(1872 - 1944)
Piet Cornelis Mondrian was active/lived in New York / Netherlands, France, Holland. Piet Mondrian is known for abstract, non-objective and grid painting.
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Biography from the Archives of askART
A painter born Pieter Cornelis Mondriaan in the Netherlands, he was an
important contributor to the De Stijl art movement led by
Theo van Doesburg and committed to abstraction and non-objective
painting focused on geometric lines and the three primary colors.
Ever underlying his work was a constant quest for spiritual truth.
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He spent much of his career in Paris and also had a residency in New
York City where he died of pneumonia at age 71. He was raised in
a family strictly committed to Protestantism. His father taught
drawing at a private school and his uncle, Fritz Mondriaan, was a known
painter who influenced and encouraged the interests of his
nephew. In 1912, he changed the spelling of his name to Mondrian
to signify his departure from the artistic influences of his Dutch
In 1892, Mondrian entered the Academy for Fine Art in Amsterdam.
Like his father, he taught in primary school, but also pursued painting
with early work being realistic and impressionistic rural landscape
scenes. Then he explored a variety of styles to find his own way
including Fauvism and Pointilism. Paintings of this time period
are in the Mondrian museum, the Gemeentemuseum, in The Hague.
"In 1908 he became interested in the theosophical movement launched by
Helena Petrovna Blavatsky in the late 19th century. Blavatsky believed
that it was possible to attain a knowledge of nature more profound than
that provided by empirical means, and much of Mondriaan's work for the
rest of his life was inspired by his search for that spiritual
In 1912, Mondrian settled in Paris and moved to Paris where the Cubism
of Picasso and Braque strongly affected him. But he differed from
the Cubists in that he injected spiritual quests into his
paintings. During World War I, Mondrian, having returned to his
homeland for a visit, was forced to remain there. It was during
this time that he spent much time at the Laren Art Colony with Theo van
Doesburg and his associate, Bart van der Leck, whose focus on primary
colors had a strong influence on Mondrian.
With these two artists, Mondrian founded De Stijl, a Dutch word meaning
Style. Of this theory, Mondrian' said in 1914: "I construct
lines and color combinations on a flat surface, in order to express
general beauty with the utmost awareness. Nature (or, that which I see)
inspires me, puts me, as with any painter, in an emotional state so
that an urge comes about to make something, but I want to come as close
as possible to the truth and abstract everything from that, until I
reach the foundation (still just an external foundation!) of things…I
believe it is possible that, through horizontal and vertical lines
constructed with awareness, but not with calculation, led by high
intuition, and brought to harmony and rhythm, these basic forms of
beauty, supplemented if necessary by other direct lines or curves, can
become a work of art, as strong as it is true.["
Mondrian returned to Paris at the end of the War and, relishing the
intellectual freedom he found, stayed there until 1938, and continued
to exert abstract influence on art expression. During this time, he
began his signature grid paintings, the work for which he remains best
When the war ended in 1919, Mondrian returned to France, where he would
remain until 1938. Immersed in the crucible of artistic innovation that
was post-war Paris, he flourished in an atmosphere of intellectual
freedom that enabled him to embrace an art of pure abstraction for the
rest of his life. Mondrian began producing grid-based paintings
in late 1919, and in 1920, the style evolved for which he came to be
renowned began to appear.
With the Nazi threat to Paris, Piet Mondrian moved to London in 1938,
and in 1940 moved to New York City for the remaining two years of his
life. As he aged, he continued working, and drove
himself so hard that he had blisters on his hands and made himself sick.
The year before his death, Mondrian wrote to art historian James
Johnson Sweeney, planner of a retrospective exhibition of the artist's
works at The Museum of Modern Art in New York: "Only now I become
conscious that my work in black, white, and little color planes has
been merely 'drawing' in oil color. In drawing, the lines are the
principal means of expression; in painting, the color planes. In
painting, however, the lines are absorbed by the color planes; but the
limitation of the planes show themselves as lines and conserve their
In the fall of 1943, Mondrian, age 71, moved into his second New York
Studio at 15 East 59th Street, and "set about again to create the
environment he had learned over the years was most congenial to his
modest way of life and most stimulating to his art. He painted
the high walls the same off-white he used on his easel and on the
seats, tables and storage cases he designed and fashioned meticulously
from discarded orange and apple-crates. He glossed the top of a
white metal stool in the same brilliant primary red he applied to the
cardboard sheath he made for the radio-phonograph that spilled forth
his beloved jazz from well-traveled records, Visitors to this last
studio seldom saw more than one or two new canvases, but found, often
to their astonishment, that eight large compositions of colored bits of
paper he had tacked and re-tacked to the walls in ever-changing
relationships constituted together an environment that, paradoxically
and simultaneously, was both kinetic and serene, stimulating and
restful. It was the best space, Mondrian said, that he had ever
inhabited. Tragically, he was there for only a few months: he died of
pneumonia in February 1944."
He is buried in the Cypress Hills Cemetery in Brooklyn, New York.
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