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Hendrik Glintenkamp

 (1887 - 1946)
Hendrik (Henry) J Glintenkamp was active/lived in New York, New Jersey.  Hendrik Glintenkamp is known for landscape, portrait, social-realist painting, block printing.

Hendrik Glintenkamp

Biography from the Archives of askART

Biography photo for Hendrik Glintenkamp

Henry Glintenkamp

The painter and illustrator Henry Glintenkamp (1887-1946) is known mainly for his anti-war illustrations that appeared in The Masses and other publications in the early twentieth century.  As a painter, he was additionally successful, particularly in his landscape and urban scenes.  Born in Augusta, New Jersey, the son of Hendrik and Sophie Dietz Glintenkamp, Henry received his elementary art training at the National Academy of Design (1903-06) before his study with Robert Henri the two years following.  One student's recollection of Henri's classes, that of Helen Appleton Read, gives an indication as to the influence he effected on students such as Glintenkamp: "The old idea was to learn to draw the figure before the student had ideas.  Henri's idea was to have ideas first, paint pictures, make compositions, which is the same thing; learn to draw as you go along.  He taught us to paint from the inside out so to speak, try to find out that inner thing that made one particular man or woman different from any other man or woman. (William Innes Homer, 1969, p. 150).

Henri consequently attracted artists like Glintenkamp interested in returning to a sense of human qualities.  Setting up his studio in the Lincoln Arcade Building with Stuart Davis and Glenn O. Coleman, Glintenkamp did work that reflects a preoccupation with urban scenes and landscapes.  These works are broadly handled with heavy impasto and rapid strokes, but all retain an enigmatic quality undoubtedly intensified by his use of a more tonal palette of misty shades.   His urban scenes appear through a sort of mist.  Despite his limited palette, there is no sense of quietude in the artist's work, nor is there any predominance of figures as in a more popular genre scene.  Instead, the focus would seem to be the relationship not of man, but of nature to her environment.  Glintenkamp's expressive works rely heavily on mood, attained from darkened tones, as well as a strained or unpredictable display of nature. "Henry Glintenkamp's art is marked by a sensuous and vigorous paint surface which no doubt was the first encouraged and perhaps even inspired by the teachings of Robert Henri." (Fort, 1981, p. 27).

In May of 1910 Glintenkamp exhibited his works as a student at the Henri School (Sloan, 1906-13, p. 418) and at the Exhibition of Independent Artists of 1910.  Two years later,  he accepted the position of instructor at the Hoboken Arts Club in New Jersey and in 1913, he took up with others in the organization of The Masses, designed as a publication devoted to humanitarian causes.  This publication stood in stark opposition to war, as its articles and cartoons reflected pacifism: "Of course some were more vehement than others in their objections to the 'immorality of armed conflict'. . . not overly subtle in their artistic protests, which in some ways indirectly reflected President Wilson's isolationist policy" (Love, 1985, p. 380).  Of his cartoon, paired with an article entitled "Making the World Safe for Democracy," by Boardman Robinson, one noted that it might "'breed such animosity toward the Draft as will promote resistance and strengthen the determination of those disposed to be recalcitrant,' but it did not tell people that it was their duty nor to their interest to resist the law" (Young, 1939, p. 321).  At the Armory Show (1913), Glintenkamp exhibited The Village Cemetery.  In 1917, Glintenkamp moved to Mexico to avoid the draft, and remained there until 1924, supporting "the socialist agenda of Mexico's new leadership." (Boone, 1998-99, p. 66).

The period following 1917 marks a new phase in the artist's development.  Brighter in color and compositionally more involved, his later works are more discordant than the artist's earlier work. The artist sacrificed the atmospheric quality of the limited palette for the increased influence of modernist movements.  After extensive travels in Europe, Glintenkamp returned to New York in 1934, and became a teacher at the New York School of Fine and Industrial Art and the John Reed Club School of Art.  As chairman for the committee responsible for the organization of an Exhibition in Defense of World Democracy, in 1937, Glintenkamp continued his humanitarian purpose, though never really took up with the socialist rebels, many of whom followed similar groups and publications.  Indeed, Glintenkamp was instrumental in founding the American Artists' Congress; he continued serving its needs as both the organization's president and secretary.  A peripheral member of the impressionist-tonalist group in his early career, Glintenkamp had progressed through many American movements by the time of his death in 1946.

Sloan, John. John Sloan's New York Scene. From the Diaries, Notes and Correspondence 1906-1913. Ed. Helen Farr Sloan. New York: Harper and Row, 1965, pp. 418, 606; Young, Art. Art Young, His Life and Times. New York: Sheridan House, 1939, pp. 320, 321, 324, 332-33; Homer, William Innes. Robert Henri and His Circle. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1969; Fort, Ilene. "Henry Glintenkamp (Graham)." Arts Magazine 55 (June 1981): 27; Leff, Sandra. Henry Glintenkamp 1887-1946: Ash Can Years to Expressionism. Paintings and Drawings 1908-1939. Exh. cat. New York: Graham Gallery, 1981; Zurier, Rebecca. Art for the Masses: Radical Magazine and Its Graphics, 1911-1917. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1988, p. 165; Boone, M. Elizabeth. EspaƱa: American Artists and the Spanish Experience. Traveling exh. cat. New York: Hollis Taggart Galleries, 1998-99, pp. 66-67.

Submitted by Richard H. Love and Michael Preston Worley, Ph.D.

Biography from the Archives of askART
Biography photo for Hendrik Glintenkamp
Henry J. (Hendrik) Glintenkamp, born in 1887, exhibited in the famous 1913 Armory Show in New York City.  A painter, printmaker, illustrator and sculptor, he studied at the Art Students League in New York City with Robert Henri.  Glintenkamp, from 1913-1917, created illustrations for The Masses, the leftist magazine, working with editor-artist John Sloan, and painters George Bellows and Stuart Davis, and sharing a studio for a time with the latter artist.

Glintenkamp's oil painting, Excavation Scene, c. 1910, 18 x 24, depicts in monochromatic, warm colors, a gaping foreground hole and remnants of walls flanked back and side by buildings and a construction crane.  His Urban Rivals, 1911, 20 x 26, uses Ash-Can School realism to show a white dog and black cat in front of walls covered with tattered posters.  Hoboken Rooftops is a moody, romantic, close-up of rooftops and misty distant harbor; darkly leaden, as if before a coming storm.

Henry Glintenkamp's woodcuts, like his paintings often depicting urban life in New York City, Mexico and Spain, were boldly simplified to intense areas of black and white.  His wood engravings and drawings explored similar subjects.

Glintencamp lived in Mexico for extended periods during the first decades of the 20th century.  He was friends with writer John Dos Passos and painter Diego Rivera. After life there and travels in England, he worked for the WPA (Federal Art Project) in New York City.

Glintenkamp's book, A Wanderer in Woodcuts, was published in 1932 by Farrar & Rinehart in New York City.  It describes the artist's European experience, with a woodcut on every right-hand page, and a modest amount of text on the left.

His woodcut, Construction, is in the collection of Georgetown University, in Washington, D.C.

Henry Glintenkamp died in 1946.

Sources include:

Biography from The Columbus Museum of Art, Georgia
Hendrik Glintenkamp, a painter, printmaker and editor, was part of an artistic milieu that included such influential figures as Robert Henri, John Sloan and Stuart Davis. Like many American artists of the early twentieth century, his personal aesthetic underwent a major transformation after his participation in the Armory Show of 1913. (1)

Glintenkamp attended classes at the National Academy of Design in New York from 1903 until 1906.  The next two years were spent at the New York School of Art, where his teachers included Robert Henri and John Sloan.  In 1908, Glintenkamp began sharing studio space with his friends and colleagues, Stuart Davis and Glenn O. Coleman, the trio sharing a commitment to Henri's artistic philosophy. 

In 1910, Glintenkamp's work was included in the Exhibition of Independent Artists, organized by Henri, Sloan, Arthur B. Davies and several others.  Glintenkamp was also among the American contingent exhibiting at the 1913 Armory Show.  Like many artists of his generation, Henry Glintenkamp was deeply inspired by the painting he saw at this major exhibition, a landmark event, which introduced the art of the European vanguard to American audiences.  He soon abandoned his former style of the Ashcan School, and went on to evolve his own distinctive approach, conjoining the vibrant colors and bold brushwork of Fauvism and Expressionism with his own highly intuitive response to the world around him.

His paintings from the 1920s and 1930s--ranging from views of New York, Mexico, England and Scandinavia to landscapes and the occasional portrait--comprise his finest work and attest to the impact of European modernism on his artistic development. Glintenkamp died in New York in March of 1946.

Ten years later, Raphael Soyer, Philip Evergood and several other artists arranged a memorial exhibition of Glintenkamp's work, held at the Art of Today Gallery in Manhattan.

His paintings can be found in the Museum of Modern Art and the Metropolitan Museum of Art, among others.

1) I am indebted to Lisa Peters, Carol Lowrey and the Spanierman Gallery for sharing valuable information on Glintenkamp. Charles T. Butler, Columbus Museum

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About  Hendrik Glintenkamp

Born:  1887 - Augusta, New Jersey
Died:   1946 - New York City
Known for:  landscape, portrait, social-realist painting, block printing