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Clementine Reuben Hunter

 (1887 - 1987)
Clementine Reuben Hunter was active/lived in Louisiana.  Clementine Hunter is known for southern plantation folk art genre and landscape painting.

Clementine Reuben Hunter

Biography from the Archives of askART

Often referred to as "the black Grandma Moses," Clementine Hunter painted four to five thousand paintings, which were boldly colored images in folk art style of plantation life in Louisiana. Her subjects included everyday activities such as doing laundry and festive events including weddings, dances, and church going. She also did mural painting, and a number of her works had Christian religious subjects.

She was born at Hidden Hill Plantation near Natchitoches, Louisiana, and lived there the remainder of her life pf one-hundred-one years, raising seven children and working in the fields. She attended a local Catholic school, but quit at a young age and never learned to read or write. At age sixteen, she moved to nearby Melrose Plantation, where she worked for many years as a field hand.

Her first male companion and father of two of her children was Charlie Dupree, who died in 1914. Ten years later she married Emanuel Hunter, and moved into the plantation house where she was in charge of the domestic work. Becoming associated with the plantation mistress, Ms. Cammie Henry, changed Hunter's life. Henry, was an archivist and artist who actively encouraged the arts. She opened her home to artists and authors who needed a quiet place to work. It was at Melrose that Hunter first began her production of hand made quilts, dolls, and lace curtains.

Meeting artist friends of Ms. Henry, Hunter met many people in the art world and was especially influenced and promoted by Francois Mignon, who was an artist-in-residence at the plantation. In 1946, under his direction, she did her first work, a plantation baptism scene, from a few partially used tubes of oil paint on a window shade that he provided. Another supporter at that time was James Register, also an artist-in- residence, and he obtained a Julius Rosenwald Foundation Grant for her. He encouraged her to do abstract art, which she did while letting him choose the titles.

But she preferred the folk art style. From that time, she was prolific, and created over four-thousand scenes of plantation life on whatever materials were available from scrap wood to paper bags. She thinned her oil paint so much it resembled watercolor. She sold many of her first works for a dime or quarter to pay for her husband's medical treatment.

Legacy and honors:
One of the more well-known displays of Hunter's artwork is located in a food storage building called "African House" on the grounds of Melrose Plantation. (African House is often referred to as slave quarters, however the building was built for, and always used for food storage.) The walls are covered in a mural Hunter painted in 1955, depicting scenes of Cane River plantation life. When she completed the mural, a local newspaper ran the headline: "A 20th Century Woman of Color Finishes a Story Begun 200 Years Ago by an 18th Century Congo-Born Slave Girl, Marie-Therese, the original grantee of Melrose Plantation."

The cafe and snack bar at the Alexandria Museum of Art is named for Hunter.
She was the first African-American artist to have a solo exhibition at the Delgado Museum (now the New Orleans Museum of Art). She achieved significant recognition during her lifetime, including an invitation to the White House from U.S. President Jimmy Carter and letters from both President Ronald Reagan and U.S. Senator J. Bennett Johnston, Jr..

Radcliffe College included Hunter in its Black Women Oral History Project, published in 1980. Northwestern State University of Louisiana granted her an honorary Doctor of Fine Arts degree in 1986. The following year, Louisiana governor Edwin Edwards designated her as an honorary colonel, a state honor, and aide-de-camp.

Hunter has been the subject of biographies and artist studies, and inspired other works of art. In 2013 composer Robert Wilson presented a new opera about her: Zinnias: the Life of Clementine Hunter, at Montclair State University in New Jersey.

Peter Hastings Falk, Editor, Who Was Who in American Art, Volume II
Chuck and Jan Rosenak, Museum of American Art Folk Art Encyclopedia
"Clementine Hunter," Wikipedia, Web, Mar. 2016
Alice Rae Yelen, "Passionate Visions," American Art Review, February, 1995

Biography from The Johnson Collection
Dubbed "the black Grandma Moses" by art critics, Clementine Reuben Hunter spent the last fifty years of her long life painting everyday activities on the Louisiana plantation she called home. Her subjects range from menial domestic tasks, such as doing laundry and soothing an infant, to special events, including baptisms and weddings.

"I paint the history of my people," she said. "My paintings tell how we worked, played, and prayed." Hunter painted on whatever material was available to her, which varied from scrap wood, window shades, and paper bags to milk jugs and soap boxes. Her naive painting style has at times attracted derision from some viewers. But those critics are outnumbered by others who appreciate the charm, character, and primitive beauty of Hunter's images.

Since the 1980s, Hunter's work has become increasingly valuable and can be found in the collections of the Dallas Museum of Fine Art, American Folk Art Museum, High Museum of Art, Ogden Museum of Southern Art, and Morris Museum of Art, among others.

Born Clemence Reuben, the artist spent her childhood on Hidden Hill Plantation near Natchitoches, Louisiana, a place so isolated and harsh that, according to local legend, it inspired the setting for the book, Uncle Tom's Cabin. The Creole French-speaking granddaughter of former slaves, she did not attend school long enough to be literate, but instead tended the cotton fields alongside her parents. As a teenager, Hunter moved with her family to Melrose Plantation in the Cane River area where she was known as Clementine. She would live there for her remaining eighty-six years, marrying and raising five children.

Hunter's introduction to the arts occurred in 1924, when as a member of the plantation household staff, she discovered that Melrose's mistress, Carmelita Garritt "Miss Cammie" Henry, opened her home to itinerant artists and authors. Invigorated by this creative atmosphere, Hunter began creating quilts, baskets, and eventually, paintings - or as she referred to it, "marking some pictures." Though she did not regularly title her more than five thousand works, when asked for one, she offered colorfully descriptive appellations, such as Trying to Keep the Baby Happy or She's Not Pretty But She's Strong. Both her life and her work were profoundly influenced by her Creole heritage and Catholic faith.

Hunter created her first painting, Bowl of Zinnias, at Melrose Plantation in 1939. Before long, Melrose's artists-in-residence—including Alberta Kinsey, James Register, and, most significantly, Francois Mignon—began championing her work. Mignon encouraged her transition to oil paints, while Register helped her acquire the Julius Rosenfeld Grant in 1944. Five years later, several of Hunter's patrons arranged for her work to be displayed at the New Orleans Arts and Crafts Show.

Intrigued by Hunter's story, surrealist photographer and fellow Louisianan, Clarence John Laughlin, who was at the time working for the Library of Congress to create a pictorial history of Louisiana architecture, photographed Hunter in her cabin surrounded by her paintings. The photograph and accompanying article were published in Look magazine in 1953, bringing Hunter national attention.

Three years later, in 1956, the Delgado Museum (now the New Orleans Museum of Art) organized a solo exhibition for Hunter, marking the first time such an honor was accorded an African American artist by a Louisiana museum. Unfortunately, segregation laws at the time prohibited Hunter from entering the exhibition space until after hours, when white visitors had vacated the premises.

Though she began painting later in her life, Hunter witnessed numerous exhibitions of her work and lived to see the value of her efforts. The paintings she sold for a dime in the 1940s to offset the expense of her husband's medical care were, by the 1980s, selling for thousands of dollars at international auction houses. In 1986, Hunter received an honorary doctorate of Fine Arts from Northwestern State University of Louisiana. Before her death in 1988, her work had appeared in numerous publications, including Ebony and the Saturday Evening Post, and had been exhibited across America in prestigious establishments, such as the Smithsonian Institution.

The Johnson Collection, Spartanburg, South Carolina

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About  Clementine Reuben Hunter

Born:  1887 - Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana
Died:   1987 - Natchitoches Parish, Louisiana
Known for:  southern plantation folk art genre and landscape painting

Essays referring to
Clementine Reuben Hunter

Black American Artists