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Civil War Art


The American Civil War is typically regarded as the first major world battle that was 'observed' by the general population while it occurred. It was through the work of Civil War artists and photographers that the people of the United States and Europe were given their images of the war.

During the Civil War there were more than 10,000 terrible armed conflicts between the North and South and many prints and paintings depict particular battles. During the War, however, few artists actually drew battle scenes. Many sketched scenes of camp and quiet moments in the soldiers' army life, as few artists were close enough to see the sheer terror that soldiers experienced in battle.

Among the many highly recognized artists who have created works based on the Civil War are Conrad Wise Chapman (1842-1913), Edward Lamson Henry (1841-1919), Winslow Homer(1836-1910), James Hope (1818-1892), Eastman Johnson ((1824-1906), Theodore Kaufmann (1814-1896) Thomas Nast (1840-1902), Augustus Saint-Gaudens (1848-1907), and William Aiken Walker (1838-1921).

 

'Special Artists' and the Press

During the Civil War, families at home were intimately concerned, and demanded the earliest intelligence and particulars of the lives of their sons, and the methods of warfare. Never had there been such a demand for news, and never had a battlefield been so vast. To meet the exigencies of the situation, journalists swarmed over half a continent, pressing dangerously far forward in the competitive drive for first news. Their toll was great, and many were wounded captured, or incapacitated by diseases contracted in the field. Those journalists and artists who endured throughout the War could be numbered on one hand. Most who worked as 'special artists' were in their 20s or early 30s, and even so the conditions took a great toll on them physically.

A new feature of the press in 1861 was the illustrated weekly newspaper, which had been established as a news medium of significance around the middle of the 19th century. In the United States the first successful weekly, Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, came into being in 1855, to be followed two years later by Harper's Weekly and in 1859 by the New York Illustrated News. The work of artists employed by the newspapers were not intended for saving, and original sketches were customarily thrown out after the engravers finished with the filed drawings. It was also not infrequent that the engravers neglected to credit the field artists. For example, editorial cartoonist Thomas Nast became disliked by Winslow Homer, Alfred Waud, and others, because he was frequently stealing credit for other people's work. The fact that as much of the work of the special artists still exists to this day is somewhat amazing. Scenes from Confederate camps, are, not surprisingly, more difficult to find. The North won the war, and in the effort of the Union Armies to take over the South, much was lost to torch and looting. The works of some, such as Henri Lovie (active 1857-1863), who came from Europe to record the war effort, do however survive.

None of these illustrated papers were available to the Confederate population, however. In early 1861 all the illustrated newspapers of the United States were published in New York City, and though they had always circulated in the South, such traffic stopped in May, when mail between the warring areas was cancelled. Feeling the need for an illustrated paper, the South, after a year and a half of war, tried to remedy the deficiency by establishing the Southern Illustrated News. Unfortunately the dire economic situation of the South did not permit this publication to be very 'vivid'. They couldn't support an artist in the field, and it contained only occasional portraits and cartoons. Fortunately for posterity though, there was one newspaper artist active in the South. In 1861, Frank Vizetelly (1830-1883) having just completed the pictorial reporting of Garibaldi's campaign in Sicily and Italy, was sent by the Illustrated London News to cover the Civil War in America. Vizetelly witnessed First Bull Run and sent his paper a sketch of the Union Army in flight. This unfavorable publicity incensed the U.S. Secretary of War Stanton, who refused Vizetelly permission to accompany McClellan's impending advance in Virginia. Unthwarted, the artist cast his lot with the South, and spent the remainder of the War sketching the fortunes of the Confederate cause. More than 130 of his drawings were published in the Illustrated London News, and they comprise the principal contemporary record in pictures of the Confederate war effort.

By contrast, the three illustrated weekly papers of the North were crammed with pictures of troops in camp and in battle. At any given moment there were usually about twelve special artists active. Some of the most important special artists, in terms of the number of published works credited to them are: Alfred R. Waud (1828-1891), Arthur Lumley (1837-1912), Theodore R. Davis (1840 -1894), William T. Crane (1832-1865), Francis H, Schell (1834-1909), Edwin Forbes (1839-1895), Henri Lovie, and William Waud (1830-1878).

Arthur Lumley, who was both a landscape painter and illustrator, was the first artist sent to the Army of the Potomac by Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper to cover the Civil War. English born architect William Waud, joined his brother Alfred Waud in America and began to cover numerous art correspondent assignments in the South, including the inauguration of Jefferson Davis as President of the Confederacy. He also recorded the bombardment of Fort Sumter, making it a 'scoop' for, for Leslie's, for whom he worked. Theodore R.Davis is said to have covered more areas of the fighting than any other artist, and while working was wounded twice and had his horse shot out form under him. He worked for Harper's but traveled with a neutral British journalist, and told people he was an artist for the Illustrated London News. In this way, he also served as a spy for the North because he was able to learn much about Southern weaponry. Working for Leslie's, Edwin Forbes was one of the few artists who covered the entire war. Alfred R.Waud, (brother of the above mentioned William Waud), is particularly noted for his accuracy, and Harper's acclaimed him in 1865 as 'the most important artist-correspondent of the Civil War'.

Special artists needed to be able to infuse their drawings with a ring of authenticity, to persuade the viewer that he too was witnessing real history. The artist needed to be able to see the picturesque essentials of the scenes or incidents he was employed to sketch. He needed to be a man whose mind was open to broad impressions, and with the ability to invest bare facts with charm and spirit. The artists didn't need to be great colorists, nor first-rate draughtsmen, but if they were both, it was all the better. What was absolutely necessary was that they be able to sketch both rapidly and accurately, and only few were able to do this. It was also necessary for them to be on hand for the newsworthy event, to intuitively know when to be where. Obviously this entailed daring and enterprise, as duty called them to all sorts of dangerous places.

Special artists were most numerous in Virginia, always the most vital theater, with the largest concentration of troops, and the majority of the readers of the weeklies in the Northeast were principally concerned with this area where their sons and friends were most likely to be fighting. It never seems to have been established that the press had a right to practice its profession in the field, this determination being left to the commander of each jurisdiction. The special artist had to fend for himself, since there was no established provision for his maintenance, and that included the need for a horse. Though a civilian, the status of the special artist, in relation to the enemy, was that of a combatant, and if captured, his was imprisoned. Special artists were actually at times combatants, and on occasion used their professional talents in service of the military, as in a sketch Alfred Waud made at the request of General Meade for use by signal officers.

Mail was the usual way of getting the drawing from the field back to the newspaper office, but there were other methods, from commercial and private express-messenger services, to friends going in the right direction. Creases are still evident on many drawings from having been folded to the size of an envelope.

Started in 1857, Harper's Weekly: A Journal of Civilization, was the creation of Fletcher Harper, one of the four original Harper brothers who founded the famous printing and publishing house that bore their name. It was his intention to publish a high quality weekly newspaper, featuring literature and a few pictures that were suitable for family reading. By the end of its first year, however, the Weekly had become an illustrated publication. With the outbreak of the Civil War, circulation increased, thereby establishing the Weekly's influence as a national power and its reputation as one of the leading illustrated newspapers in the country. Though the editorial stance tended to have a Northern point-of-view, its pictorial coverage of the war was balanced in its depiction of battles, personages and events. Some have said, in fact, that it was this honesty (along with the photographic images of Matthew Brady) that permitted President Lincoln to come to understand the ineffectiveness of his early generals. Throughout the war, Harper's Weekly sent numerous artists to the front to cover the action. Some of the artists who worked for Harper's were Jasper Green (1829-1910), Winslow Homer (1836-1910), Henry Mosler (1841-1920), Thomas Nast, Allen C. Redwood (1844-1922), William H. Shelton (1840-1932), David ('Porte Crayon') H. Strother (1816-1888).

One of the leading figures in American art, Winslow Homer was a Civil War illustrator for Harper's in 1861 and 1862, filling his sketch book with informal studies of uniforms, weapons, and daily activities of individual soldier. From this period he gleaned subject matter that ultimately became some of the outstanding paintings of the Civil War.

David ('Porte Crayon') Strother, who was affiliated with Harper's for nearly 25 years, was likely the best-known graphic artist in the United States at the time of the Civil War. Violently opposed to secession, Strother played a key map-making role in guiding Union forces through the South.

The influence of these artists for Harper's and other publications cannot be understated. For example, Thomas Nast, one of the foremost political cartoonists of his time, was a great supporter of Abraham Lincoln and the Union, and Lincoln considered him crucial for influencing men to join the Northern forces, calling him 'our best recruiting agent'. After the war Nast was nationally famous, and his criticism of Andrew Johnson was a key factor in Ulysses S.Grant winning the presidency.

The Civil War and the Art of the South

For many years, the history of the fine art of the South was not well known, either ignored, or thought to have been a victim of the war's devastation. Northern art journals of the 1800, both before and after the Civil War, were almost all published in New York, and rarely paid much attention to the art of the South. It is true, however, that much art was lost as a result of the War. For example, the destruction of Columbia, South Carolina, caused the loss of great houses such as Millwood, and entire art collections there were lost.

Numerous painters were active in the South prior to the Civil War, but during the War, many cities, such as Savannah, Georgia, appear to have been devoid of artistic activity, although in 1867 Alfred Gustin (active 1867) established himself as the one professional painter in that city.

Before the War, few landscape painters of significance lived in Charleston, but well known as a portraitist was Edward Caledon Bruce (1825-1900), a staunch supporter of the Confederacy. During the Confederacy Bruce had painted portraits in Richmond, Virginia, before moving to Charleston in 1854. His most famous likeness is of Robert E. Lee, painted from life in Richmond, and this work sustained the artist's reputation for the rest of his life.

The previously mentioned graphic artist, David ('Porte Crayon') Hunter Strother is West Virginia's most famous artist. Until the Civil War, Martinsburg, West Virginia, his birthplace, remained his home. Like many southern genre and figure painters and illustrators, black subjects fascinated Strother. He later lived in Berkeley Springs until being appointed Consul General to Mexico in 1879.

Richmond, Virginia

As the Confederate capital from 1861, Richmond, Virginia, enjoyed a spectacular concentration of social and cultural activities during the Civil War, despite its proximity to the front lines. Ironically, there had never before been such a gathering of so many talented painters and sculptors. Included among these were William James Hubard (1807-1862), John Adams Elder (1833-1895), and William Ludwell Sheppard (1833-1912). Sheppard spent his whole life in Richmond, and at the onset of the war sketched soldiers in the field, beginning the work that led him to illustration, for which he is best known. His illustrations appeared in Harpers', Leslie's and Appleton's magazines. In postbellum years, Sheppard developed increased interest in black life, as shown in his painting, 'Master and Servant (Man Praying for a Sick Negro)'.

Perhaps the most significant figure painter in Richmond during the Confederacy was William D.Washington (1833-1870). He painted military scenes and several major historical pieces, including 'Jackson Entering Winchester', as well as the painting that brought him the most fame, 'The Burial of Latane' (1864). A memorial to the only Confederate killed in Jeb Stuart's 1862 sweep around McClellan's army, this painting became an icon of heroism, self-sacrifice, and feminine endurance.

Louis-Mathieu-Didier Guillaume (1816-1892) lived in Richmond during the war, and was probably the best-trained portraitist in the city at that time and during the early days of the Reconstruction. His best known work is 'Surrender of General Lee to General Grant, April 9, 1865', which seems to have been based on photographs, although he is said to have been present at the event. He also completed six equestrian portraits of Confederate leaders, and these are regarded as some of his most lively pictures.

Charleston

Conrad Wise Chapman (1842-1910), was the son of the Alexandria, Virginia, painter John Gadsby Chapman. The younger Chapman had emigrated to Rome with his family in 1848, but being fiercely pro-South, returned to America in 1861 at nineteen. He joined the rebel forces in Kentucky and participated in the Siege of Vicksburg before being transferred back to his native Virginia in 1862, and then in 1863 to Charleston, where he was detailed to sketch the city's fortifications. These sketches were the basis for a remarkable series of thirty-one oil paintings, which he painted in Rome, depicting the forts and batteries, and were his most notable artistic achievement, as well as holding great historical significance.

Perhaps the greatest of all Confederate landscapes was painted by John Ross Key (1837-1920), a fellow Confederate along with Conrad Chapman. Key served in the 1850s with the United States Coastal Survey, demonstrating talent in drawing and mapmaking, before he joined the Confederacy at the outbreak of the war. He served in Charleston, drawing maps of the city and its harbor, and painting scenes of Fort Sumter. His work 'The Bombardment of Fort Sumter', a painting depicting the opening battle of the Civil War, and formerly attributed to Albert Bierstadt, is considered Keys' masterpiece, and some would argue the finest Confederate historical landscape and even Southern landscape of the 19th century. Beyond its historical significance, it is a remarkable Luminist panorama.

Also serving in Charleston during the war was William Aiken Walker (1838-1921), who was a member of the Confederate Engineer Corps. From his sketches of the bombardment, he made oil paintings, as well as painting several small scenes of the destruction within the city of Charleston and images of poor southern blacks.

Other Confederate Artists

Noted for his historical paintings, many based on Civil War events, is Henry Arthur McArdle (1836-1908). Irish born, McArdle moved in 1850 to Baltimore. He was a Confederate sympathizer and admirer of Robert E.Lee, and during the Civil War served as a draftsman for the Confederate Navy. After the war, he and his wife moved to Texas for his health, and there he focused on his historic works. His first major piece was Lee at the Wilderness, depicting the campaign in West Virginia.

 

William Henry Huddle (1847-1892) of Virginia, was another artist who spent time in Texas following the war, painting portraits in Austin.

Northern Views

The New York State Museum administers an outstanding collection of the works of Edward Lamson Henry (1841-1919), one of the country's most popular and prolific genre artists at the end of the nineteenth century. Born in Charleston, SC, and with family connections in the South, he was however raised in New York City, where he was taken at age seven, having been orphaned. Perhaps he felt compelled to create his images of soldiers, horses, wagons, and accoutrements of the war to 'show his colors'. Perhaps he toyed with the idea of becoming a 'special artist'. Many of his Civil War images were sketched on-site 'from nature'. As a youthful artist, Henry experienced the Civil War in the autumn of 1864 when he served briefly as a captain's clerk aboard a Union Quartermaster's supply transport on the James River in Virginia. In a series of penciled war sketches and pastel crayon studies, he documented behind-the-lines scenes of a Federal occupation force during the siege of Petersburg. Henry, with General Ulysses S.Grant in 1864, had observed Union troops bivouacked in front of Westover, an elegant mansion of the James River country of Virginia. Four years later he painted the scene in 'Old Westover Mansion' (1869), showing the stately brick mansion with its chimneys tumbling, windows smashed, and shutters swinging from their hinges, all speaking of the desolation of war. His images of the confiscated, fortified plantation houses of Westover and Berkeley combine with studies of the sprawling Union supply depot at City Point to chronicle some of the non-combat side of soldiering. Following the Civil War, his paintings of domestic life appealed to an audience nostalgic for idyllic images of a vanishing America, an America unsullied by growing technology and the effects of the devastating War.

After the war, a group of Bostonians raised funds to commission a monument in honor of the Massachusetts Fifty-Fourth Regiment and its contributions. Immortalized today by the film, Glory, the Massachusetts Fifty-Fourth Regiment and its black soldiers were renowned in its own era for bravery and sacrifice during the Civil War. Recruited by the governor of Massachusetts within weeks of President Lincoln's issue of the Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863, the black men of the Fifty-Fourth and their white colonel, the young Bostonian Robert Gould Shaw, first met doubts and resentment about their fitness for military combat. In addition, the Confederate Congress issued a chilling proclamation: that African Americans captured in uniform would be sold into slavery, and white officers of such troops, executed. Recruitment in the North was stirred, however, by accounts of the regiment's sacrifices, and by war's end it is noted that not only the Fifty-Fourth Regiment, but 180,000 African Americans had fought for the Union. Lincoln believed that their contribution had tipped the scales toward the North's eventual victory.

Sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens (1848-1907) created the tribute to the Massachusetts Fifty-Fourth in the form of a colossal relief sculpture. Saint-Gaudens made forty studies of the heads of black men willing to pose for him. To achieve some of his highly realistic effects, he also tethered a horse in his studio as a model. The artist's meticulous process and the challenge of combining many figures took a great deal of time. The slow development of the Shaw Memorial infuriated its original financial backers, some of whom died before its completion. Ever since its dedication on Memorial Day, May 31, 1897, however, the Shaw Memorial has stood on Boston Common as a reminder of how the valor and sacrifice of individuals helped bring the country out of slavery.

Eastman Johnson (1824-1996) who was born and raised in southwestern Maine, created numerous paintings from the Civil War years. In 1858 he established a New York studio, where he completed Negro Life at the South, acclaimed at the National Academy of Design the following year and with which he established his reputation. A champion of black Americans in the South, and during the War painted 'The Wounded Drummer Boy', based on an incident at the battle of Antietam, which became a national favorite. Throughout the following decade he continued to create paintings with African-American subjects, such as A Ride for Liberty --The Fugitive Slaves. At the same time he developed a reputation for domestic subjects, which became his main source of income, and cultivated a circle of patrons that included some of the city's most prominent collectors. Johnson became, by the end of the decade, one of New York City's most respected and popular artists.

Slavery, Black Subjects, and Black Artists

Issues of race and slavery were of course inextricably entwined with those of the Civil War, states rights, and the expansion of the country, and varying viewpoints are evident in paintings of that time. A romanticized scene by Eyre Crow (1824-1910) shows slaves, dressed in their best, waiting to be sold in 'Slave Market in Richmond, Virginia' (1852). Another perspective is a depiction of slaves escaping in the painting 'On to Liberty' (1867), by Theodore Kaufmann (1814-1896), showing slave women leading their children to freedom; or Thomas Moran's (1837-1926) 1863 work 'Slaves Escaping Through the Swamp', showing bloodhounds close in on two runaway slaves. Yet another image is that of 'The Bone Player' (1856), by William Sidney Mount (1807-1868), showing an entertainer who was a successful freeman of color.

During the Civil War, the United States Colored Troops (USCT) played a significant part. Although many of the USCT soldiers were free men before the war, numbers were former slaves who either volunteered or were forced to serve in the Union Army. Over 178,000 colored troops served in the Union Army. The African-American Civil War Memorial in Washington, DC, is the first national memorial dedicated to the black soldiers who fought in the Civil War. The Union's patriotic emblems are included in the painting, 'Emancipation Proclamation' (1863), by A. A. Lamb (active 1864). Slavery was not officially abolished, however, until 1865, when the 13th amendment was ratified.

Among freemen, several academically trained African American artists were themselves working in New England and other areas prior to the Civil War. Included in this group were New Yorker Patrick Reason (1817-1856), William H. Simpson (1818-1872), Philadelphian Robert Douglass, and New Orleans and Paris based Eugene Warburg (1826-1859) and his brother Daniel Warburg. Baltimore based portraitist Joshua Johnston (1765-1830), also wrote his name as Joshua Johnson. He is thought to be self-taught and was reportedly America's first professional black artist who was a free man. Robert S. Duncanson (1821-1872), working in Cincinnati, Ohio, as well as in Michigan, is noted for his dreamy, pastoral scenes that recalled Hudson River aesthetics. These artists' works were indistinguishable from those of their white counterparts, perhaps because their commissions and audience were predominately white.

Paintings of Battles

Countless paintings have also reflected the toll of the Civil War's battles. The Battle of Gettysburg, a huge painting by James Walker (1819-1889), shows some of the battle's carnage and confusion during General Pickett's disastrous charge. David Blythe (1815-1865) also depicted the drama of Gettysburg in his classic war painting that he painted in 1863. Blythe is also noted for his allegorical oil 'Lincoln Crushing the Dragon of Rebellion' (1862). Another large battle scene is 'The Army of the Potomac' (1863), by James Hope (1818-1892). Marine battles were recorded by Xanthus R. Smith (1839-1929) and Mauritz F. DeHaas (1832-1895), among others.

Genre

Thomas Waterman Wood (1823-1903) is noted for his paintings documenting the black transition from slavery to freedom. Originally from Vermont, he moved to Baltimore where he turned from portraiture to genre, and became known for his images of Baltimore blacks. Wood resettled in Nashville, where he remained for three years until the war caused him to move beyond the fields of battle to Louisville, Kentucky, in 1862. One of his strongest works is 'A Southern Cornfield, Nashville, Tennessee', which depicts several generations of black workers in a dignified, rather than sentimental, manner.

Winslow Homer, as previously mentioned in relation to 'special artists', recorded life on the battlefront in the 1860s as a pictorial reporter for Harper's Weekly. He covered the siege of Petersburg toward the end of the Civil War. Perhaps the most famous of the artists who painted in southern Virginia, Homer again painted in Petersburg in 1875. It seems it was the subjects he found there that compelled him to return, and some of his most poignant works were done at that time. They offer testimony to the social hierarchy and to the poverty of the blacks following the War. His work, 'Prisoners from the Front' (1865) is a depiction of the life he witnessed at the front lines, as is 'The Letter Home' (1867), showing a wounded soldier dictating a letter home in a romantic woodland locale. During the Civil War, women were rarely allowed as nurses, but were able to visit the wounded to read and write letters. 'Home, Sweet Home' (1863) is a picture of two soldiers who appear weary and bored with life.

Winslow Homer, as previously mentioned in relation to 'special artists', recorded life on the battlefront in the 1860s as a pictorial reporter for Harper's Weekly. He covered the siege of Petersburg toward the end of the Civil War. Perhaps the most famous of the artists who painted in southern Virginia, Homer again painted in Petersburg in 1875. It seems it was the subjects he found there that compelled him to return, and some of his most poignant works were done at that time. They offer testimony to the social hierarchy and to the poverty of the blacks following the War. His work, 'Prisoners from the Front' (1865) is a depiction of the life he witnessed at the front lines, as is 'The Letter Home' (1867), showing a wounded soldier dictating a letter home in a romantic woodland locale. During the Civil War, women were rarely allowed as nurses, but were able to visit the wounded to read and write letters. 'Home, Sweet Home' (1863) is a picture of two soldiers who appear weary and bored with life.

Henry Mosler (1841-1920), the son of German immigrants, settled in Cincinnati and became known for his historical works, including 'The Lost Cause', a Civil War scene.

Charles T. Webber (1825-1911), who became a well-known portraitist in Cincinnati, is noted for his historical works, including several done during the War. His most famous canvas is 'The Underground Railroad' (1891-93), depicting events of around 1858, and including figures that can be identified as prominent Cincinnati abolitionists.

Gilbert Gaul (1855-1919) was a Tennessee painter known for his genre scenes. His early military training helped him to secure his reputation as an illustrator of military and Western scenes, including successful oil paintings reconstructing Civil War battles. He spent time studying and working in New York, but later settled in Tennessee, where he recorded the mores of rural life: blacks and whites farming, picking cotton, and homesteading.

The Postbellum South

In many former Confederate states, postbellum life attracted the attention of a number of painters, among them Edwin M. Gardner (active 1873-75), Winslow Homer, and Thomas Eakins (1844-1916), and Edward Lamson Henry.

Unprecedented industrial expansion followed the Civil War, filling burgeoning cities such as New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, and St. Louis. The demands of the Civil War had increased American output and set the nation on the road to becoming with world's industrial leader by the end of the 19th century. While some regarded these changes with optimism, others belief in the future had been shaken by the rivalries of the War. This profound shock to the national sensibility can be detected in sensitive and lonely landscapes of the Luminists. Ominous thunderstorms overwhelm small boats and even smaller people, helpless in the elements, suggesting artist's despair at the fate of the nation.

Luminism, which for the most part had run its course by 1870, formed a transition between two very different visions of the relationship between man and the world around him. One view was that of the Hudson River School painters, for whom nature was the physical manifestation of a higher spiritual being, and man was a special creature. A later generation, led by Winslow Homer and Thomas Eakins was deeply affected by Darwin's theories and the social developments they saw around them. In his work 'The Morning Bell' (1866), Homer invites us to ponder the nature of a society that sends young girls out of the morning sunlight to toil in gloomy factories. The moody and brooding qualities of such later painters make one wonder if they were not commenting on the country's painful process of Civil War, Reconstruction, and industrial upheaval. The American Republic itself had moved from youthful optimism to its inevitable position of a maturing nation with complex psychological and aesthetic needs.

Contemporary Artists

Contemporary painters continue to focus their attention on Civil War subjects. Among the many are Connecticut artist Don Troiani (1949-) a painter and collector of historical artifacts, and Texan John P. Strain (1955-). Michael Anthony Brown, John Nelson,and Laurence Hurst specialize in depictions of the contributions of black soldiers during the Civil War. New York artist Morton Kunstler (1931-) was commissioned by CBS to do a painting for the television series 'Blue and Gray', and also created the U.S. postal stamp commemorating the Buffalo Soldiers of the Civil War. South Carolina artist John W. Jones has created colorful acrylic canvases inspired by pro-slavery images that had appeared on 1850s Confederate currency.

 

Credit for portions of the above information is given to the book 'The Civil War, A Centennial Exhibition of Eyewitness Drawings' by the National Gallery of Art.

If you have information to contribute on this subject, contact us via email: registrar@AskART.com





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