|This biography from the Archives of AskART:|
|Andy Warhol, whose name is synonymous with Pop Art*, was born in
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and grew up in McKeesport,
Pennsylvania. He studied art at the Carnegie Institute of
Technology from 1945 to 1949. He then went to New York City where
he became an illustrator until 1960 when he began making paintings
based on comic strip characters such as Popeye, Dick Tracy, and
He turned from the prevailing Abstract-Expressionist*
styles and the emphasis on the artist's emotion to a hard-line
Realism*, using many common images associated with the popular media
such as a Campbell Soup can or a Coca-Cola bottle or Brillo pad. The
first images were handpainted, but many were reproduced with a
silk-screen process. He became the "first artist to utlize the
screenprint medium to elevate both common and famous photographic
images from popular culture to fine art status." (Falk Vol III, p.
In May, 1999, ARTNews magazine named him one of
the twenty-five most influential artists-ever. About him, it was
written: . . . "it all began with the first Campbell's soup can in
1962. . . With this simple image, the concepts of appropriation and
commidification were let loose for good. Warhol's celebration of his
screen sirens, hustler hunks, and cafe-society wanna-bees . . .had an
equally dramatic effect."
In 1964, Warhol began making
sculpture, often with labels from supermarkets, and in the 1970s, he
turned to portraits, some of the most famous being Jackie Kennedy,
Elvis Presley, Mao Tse Tung, and Marilyn Monroe. These images
reflected his fascination with the topic of death, something he carried
into a series called Death and Disaster, that included
depictions of car crashes and gang warfare. Many celebrities and
socialites regarded it as a notch 'up-the-ladder' of social recognition
to be painted by Warhol.
He died in New York City in 1987 from gall bladder surgery that no one expected to be complicated.
Matthew Baigell, "Dictionary of American Art"
Peter Hastings Falk, Editor, Who Was Who in American Art
ArtNews, May 1999
* For more in-depth information about these terms and others, see
|Biography from Art Cellar Exchange:|
|Biography Number One|
Andy Warhol began his career as a commercial illustrator, developing ads for the I. Miller Department store in New York. His first exhibition was in 1962, at the Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles, which included all 32 of his Campbell's Soup Can renditions.
Born in Pittsburgh in 1928 as Andrew Warhola, Andy Warhol came to represent more than just the American condition. He became pivotal in the evolution of artistic production in relationship to mainstream mass-produced culture and commercialism. The founder and most influential figure of the Pop Art movement, Warhol received his training in graphic design from the Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1949. He then moved to New York City to begin his career as a commercial artist where he gained phenomenal success. By 1955, Warhol was the most successful and most-influential commercial artist in New York.
His career took flight when he produced the first of his window displays using enlarged comic strip images. Characters such as Superman and Popeye were among the popular images he incorporated into designer fashion. Needless to say, his department store windows drew a lot of attention, and Warhol garnered a reputation for the extreme. One of Warhol's most important developments was his use of enlarged photographic images which were silk screened directly onto canvas and/or paper. This technique enabled him to produce quickly and cheaply a series of mass-media images that he marketed to the public. Iconographic objects such as Soup Cans, U.S. Dollar Bills, Coca-Cola Bottles, as well as the various faces of celebrities and politicians became highly sought after by art aficionados.
In the late 1960s, Warhol experimented with the medium of film exploring such rhetorical topics as time, boredom, and repetition. He founded inter/VIEW magazine in 1969 (later changed to Interview in 1971), published 'The Philosophy of Andy Warhol: From A to B and Back Again' and continued to produce silkscreens until his death in 1987.--Karen Daniels, Art Cellar Exchange
Biography Number Two:
California epitomizes consumer culture: movie stars, convertible cars and plastic surgery are commonplace in the land of sun and fun. Here, everyone is looking for their 15 minutes of fame. As the leader of the Pop Art movement, a style of art beginning in the 1950s which simultaneously celebrated and satirically examined popular culture, Andy Warhol's work explored issues that are applicable in Southern California today.
Warhol began his career as an illustrator for advertising agencies and magazines, which may account for the focus and fascination that he had for objects of popular culture later in his career. One of Warhol's first major illustrations was of a grouping of shoes for Glamour Magazine. This subject matter would appear many times in his subsequent work, including two portfolios of shoes that he created in 1980.
Although Warhol achieved his first taste of success in New York as a commercial artist, his first solo Pop exhibition was on the West Coast. In 1962, the Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles displayed all 32 of his now famous Campbell's Soup Can images. It was also around this time that his studio, which he called The Factory, began gaining notoriety.Captivated by the uniformity and abundance of consumer products in the United States, Warhol mimicked their repetitive nature in his depiction of Campbell's soup cans, green stamps, and Coke bottles.
This fascination with images in series bled into his all aspects of Warhol's art production. In his studio, he had many assistants who participated in the mass production of prints, posters and paintings that he designed. Most frequently employing the technique of silkscreen printing, Warhol used this method because it made his images identical and easy to proliferate.The Factory was also used as an experimental film studio where Warhol produced over 300 independent films. This studio also became a popular hangout and party destination for celebrities, many of whom became the subject matter of his artwork.
This close proximity to fame rubbed off on the artist and ironically, he himself became an object of popular culture. In 1987, Warhol's 15 minutes were tragically cut short. The artist died on February 22, 1987 from complications following an emergency gall bladder surgery.
--Amy Kleppinger, Art Cellar Exchange, http://www.artcellarexchange.com
Biography Number Three
Andy Warhol insisted that he was not a "real artist." He began his career as a commercial illustrator, commissioned to do work for Glamour Magazine, I. Miller shoes and many other New York businesses before he ever exhibited his work in a gallery setting. What Warhol failed to realize, however, is that in many ways he was the most important kind of "real artist." He achieved the ultimate goal of any true artist: to accurately and instinctively capture the essence of the time and place in which he lived.
More than any other artist of his era, Andy Warhol served as a cultural anthropologist, recording the fascinating and ever-changing American culture that existed in the second half of the 20th century.Born Andrew Warhola to immigrant parents near Pittsburgh in 1928, Andy showed artistic talent at a young age. As a sickly child, he was often bedridden and would draw and color for hours on end.
Following high school graduation, Warhol attended the Carnegie Institute of Technology and later moved to New York City to pursue his artistic career. Although Warhol often tried to hide his simple origins it is perhaps the early years of his life, devoid of glamour and full of illness, that spurred his obsession with beauty and magnificence.
Warhol began making in screenprints in the late 1960s, a medium that would eventually become his primarily vehicle for artistic expression. More than any other medium available at the time, screenprinting was the perfect technique for capturing the essence of Warhol's work. The ability of a screenprint to be identically reproduced became an essential part of the way Warhol's art reflected life at that time. The post-war abundance that middle class America experienced in the 50s and 60s created a level of consumption and also homogenization that had never been seen before. Even Warhol's studio, which he called "The Factory," paid homage to the mechanization of other products of the day. By using a series of assistants, Warhol likened the production of his art to the production of standard household goods.
Against all odds, Andy became as famous as the icons that he depicted in his artwork. His careful and unintentional documentation allows us the opportunity to reflect on one of the most pivotal times in American history. Through his images we see what we were, what we wanted and who we are in the present. Today, more than ever, we understand the importance of what he had to say.
--Amy Kleppinger, Art Cellar Exchange, http://www.artcellarexchange.com
|Biography from Rogallery.com:|
|1928 Born in Pittsburgh, PA|
1945 - 1949 Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh. Major: Pictural Design.
1962 Founded The Factory
1969 Founded Interview Magazine
1987 Died in New York, NY
Warhol began his career as a commercial illustrator, developing ads for
the I. Miller Department store in New York. His first exhibition
was in 1962, at the Ferus Gallery in Los Angeles, which included all 32
of his Campbell's Soup Can renditions.
Born in Pittsburgh in
1928 as Andrew Warhola, Andy Warhol came to represent more than just
the American condition. He became pivotal in the evolution of
artistic production in relationship to mainstream mass-produced culture
and commercialism. The founder and most influential figure of the Pop
Art movement, Warhol received his training in graphic design from the
Carnegie Institute of Technology in 1949. He then moved to New York
City to begin his career as a commercial artist where he gained
phenomenal success. By 1955, Warhol was the most successful and
most-influential commercial artist in New York.
His career took
flight when he produced the first of his window displays using enlarged
comic strip images. Characters such as Superman and Popeye were among
the popular images he incorporated into designer fashion. Needless to
say, his department store windows drew a lot of attention, and Warhol
garnered a reputation for the extreme. One of Warhol's most important
developments was his use of enlarged photographic images which were
silk screened directly onto canvas and/or paper. This technique enabled
him to produce quickly and cheaply a series of mass-media images that
he marketed to the public. Iconographic objects such as Soup Cans, U.S.
Dollar Bills, Coca-Cola Bottles, as well as the various faces of
celebrities and politicians became highly sought after by art
In the late 1960s, Warhol experimented with the
medium of film exploring such rhetorical topics as time, boredom, and
repetition. He founded inter/VIEW magazine in 1969 (later changed to Interview in 1971), published The Philosophy of Andy Warhol: From A to B and Back Again and continued to produce silkscreens until his death in 1987.
2006 Warhol's World, Hauser & Wirth, London
2006 Man's Best Friend, Lococo Fine Art, St. Louis, MO
2006 Andy Warhol: Vanishing Animals, Medium SARL, Gustavia, St. Barthelemy
2005 Andy Warhol Self-Portraits, Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, Edinburgh
2004 Andy Warhol - Selbstportraits, Sprengel Museum, Hannover
2004 Kunstmuseum Liechtenstein, Vaduz
2004 The Late Andy Warhol - The Late Work, museum kunst palast, Dusseldorf
2004 Andy Warhol: Motion Pictures, Kunstwerke, Berlin
2004 Andy Warhol, Anton Kern Gallery, New York
2004 Andy Warhol - LATE PAINTINGS, Gagosian Gallery, Los Angeles
2003 Andy Warhol - The Time Capsules, Museum für Moderne Kunst, Frankfurt
2003 Warhol - Screen Tests, Museum of Modern Art, New York
2001 Retrospective, Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin
1999 Photography, The Andy Warhol Museum, Hamburg, Kunsthalle, travelled to Pittsburgh,
1998 Reframing Andy Warhol: Constructing American Myths, Heroes and Cultural Icons, University Art Gallery, Maryland
1993 Andy Warhol: Abstract, Basel, Kunsthalle, travelled to Vienna, Östereichisches Museum für Angewandte Kunst; Valencia, IVAM,
Andy Warhol Polaroids 1971 - 1986, New York, Pace/MacGill Gallery,
travelled to London, Anthony d'Offay; Paris, Durand-Dessert,
1991 Andy Warhol's Video and Television, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York
1990 Andy Warhol: Films, IVAM, Valencia
1990 Andy Warhol: Cars-The Last Pictures, Kunstmuseum, Berne
1990 The Prints of Andy Warhol, Cartier Foundation for Contemporary Art, New York
1989 Andy Warhol: A Retrospective, Hayward Gallery, London
1989 Andy Warhol: Shadow Paintings, Gagosian Gallery, New York
1976 Venice Biennale
1970 Museum of Contempary Art, Chicago
1970 Stedelijk van Abbemuseum, Eindhoven
1970 Musée d´Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris, Paris
1970 Museum of Art, Pasadena, CA, toured the US
1969 Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin
1968 Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam
1968 Moderna Museet, Stockholm
1967 Galerie Rudolf Zwirner, Cologne
1967 Ileana Sonnabend, Paris
1966 Leo Castelli Gallery, New York
1966 Institute of Contemporary Art, Boston
1965 Institute of Contemporary Art, Philadelphia
1964 Ileana Sonnabend, Paris
1964 Leo Castelli Gallery, New York
1964 Stable Gallery, New York
1963 Fetus Gallery, Los Angeles
1962 Fetus Gallery, Los Angeles
1952 Andy Warhol: Fifteen Drawings Based on the Writings of Truman Capote, Hugo Gallery, New York
|Biography from Denis Bloch Fine Art:|
|Andy Warhol was born with the name Andy Warhola in 1928 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania the son of working class Slovakian immigrants. His father was a construction worker and died in an accident when Andy was 13 years old. A sickly child and often confined to bed, Andy showed an early talent in drawing and painting. |
After high school he studied commercial art at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh. Warhol graduated in 1949 and went to New York where he worked as a commercial illustrator for magazines such as Vogue, Glamour and Harper's Bazaar. His whimsical and distinct drawing style quickly gained attention, and he enjoyed a successful career as an illustrator. The artist changed the spelling of his name in 1949 after he was credited as “Drawings by Warhol" for the article “Success is a Job in New York".
In 1952 Andy Warhol had his first one-man show at the Hugo Gallery in New York, and by 1956, he took part in an important group exhibition at the renowned Museum of Modern Art. In the early sixties Warhol started painting ordinary mass produced items like Campbell Soup cans, Brillo Boxes and Coke bottles and soon became a famous figure in the New York art scene. From 1962 on he started making silkscreen prints of famous personalities like Marilyn Monroe, Elvis Presley, Elizabeth Taylor and Jackie Kennedy among others.
The quintessence of Andy Warhol art was to remove the line between Fine Arts and the Commercial Arts used in magazine illustrations, comic books, record albums and advertising campaigns. Warhol once expressed his philosophy in one poignant sentence: "When you think about it, department stores are kind of like museums". He established The Factory, his art studio-hangout-film stage where he and his art assistants congregated with B-film actors, musicians, celebrities and the social elite all of which inspired or took part in Warhol's creative mass production process.
In June 1968 the artist was shot by Valerie Solanis—a minor figure in the in the Factory crowd who had founded a group named SCUM (Society for Cutting Up Men)—she was also its president and sole member. Warhol was seriously wounded and only narrowly escaped death spending two months in the hospital. When Solanis was arrested the day after, her words were "He had too much control over my life". Warhol never recovered completely from his wounds and had to wear a bandage around his torso for the rest of his life.
After the assassination attempt, Warhol made a radical turn in his process of producing art. The philosopher of artistic mass production now spent most of his time creating commissioned portraits of the rich and famous including Michael Jackson, Liza Minnelli and Brigitte Bardot.
Warhol's activities became more and more entrepreneurial: He created the magazine Interview and even co-owned a night-club. In 1974 the Factory was moved to 860 Broadway. In 1975 Warhol published 'THE philosophy of Andy Warhol'. In the book he describes what art is: "Making money is art, and working is art and good business is the best art." During the 1980s, Warhol collaborated with younger emerging artists such as Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat.
Andy Warhol died February 22, 1987 from complications after gall bladder surgery. More than 2,000 people attended the memorial mass held at St. Patrick's Cathedral in New York. Warhol's will dictated that his estate be used to create a foundation dedicated to the “advancement of the visual arts”. In 1987 the Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts was founded in his hometown of Pittsburgh and in 1994 the city welcomed The Andy Warhol Museum. The museum's permanent collection and archives make it the most comprehensive single-artist museum in the world.
"Don't pay any attention to what they write about you. Just measure it in inches.”
Select Museum Collections:
Museum of Modern Art, New York
Art Institute of Chicago, IL
Guggenheim Museum, New York
Getty Center, Los Angeles
National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC
Broad Art Foundation, Los Angeles
Minneapolis Institute of Art, MN
Tate Gallery, London
|Biography from Hollis Taggart Galleries (Artists, S-Z):|
|Celebrated for his depictions of unorthodox subjects such as movie stars and commercial products, Andy Warhol was instrumental in challenging the conventions of art. Paradoxically, Warhol, a painfully shy man who once said he would “like to disappear,” became as famous as the celebrities he depicted through his art and his numerous appearances in the media.|
Andy Warhol was born Andrew Warhol on August 6, 1928, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to immigrant parents from what is now Slovakia. He began creating art at a very young age and took art lessons at the Carnegie Institute between 1937 and 1941. Even at this preliminary stage, he was already working in a wide variety of media that included drawing, painting, photography, and creating projected cartoons. In 1945, Warhol attended the Carnegie Institute for Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University), where he studied pictorial design. One year later, he won an award for his drawings. He received his Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in 1949 and, immediately afterwards, moved to New York City where he roomed with his college friend, the artist Philip Pearlstein.
In New York, Warhol dropped the “a” from his last name and found work as a freelance graphic artist, producing drawings for magazines including Glamour (for which he made the celebrated illustrations for “Success is a Job in New York”), "Harper’s Bazaar," "The New Yorker," "Vogue," and "Seventeen" and advertisements, such as the shoe illustrations for I. Miller that appeared in "The New York Times" every Sunday. He was so successful as a commercial designer that his decorative, linear style became synonymous with elegance and a sophisticated, hip sensibility.
In addition to illustration, he also worked as a window decorator for such prominent stores as Tiffany & Co. and Bonwit Teller. In 1952, Warhol was recognized for his commercial work and won an Art Directors Club Medal for his newspaper advertisements. That same year, he had his first solo exhibition “Andy Warhol: Fifteen Drawings Based on the Writings of Truman Capote,” at the Hugo Gallery in New York City. Capote would become friendly with Warhol, as would many writers and artists in New York City. Yet despite the fact that they knew each other for several decades, Capote would refer to Warhol as “a sphinx without a riddle” due to his enigmatic personality and extraordinary shyness.
Between 1954 and 1955, Warhol began concentrating on establishing a career in fine art. As opposed to the muscular, painterly quality of the Abstract Expressionist art that was dominant at the time, Warhol’s drawings had a delicate, decorative quality to them. He experimented with the method that he used for creating his drawings, inventing a process that would allow him to transfer and repeat his images, as if both referencing Paul Klee’s “transfer method,” and anticipating his later use of the mechanical process of photo-silkscreening.
In 1960, Warhol began painting objects from everyday life, such as refrigerators, canned goods, and various other products. Increasingly, his subjects were derived from popular culture, as Warhol focused on painting advertisements, comic book characters, and newspaper headlines. By 1962, Warhol was producing his celebrated images of well-known commercial products, such as Campbell’s soup and Coca-Cola, and celebrities, including Marilyn Monroe, Elvis Presley, Elizabeth Taylor, and Jackie Kennedy, all rendered in what became his signature style that combined stark contours, bright colors, and an aesthetic more associated with advertising than painting.
During the 1970s, Warhol focused on becoming more entrepreneurial. Many of his portraits were commissioned by a variety of celebrities and personalities. He also founded "Interview" magazine with Gerard Malanga. In his book "The Philosophy of Andy Warhol," published in 1975, the artist acknowledges his ideas of the nature of art and how it is a potential moneymaking business. He continued with these ideals until his death in 1987. Despite the controversy around Warhol’s art, his paintings were an immediate sensation and made him one of the most famous artists of his generation.
© Copyright 2008 Hollis Taggart Galleries
|Biography from Woodward Gallery:|
|An American painter, graphic artist, film maker, Andy Warhol settled in New York in 1949, and in the 1950’s was a successful commercial artist (his shoe advertisements won a medal in 1957). In 1962, he achieved sudden notoriety with exhibited stencilled pictures of Campbell’s Soup Cans and Coca-Cola bottles. Warhol was soon the most controversial figure in American Pop art and a brilliant self promoter.|
By 1959, he had achieved such success as a graphic illustrator that Warhol ambitiously wanted to move into fine art and conquer it as well. He, perhaps predestined to gain the kind of recognition and respect of a serious fine artist, said: “I want to be Matisse!”
The silkscreen process that he favored allowed infinite replication. He was opposed to the concept of a work of art as a piece of craftsmanship, handmade for the collector and expressing the personality of the artist. Warhol wanted everybody to think alike and to be a “machine”. In keeping with this outlook, he used clippings of dehumanizing illustrations from the mass media, turned out his work like a manufacturer, and called his studio “The Factory”.
Warhol’s work is in permanent museum collections around the world. The Warhol Museum was opened in Pittsburgh in 1994 under the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh endowment.
Warhol’s 'fifteen minutes of fame' has long continued after his death. In 2002, his art was even further appreciated in the traveling exhibition "Andy Warhol: Retrospective" which was in the Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin; The Tate Museum, London; and the Los Angeles Museum of Contemporary Art, CA. The official Catalogue Raisonnae compiling all known Andy Warhol paintings is being issued in 12 parts with the first edition completed and distributed in 2002. In August 2003, The United States Postal Service honored the artist by unveiling a first class Warhol Self-Portrait stamp.
In 2008 Warhol surpassed Picasso as having the most sales of an artist's works internationally.
|Biography from Leslie Sacks Fine Art:|
|American painter, draughtsman, graphic artist and film producer Andy Warhol was born in Pennsylvania, the son of Czechoslovakian immigrant parents. He studied at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh, taking a degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts in Pictorial Design and subsequently he worked as an advertising draughtsman in New York. He had his first one-man exhibition in 1952. By the early 1960's his name was the most widely known in and outside America, and the most controversial of all the American Pop artists.|
The Pop Art movement began as a reaction against the seriousness of Abstract Expressionism. "We wanted to paint pictures so outrageous and ugly that no one would want to buy them" (Lichtenstein). Andy Warhol, along with other artists of the movement, turned away from the emphasis on emotion in favor of a hard-line realism using many common images associated with popular media. He took his subject matter from commercial "art" - magazine photographs of famous film stars, horror comics, advertisement illustration of mass-produced consumer goods, and so on - and he turned this material into fine art without destroying its character as kitsch.
At a time when enigma is one of the most sought after of aesthetic virtues, Andy Warhol has achieved the difficult feat of remaining the most enigmatic artist of all. Since he became known for his Campbell's Soup Cans and Brillo Box sculptures at the beginning of the Pop Art movement in the early sixties, critics and the public have argued about him and the success of his art. Yet of all the post-war artists, Andy Warhol has made the most obvious breaks with tradition and has shown the most single-minded consistency.
|Biography from AC Fine Art:|
|Throughout the 1950s, Andy Warhol enjoyed a successful career as a |
commercial artist, winning several commendations from the Art Director's Club and the American Institute of Graphic Arts. In these early years, he shortened his name to "Warhol".
In 1952, the artist had his first individual show at the Hugo Gallery, exhibiting Fifteen Drawings Based on the Writings of Truman Capote. His work was exhibited in several other venues during the 1950s, including his first group show at The Museum of Modern Art in 1956.
The 1960s was an extremely prolific decade for Warhol. Appropriating
images from popular culture, Warhol created many paintings that remain icons of 20th-century art, such as the Campbell's Soup Cans, Disasters and Marilyn Monroe screenprints. In addition to painting, Warhol made several 16mm films, which have become underground classics such as "Chelsea Girls", "Empire" and "Blow Job".
In 1968, Valerie Solanis, founder and sole member of SCUM (Society for
Cutting Up Men) walked into Warhol's studio, known as the Factory, and shot the artist three times in the chest. Doctors had to perform a risky procedure to stop his heart from stopping and he nearly died.
|Biography from Fineartgasm.com:|
|Andy Warhol was born Andrew Warhola in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, in 1928. In 1945, he entered the Carnegie Institute of Technology, now Carnegie Mellon University. Upon graduation, Warhol moved to New York where he found steady work as a commercial artist working for several magazines including Vogue, Harper's Bazaar and The New Yorker. |
The 1960s was an extremely prolific decade for Warhol. He created many paintings that remain icons of 20th-century art, such as the Campbell's Soup Cans, Disasters and Marilyns.
At the start of the 1970s, Warhol began publishing Interview magazine, and renewed his focus on painting. Works created in this decade include Maos, Skulls, Hammer and Sickles, Torsos and Shadows and many commissioned portraits. Firmly established as a major 20th-century artist and international celebrity, Warhol exhibited his work extensively in museums and galleries around the world.
|Biography from Acquisitions Of Fine Art:|
|Andy Warhol was an American painter, printmaker, and filmmaker who was a leading figure in the visual art movement known as pop art. After a successful career as a commercial illustrator, Warhol became famous worldwide for his work as a painter, avant-garde filmmaker, record producer, author, and member of highly diverse social circles that included Bohemian street people, distinguished intellectuals, Hollywood celebrities and wealthy patrons. |
His first portfolio of ten varying colors, with Marilyn is based on a publicity photograph by Gene Kornman for the 1953 film Niagra.
|** If you discover credit omissions or have additional information to add, please let us know at registrar@AskART.com.|