of askART
Ernest Lawson, one of the most important American impressionist* painters in the beginning of the twentieth century, produced a number of significant paintings during his last years in the Sunshine State. He was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia on March 22, 1873 and moved to Kansas City, Missouri in 1888. He began his art studies at the Kansas City Art Institute*, a private, independent college specializing in the fine arts and design founded in 1885. Today, The KCAI is an accredited institutional member of the National Association of Schools of Art and Design.
Lawson continued his art studies after he moved to New York where he enrolled in the Art Students League*, an art school created to provide reasonably priced classes along with flexible schedules to students from all social classes and levels of artistic accomplishment. The Art Students League placed a large focus on innovative art such as American incarnations of French Impressionism, German Expressionism*, Ash Can* and Regionalist* art. There, he studied under American impressionist artist John Twachtman where Lawson was taught how to accurately capture the qualities of light found in ordinary subject matter as a crucial element of human perception.
Lawson’s next studied in France to enhance his artistic skills. In 1893, he traveled to Paris to study at the Académie Julian*, a private art school for painting and sculpture. The Académie Julian provided accessible classes for all students and helped perfect Lawson’s unique impressionist art style. After some time, Lawson left classroom study for the south of France where he discovered his interest in plein air or painting outdoors.
Greatly influenced by French impressionist Alfred Sisley, Lawson did not incorporate large amounts of French influence in his work. He stated, “French influence kills if taken in too large a dose -- witness most of our best artists who have become to all intents and purposes Frenchmen in work and thought”. Ernest Lawson’s work slowly began to reflect an interest in his development of an American perspective in highlighting the landscape and scenes of everyday life instead of the French romantic style of painting.
By 1894, American impressionist William Merritt Chase labeled Lawson “America’s greatest landscape painter.” He made his debut in America in 1897 at the National Academy of Design*, the most important art institution in America at the start of the 19th century. The NAD set national art standards based on classical art styles rather than contemporary art styles.
In 1908, Lawson joined a group who called themselves The Eight*, an influential and innovative group formed by eight American artists who shared the common goal of rebelling against the classical genre scenes of popular American painters and were interested instead in more eccentric and contemporary subjects.
Lawson’s interest in Florida began with his love for the city of Coral Gables. Lawson was first introduced to Coral Gables when Katherine and Royce Powell, his close friends and patrons introduced Lawson to this exotic Florida city. He would frequently visit them in Florida and eventually permanently moved to Coral Gables. Most of his works were completed within 100 miles of the city where he enjoyed capturing the beauty in the city in all of its incarnations. Lawson’s interest in the area stemmed from the various species of wildlife and the exotic native vegetation and natives.
His painting at this time consisted of strong, bold jewel-like colors applied in an energetic impressionist style of painting as he worked to capture the true beauty and atmosphere of Florida. Lawson is also known for his application of paint with thick strokes, often applied with a palette knife. These characteristics can be seen in his “Approaching Storm, Matheson Hammock, Coral Gables, FL, ca. 1930 in the Brown Collection at the Museum of Arts and Sciences, Daytona Beach, Florida and in Florida River Scene with Seminoles of 1920, in the Sam and Robbie Vickers Collection, Jacksonville, Florida.
In December of 1939, Ernest Lawson committed suicide in Miami, Florida after years of alcoholism and personal problems. His Florida experience is captured in Celebrating Florida 1995 and in Reflections : Paintings of Florida, both by Gary R. Libby.
Written by Christina Lim, an Honors College Scholar at the University of Florida, Gainesville.
Her essay is submitted by her teacher, Gary R. Libby
* For more in-depth information about these terms and others, see AskART.com. Glossary http://www.askart.com/AskART/lists/Art_Definition.aspx
Lawson was born in 1873 in Halifax, Nova Scotia. He moved to Kansas
City, Missouri where his father practiced medicine. He enrolled in
classes at the Kansas City Art League School, but without sufficient
money for art studies, he accompanied his father the following year to
Mexico City where he found work as a draughtsman for an engineering
company. By 1890, Lawson moved to New York City and commenced studies
at the Art Students League with J. Alden Weir and John H. Twachtman,
who had an immense impact on the young artist's work. He later worked
in Paris where, like some of The Eight, he learned from the French
Biography from Owen Gallery
Devoted to landscape painting, Lawson moved to
Washington Heights in Manhattan in 1898 where no buildings obstructed
the view of the Hudson River, which he loved to depict. He painted his
most important canvases during his eight years in Washington Heights.
was convinced that freedom of expression was necessary if art were to
survive in America. The strength of his conviction led him to become
one of the Eight and to give active support to the famous New York
Armory Show of 1913. This exhibition introduced many Americans to the
advanced trends in European and American painting, and it received wide
and critical attention. The date has become historic in the annals of
twentieth century art.
Lawson suffered financial difficulties
late in his career despite his renowned reputation. In 1936, suffering
from rheumatoid arthritis which allowed him to paint only
intermittently, Lawson settled in Coral Gables, Florida. In 1939,
Lawson's dead body was found on the beach. It is unclear whether he
suffered a heart attack, committed suicide, or was the victim of an
attack on the beach on the morning of December 18th.
Written and submitted by Jean Ershler Schatz, artist and researcher from Laguna Woods, California.
The Metropolitan Museum of Art Miniatures: The Eight
From the internet, AskART.com
Ernest Lawson was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1873. He moved to Kansas City, Missouri in 1888 where his father was practicing medicine. Lawson enrolled in classes at the Kansas City Art League School, but without sufficient money for art studies, he accompanied his father the following year to Mexico City, where he found work as a draughtsman for an engineering company.
Biography from William A. Karges Fine Art - Santa Monica
By 1890, Lawson moved to New York and commenced studies at the Art Students League under John Henry Twachtman, who had an immense impact on the young artist's work.
Devoted to landscape painting, Lawson moved to Washington Heights in Manhattan in 1898 where no buildings obstructed the view of the Hudson River, which he loved to depict. Lawson painted his most important canvases during his eight years in Washington Heights.
In 1908, Lawson participated in the landmark exhibition of The Eight at the MacBeth Galleries in New York, despite his stylistic separation from the Ashcan aesthetic of Robert Henri and his circle. Lawson also participated in such monumental exhibitions as the 1913 Armory Show and the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exhibition.
Lawson suffered financial difficulties late in his career despite his renowned reputation. In 1936, suffering from rheumatoid arthritis which allowed him to paint only intermittently, Lawson settled in Coral Gables Florida. In 1939, Lawson's dead body was found on the beach. It is unclear whether he suffered a heart attack, committed suicide, or was the victim of an attack on the beach on the morning of December 18th.
Ernest Lawson was a part of a group of New York artists known as "The Eight." Working in a near-pure Impressionist style, Lawson created works that often featured the Urban landscape of New York.
Biography from The Columbus Museum of Art, Georgia
Lawson was born in Kansas City and studied at the Art Students League in New York City. Following brief study in Paris, Lawson stayed close to his home near Washington Heights. Quite in contrast to the other members of the eight, who were all considered social realists, Lawson was the only member who exhibited pure landscapes.
Ernest Lawson was born in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1873.(1) The son of Dr. Archibald Lawson and the former Anna E. Mitchell, he was the second child of five and the only one to survive. In 1883, Dr. Lawson left Canada with his wife to practice medicine in Kansas City, Missouri, and their son stayed with relatives in Kingston, Ontario. In 1888, he joined his parents in Kansas City, where he enrolled in classes at the Kansas City Art League School. There he studied with Ella Holman, whom he would later marry. Lawson realized that there were not many opportunities for artists in Kansas City, and in 1890, he moved with his father to Mexico City. He worked as a draughtsman for an English engineering company, and studied in the evenings at the San Carlos Art School.
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By 1890, he had saved enough money to move to New York, and he began studies at the Art Students League under John Henry Twachtman. Lawson developed his impressionist style while studying under Twachtman and J. Alden Weir at their school in Cos Cob, Connecticut. He became devoted to landscape painting, and this interest remained unchanged throughout his professional life.
In 1893, he traveled to France, where he studied in Paris at the Académie Julian under Jean-Paul Laurens and Benjamin Constant. He shared a studio with the novelist Somerset Maugham, who used him as the basis for the character Frederick Lawson in Of Human Bondage. During his stay in France, Lawson painted at Moret-sur-Loing, near the Fontainbleau forest, where he met Alfred Sisley, who along with Twachtman was the main influence on his work.
Lawson returned to the United States and married Holman in 1894. They settled for a time in Paris, but returned to America. Lawson accepted a teaching position in Columbus, Georgia, and at the same time, Ella was offered a similar post in Asheville, North Carolina.(2)
In 1898, Lawson and his family moved to Washington Heights in Manhattan, and by the turn of the century, his work centered almost exclusively on views of this neighborhood. At the time, the area was not settled too densely, and a number of naturally forested areas were intermixed by small farms. In 1904, he won his first award, a silver medal from the St. Louis Universal Exposition. He and his family moved to Greenwich Village in 1906, and once there Lawson met William Glackens. Through this important and outgoing artist, Lawson became associated with a group of American artists in New York City, including Arthur B. Davies, Maurice Prendergast, William Glackens, Everett Shinn, Robert Henri, John Sloan, and George Luks. This group, who called themselves "The Eight," held a well-publicized exhibition at the Macbeth Gallery in New York in February 1908. They were men of widely different tendencies, and five of the eight artists were known best for their gritty urban scenes. However, common opposition to academicism, as well as an interest in the daily lives of the middle and lower classes bound all eight artists and the environment in which they lived.
In 1910, Lawson was a featured artist and an organizer of the exhibition of Independent Artists, which included most of the members of the Eight; it was the first show in American to have no jury or prizes. He served on the Committee of Foreign Exhibitions for the 1913 Armory Show, and he participated in the 1915 Panama-Pacific Exhibition.(3) In 1916, Lawson won a prize from the Corcoran Gallery that allowed him to take his family abroad. He painted in Segovia and Toledo, and the bright Spanish light caused his palette to become lighter. When he returned in 1917, he was elected to full membership in the National Academy.
Despite winning several prizes in 1920 and 1921, Lawson did not meet with financial success. His financial woes and personal problems caused him to become an alcoholic. In the 1920s, he continued to paint in and around New York and New Jersey, and in 1926 he joined the faculty of the Kansas City Art Institute. In 1927, he took a teaching assignment at the Broadmoor Art Academy in Colorado Springs, Colorado. After returning to New York for a brief period, he accepted a friend's offer to visit Coral Gables, Florida. In the 1930s, he divided his time between New York, Canada, and Florida, and in 1936, he moved permanently to Coral Gables.
His final years were difficult, due to his ill health from rheumatoid arthritis, financial troubles, and disillusionment with his art profession. In 1939, Lawson's dead body was found on the beach. The cause of his death is unknown, but a likely explanation is that he was robbed while on the beach and suffered a fatal heart attack as a result.(4)
A committed landscapist, Lawson always began a work out of doors in the en plein air method.(5) He did not create preliminary drawings, but instead painted directly on canvas. Lawson's work includes pure landscapes, foreign scenes, urban views and rural village scenes. His extremely rich and varied palette has been described as having a "crushed jewel" effect. Like the Impressionists, Lawson used intensely contrasting colors and rough impasto textures in his work, and he had a particular interest in the effect of light on the surface of the landscape. After Lawson became associated with the artists of The Eight, his work became progressively less picturesque.(6) Lawson created many winter landscapes during the first two decades of the 20th century, and in them the impasto and brushstrokes take on their own structural significance.
1. Biographical information taken from William H. Gerdts, Pride in Place: Landscapes by The Eight in Southern Collections (Albany, GA: Albany Museum of Art, 1999); Adeline Lee Karpiscak, Ernest Lawson 1873-1939 (Tucson: University of Arizona Museum of Art, 1979); and Elizabeth Milroy, Painters of a New Century: The Eight and American Art (Milwaukee: Milwaukee Art Museum, 1991).
2. Following his return to the United States from France, Lawson accepted a teaching position in Columbus, Georgia in 1896, but found soon that he had no real skills at teaching and did not enjoy painting portraits instead of landscapes. He quickly left the teaching position. This decision caused a rift in his marriage and as a result, his wife left him and moved to Asheville, North Carolina to accept a new teaching position there. This was the first of a number of long separations in their marriage. Lawson relocated to Toronto.
3. Lawson displayed three paintings in the Armory Show, including Harlem River-Winter, which the Metropolitan Museum of Art purchased two years later as their first acquisition of Lawson's work.
4. Dennis Anderson, in the ACA catalogue of the 1976 retrospective writes, "For the first time evidence has come to light that there were at this time, a series of robberies and assaults made upon Miami beachgoers by bands of young hooligans. It is suspected, because of police and medical evidence, that Ernest Lawson was one of their victims, and subsequently died of a heart attack. Quoted Karpiscak, 17.
5. According to Karpiscak, he learned this method during his early studies with Ella Holman.
6. Donald Keyes, American Impressionism in Georgia Collections (Athens, GA: Georgia Museum of Art, 1993), 68.
Submitted by the Staff of the Columbus Museum
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