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Art Glossary Terms: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

TermDescription

E.P. Taylor Research Library

Located at the Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto, it began informally in 1906, and was actualized in 1933 through the stimulus of a grant and donation of 200 books from the Carnegie Foundation, Pittsburgh, PA. Its collection now includes over 165,000 volumes for general art information and in-depth research in the history of art; over 50,000 sales and auction catalogues; over 40,000 documentation files on Canadian art and artists; and rare books from the 16th to the 21st centuries; as well as photographs, multimedia, digital and microform collections. The Library is a leading Canadian study centre for advanced research in art history. It is open to the visiting public, and the museum and academic communities at large. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke; Source: E.P. Taylor Research Library & Archives – http://www.ago.net/research-library-archives-overview.

Eagle's Nest Art Colony

A group of Chicago artists and writers, they decided to remain in the Chicago area after the Columbian Exposition of 1893 to encourage each others' art endeavors. To escape the heat and overcrowded city, they spent summers at a farm in Bass Lake, Indiana, but an outbreak of malaria led them to look for a new location. Chicago attorney Wallace Heckman, an arts patron, offered them the use of his summer estate, Ganymede Farm near Oregon, Illinois in Ogle County along the Rock River. Colony representatives signed a lease with him in the summer of 1898, and the document was in force as long as one of the founding members remained alive. Ralph Clarkson, the last member, died in 1942. The colony was called "Eagles' Nest," referring to a tall, dead cedar tree that clung to the high riverbank. For nearly 50 years, Eagles' Nest was a popular home for creative people. The original group included painters Ralph Clarkson, Charles Francis Browne and Oliver Dennet Grove; writers Hamlin Garland, Henry B. Fuller and Horace Spencer Fiske; architects Irving D. and Allen B. Pond; sculptors Lorado Taft and Nellie Walker; organist Clarence Dickinson; and University of Chicago Secretary James Spencer Dickerson. Although sculptor Taft was the moving spirit behind the colony, it continued to flourish until 1942, six years after his death. About a year after the last of the artists and their families left the colony, Illinois' Gov. Lowden died, and the former Eagles' Nest land was purchased as a memorial park. Sources: www.niu.edu/taft/eagles.htm; www.oregonil.com/library-art-collection.html; Betty Madden, "The Eagle's Nest Art Colony Collection"

Early Christian Art

A term to describe art, it was used to make the distinction of Christian Art from Byzantine Art. The focus was on the message rather than the creative abilities of the artists, which has led many critics to regard the expression as inferior to the Classicism of its predecessors. Early Christian Art had its own iconography. Its sculptors were were known for their elaborately carved sargophagi and ivories, and the two-dimensional artists did paintings in catacombs, mosaics and manuscript illuminations. Source: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"

Early English Style

A style of English Gothic architecture, it was prevalent from 1190 to 1280 AD. Characteristic was the lancet style window, meaning it did not have a dividing vertical structure between the panes of glass. Source: Julia M Ehresmann, "The Pocket Dictionary of Art Terms"

Early Modern Before 1950

An umbrella term descriptive of abstract styles introduced in America, it references a period beginning with the 1913 Armory Show in New York City. The Show introduced modernist or abstract styles from Europe including Cubism and Constructivism. These influences encouraged American artists to experiment with a variety of styles beyond the prevalent Realism and Impressionism.

Earth Art/Earthworks

A work of art, it is made either from sod or earth or resulting from modification of a portion of land. The first exhibition of Earth Art was in 1968 in New York City and had entries mostly composed of natural materials as mediums. Included were a pile of dirt by Robert Morris and boxes filled with rocks by Robert Smithson. Earth Art proved radical because from that time, many of its exponents actually went into the environment, often in remote places, and created landscape-altering works. Some of these projects have had permanent effects on the land such as Michael Heizer's "Nevada Depressions," a series of trenches in the desert. In another work, "Double Negative" of 1969 and 1970, Heiser, worked near the Virgin River Mesa in Nevada, and using bulldozers, displaced 240,000 tons of dirt. He called the result "Double Negative". Some Earth Art is impermanent such as Dennis Oppenheim's patterns in snow or the wrapping in plastic and rope of the Australia coastline in 1969 by Javacheff and Jeanne-Claude Christo. A common desire shared by Earth Artists has been to circumvent the gallery-museum-collector pattern and to demonstrate interest in ecology and geology. Today the movement has gone in many directions and even claims an early 20th-century forbear, Gustom Borglum, who carved the presidential portraits in Mount Rushmore. In addition to those already mentioned, Earth Artists include Herbert Bayer, Isamu Noguchi, Del Geist, Andrew Leicester, Alan Saret, Claes Oldenberg, Carl Andre, Sol LeWitt and Walter De Maria. Sources: "The Britannica Encyclopedia of American Art; AskART.com database

Earth Colors

Pigments that exist naturally in the earth, they are in the form of clays, rocks or earths, for example yellow ochre, terra verte, umber and Venetian red that derive from metal oxide. Source: Julia M Ehresmann, "The Pocket Dictionary of Art Terms"

Earthenware

Ceramic ware, it is usually coarse, opaque and reddish in color, fired in the lowest temperature ranges, under 2,000F. It is used for domestic ware, glazed, or unglazed. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Easel

A freestanding device, it is for holding the ground (panel, canvas, etc.) upon which an artist paints. A studio easel usually has a rectangular base and an adjustable tray and grips to hold the ground. A sketching or field easel is generally lighter in weight, smaller and portable with folding capacity. Most of them have three legs, with two of the same length in the front and a longer back leg. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Easel Picture

Any small painting created at an easel, it is usually done with the intent of framing. Sometimes, however, the work remains unframed and displayed on the easel, and then is called a Cabinet Picture. Source: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"

East Los Streetscapers

One of the first groups to begin the muralist movement amongst Chicanos in southern California in the 1970s, they also did multi-media work including sculpture and tile making. Founders were Wayne Alaniz Healy and Paul Botella. Source: website of The Target Corporation: http://pressroom.target.com/pr/news/community/arts/chicano

East Village

A reference to East Greenwich Village artists, it pertained to the mid and early 1980s when it was transitioning with experimental art and galleries from a working class neighborhood to gentrification. Through artists such as Andy Warhol and Jean-Michel Basquiat, and styles of Pop Art, Graffiti Art Performance Art, Neo Geo, etc., the message was that art was embracing capitalistic commerce and turning away from publicly funded support. However, the mid 1980s saw the demise of the movement when many galleries moved to SoHo where rents were cheapers and buyers more active. Source: Robert Atkins, "Art Speak"

Eastern Group of Painters

Founded as a collective in Montreal, Quebec in 1938 by artists, its purpose was the promotion of painting primarily for aesthetic reasons---art for art's sake. It was a reaction against a perceived prevalent assertion that art should be to promote nationalism. It was also a reaction against the publicity dominance of the Group of Seven. Eastern Group members included Alexander Bercovitch, Eric Goldberg, Jor Smith and John Lyman. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Group_of_Painters

Ebauche

A word with two meanings, it is the first coat of underpainting in an oil painting or an oil sketch for a finished painting, especially for a proposed portrait. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Ecce Home

Latin for "Behold the Man", the term often appears in Renaissance Art in crucifixion scenes when Jesus Christ, wearing tattered robes, is presented to the Jews by Pontius Pilate before Jesus is crucified. Pontius Pilate replies: "Ecce Home". Source: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"; Julia M Ehresmann, "The Pocket Dictionary of Art Terms"

Ecclectic

See Ecclecticism

Ecclecticism, Ecclectic

A theory that a painter should select the best from schools and teachers and then choose and combine into one's own artwork. Traditionally Ecclecticism has been said to have been promoted by the Carraci family in the late 16th Century at the Academy of Bologna, Italy. However, some scholars have challenged that attribution as the origin. Ecclectic is a term used to describe the process whereby an artist borrows features and ideas from a variety of respected sources and combines them in his/her art. Source: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"; Julia M Ehresmann, "The Pocket Dictionary of Art Terms"

Echoppe

An oval beveled needle, it is used for etching and line engraving. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Ecole des Arts Decoratifs

Located at Rue d'Ulm in Paris, France, the school was a major influence in the Art Deco movement of the 1920s. Its teaching curriculum includes fashion, textiles, engraving, animation and industrial design. Its beginning goes back to 1766 when French painter Jean-Jacques Bacheler (1724-1806) got a patent for the founding of the school from Louis XV. Bacheler's purpose was to offer training in applying creative art to manufactured goods. The name until 1877 was Royal Free School of Art (Ecole Royale Gratuite de Dessin). Among its alumni are Fernand Leger, Leon Dabo, Alain Seguin and Jean-Claude Denis. Source: Wikipedia: "Ecole nationale superieure des arts decoratifs"

Ecole des Beaux Arts, Paris

The term, Ecole des Beaux Arts, in general usage refers to 'schools of fine art' in France, of which the most famous is the Ecole Nationale Superieure des Beaux Arts, which has also held the name of Ecole des Beaux Arts, and Academie des Beaux Arts. (Other Ecoles des Beaux Arts are located at Dijon, Bourges, and Nancy.) History of the Ecole Nationale is tied to the first school name, Academie des Beaux Arts, established in 1648 by Cardinal Mazarin to educate the most talented art students. Located on the left bank across from the Louvre, it was, for many years, the official state institution to maintain high fine-art standards in France. Louis XIV selected graduates to decorate Versailles. Rules of learning included rigid classical studies, drawing and sculpting from "antique" models, and adhering to certain standards about geometric proportion, perspective, and rendering of anatomy. The "Ecole" closed in 1793 under the chaos caused by rebelling artists led by Jacques-Louis David. It re-opened in 1816, and in 1863 became independent from the government. Women were first admitted in 1897. Many Americans have studied there, especially from the mid-19th through early 20th centuries. Among American students have been Robert Henri, Louise Bourgeois, Alexander Archipenko, Gutzom Borglum, Thomas Eakins and John Singer Sargent. Sources: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"; AskART database; Wikipedia

Ecole Des Beaux-Arts, Montreal

The Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Montréal (Montreal School of Fine Arts) was founded in 1922. Edmond Dyonnet, Alfred Laliberté and Marc-Aurele de Foy Suzor-Cote were instrumental in persuading the Quebec Provincial Government to create the school. Charles Maillard was its first director, serving from 1923 to 1944. It offered courses in architecture and fine arts to train painters, sculptors, decorators and designers for trade and industry, as well as teachers for arts education. In 1969, it was among several schools that were merged to form the University of Quebec at Montreal. The Ecole des Beaux-Arts alumni include some of Canada’s greatest artists such as Goodridge Roberts, Jean Paul Riopelle, Marian Scott, Guido Molinari, Stanley Cosgrove, Paul Emile Borduas, Pegi Nicol MacLeod, Jean Paul Lemieux, Fernand Leduc and Rita Letendre. Sources: The University of Quebec at Montreal and “Painting in Canada: a history” (1966), by J. Russell Harper. Contributed by M.D. Silverbrooke.

Ecole Nationale Superieure des Arts Decoratifs

See Ecole des Arts Decoratifs

Ecorche

Any painted, sculpted, or drawn figure depicting the muscles of the human body without skin. Practiced by Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472, Italian), a theorist and Renaissance architect. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Ectype

A copy of an original such as a lithograph proof from the artist's drawing on a stone. The term also pertains to a painting that is a direct copy from an original. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Edgefield Stoneware

Named for a 19th-century pottery operation in the Edgefield District in southwestern South Carolina, the company was founded by Lewis Miles who used slave labor and took advantage of the rich deposits of clay and kaolin. Cherokee Indians and American colonists had earlier taken advantage and shown the area's pottery potential. Miles' chief artist was a skilled African-American who, after emancipation, took the surname of Drake. Pots made by him are often signed "L. Miles and Dave" followed by a date and sometimes poetry by Dave. In the 21st century, "Edgefield pottery in general and Dave's work in particular--is widely recognized as evocative evidence of life in antebellum South Carolina." Source: John M. Bryan, "Magazine Antiques", July 2008, p. 40.

Edith Halpert Gallery

See Downtown Gallery

Edition

In bronze sculpture and printmaking, it is the number of pieces/images made from a single mold/plate and authorized by the artist.

Egg Tempera

Paint for which egg yolk is the binder, it is mixed with water and pigment, and when exposed to air and sunlight, it becomes very durable. The process is from the ancient Egyptians whose sarcophagi are decorated with egg tempera that is still intact today. It is very fast drying so does not lend itself to blending very well. Egg tempera was the primary form of painting until the introduction of oils in the 15th century. At first, and in some cases still today, oils were painted over the tempera painting to enhance the darker colors. Some of the more famous painters to use egg tempera in the 20th and 21st centuries have been Andrew Weyth, Robert Vickery, and Paul Cadmus. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon , "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"

Egyptian Art

Art from ancient Egypt, it dates from about 3200 BC to 332 BC when Alexander the Great conquered Egypt. Most of the items were funereal and from the tombs of the Pharoahs--the Pyramids. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Eight Masters of Nanjing

A group of 17th century Chinese painters, they lived in Nanjing and were leaders of the Nanjing School. Members were Gong Xian, Fan Qi, Ye Xin, Zou Zhe, Gao Cen, Hu Zao, Wu Hong and Xie Sun. Source: Wikipedia

Eight, The

An influential and innovative American group of eight artists, members were Arthur Davies; Maurice Prendergast; Ernest Lawson; Robert Henri (the unofficial leader); George Luks; William J. Glackens; John Sloan and Everett Shinn. Later, George Wesley Bellows became an associate. Officially formed in 1907, the artists had been associated since the 1880s in Philadelphia. They shared the common goal of rebelling against the sentimental genre scenes of the popular American painters and the rigid academic tradition imported from Europe. The Eight, not to be confused with the Ash Can School, held only one exhibition as a group, and this event was at the Macbeth Gallery in New York City in 1908. Source: Matthew Baigell, "Dictionary of American Art"

Eisner Awards

With the full name of Will Eisner Awards, they are given at the annual Comic-Con International convention in San Diego to recognize especially skilled comic book professionals. They were created in 1987 as a successor to Kirby Awards, which were discontinued that year. There are 34 categories with winners being nominated by a five-member panel, and then voted on by selected comic book professionals. The most prestigious among the awards is the Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame. Recipients in that category include Chester Gould, Georges Herriman, Al Capp and Harvey Kurtzman. Source: Word IQ; Wikipedia

Electrum

A natural gold or silver alloy, it is pale gold and used for jewelry making. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Eleusinian Marble

Black marble, it is from Attica, Greece and was popular in ancient Greece for decoration such as friezes and interiors. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Elgin Marbles

'Elgin Marbles' is a popular term that in its widest use may refer to the collection of stone objects - sculptures, inscriptions and architectural features - acquired by Lord Elgin during his time as ambassador to the Ottoman court of the Sultan in Istanbul. More specifically, and more usually, it is used to refer to those sculptures, inscriptions and architectural features that he acquired in Athens between 1801 and 1805. These objects were purchased by the British Parliament from Lord Elgin in 1816 and presented by Parliament to the British Museum. The collection includes sculptures from the Parthenon, roughly half of what now survives: 247 feet of the original 524 feet of frieze; 15 of 92 metopes; 17 figures from the pediments, and various other pieces of architecture. It also includes objects from other buildings on the Acropolis: the Erechtheion, the Propylaia, and the Temple of Athena Nike. In the nineteenth century, the term 'Elgin Marbles' was used to describe the collection, which was housed in the Elgin Room at the British Museum, completed in 1832, where it remained until the Duveen Gallery (Room 18) was built. Material from the Parthenon was dispersed both before and after Elgin's time. The remainder of the surviving sculptures that are not in Athens are in museums in various locations across Europe. The British Museum also has other fragments from the Parthenon acquired from collections that have no connection with Lord Elgin. Source: The British Museum -http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/article_index/w/what_are_the_elgin_marbles.aspx

Elizabeth Greenshields Foundation Award

Charles G. Greenshields of Montreal established The Elizabeth Greenshields Foundation in 1955, in memory of his mother. The foundation aids worthy artists who need further training or other assistance during the early stages of their careers. Awards are limited to candidates working in painting, drawing, printmaking and sculpture. Work must be representational or figurative – abstract or non-representational art is precluded by the terms of the Foundation's Charter. The Foundation will also not accept applications from commercial artists, photographers, video artists, filmmakers, craftmakers, or any artist whose work falls primarily into these categories. To be eligible for a grant, candidates are required to have already started or completed training in an established school of art and/or demonstrate, through past work and future plans, a commitment to making art a lifetime career. Each grant is $12,500 (Canadian). The Foundation welcomes applications throughout the year; applicants from any country are welcome, and there is no deadline for sending the application form. Previous awardees include Tib Beament, Steven Assael and Esther Wertheimer. Sources: The Elizabeth Greenshields Foundation – http://www.elizabethgreenshieldsfoundation.org/main.html; and VSA – http://www.vsarts.org/x1805.xml. Prepared and contributed by M.D. Silverbrooke.

Ellipse Guide

A template for commercial art and architectural drawing for drawing oval shapes. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Embossing

A technique of creating raised figures or relief designs on a surface. The method is to stamp the surface with a pair of matched dies in a press. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Embrittlement

A term referring to the loss of flexibility and dryness of a ground or support for a painting. Reportedly linen has the least chance of this damage occurring. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Emerald Green

The most vivid, brilliant green pigment in an artist's palette, it is copper aceto-arsenite, which makes it dangerous because it is poisonous. Under the name of Paris Green, it has been used as an insecticide. For an artist, it is unpredictable because mixed with some colors, it can cause everything to turn brown and ultimately to fade. Emerald Green is known in Europe as "Schweinfurt" green for the German town where it was invented by F.W. Russ and Wilhelm Sattler in 1814. Two years later it was on the market. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Emma Lake Artists' Workshops

A summer workshop, it was first held in 1955 for professional artists at Emma Lake in northern Saskatchewan. Founders were Arthur McKay and Kenneth Lochhead, teachers at the Regina School of Art, who wanted a venue to bring in outside professionals to expose participants to the 'larger world of art'. Sponsored by the Regina School of Art, the annual workshop program was discontinued after 1995. Over the four decades, about 80 artists served as outside sources beginning with Vancouver artist Jack Shadbolt and including Kenneth Noland, Jules Olitski and Anthony Caro. The program became one of the driving forces of Canadian Modernism. Sources: "The Canadian Encyclopedia"; M.D. Silverbrooke, Art Historian and Collector, West Vancouver, British Columbia.

Emulsion

A painting medium it will not mix such as oil and water, or water and resin, unless combined by the addition of an emulsifying agent. Emulsifying agents can be 'natural' such as egg-yolk, albumen and lecithin. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

En Camaieu

A painting in a single color. (See also GRISAILLE)

En Plein Air

See Plein-Air Painting

Enamel

A word with several meanings, the term can pertain to a ceramic or vitreous porcelain glaze that can be applied to a surface as a pottery or metal finish and then fused to that surface in a kiln. The result is usually smooth and lustrous. Enamel is also a fluid paint that either air dries or is baked to a hard, glossy finish. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Enamel Arts Foundation

Celebrating the brilliant color and rich, layered depth of modern and contemporary enamels with focus on American art, it is located at 1704 Armacost Avenue in Los Angeles. The purpose is public awareness and appreciation of modernist enameling as a vibrant art form. The Foundation also has a collection, publishes books and maintains an archive. The collection includes enamel work by Ida Cole, Harold Helwig, Richard Loving and Jessica Calderwood. Source: www.enamelarts.org

Encaustic, Encaustic Painting

An ancient technique, pigments are mixed with molten wax and painted onto a surface where they are fused by the application of heat. The word is derived from the Greek "enkaustikos", meaning 'burning in', which in modern usage is the last part of the process. Ancient Greeks did encaustic mural painting and heated their wax colors on a copper or silver palette over a metal drum filled with burning charcoal. Ancient Romans also used the method for decorative work and for protective coating on ships. Today Encaustic Painting is successful because of control temperatures through electric heating devices that allow all application signs to disappear, leaving an even, dry surface that can be polished to a low sheen. Among artists noted for using Encaustic are Ferdinand Warren, Manuel Pailos, Elaine Sturtevant, Robert Ryman and Victor Brauner. Sources: Ralph Mayer, “A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques”; Peter and Linda Murray, “The Penguin Dictionary of Art & Artists”

Engraving

A printmaking method, it is done with a burin, a sharp tool, used to scratch lines into a hard surface such as metal or wood. A pre 20th-century artist described as an engraver likely worked in any of the intaglio methods of etching, engraving, or drypoint. Etchers were often referred to as "gravers," and persons with this training were much sought after in the 19th Century before the advent of photo reproductions and other technological advances. In 1825, President Andrew Jackson closed the National Bank of the United States, which meant that local banks personnel were on their own relative to issuing and controlling currency and also were independent in hiring trained engravers to imprint their currency. As a result, engraving skills brought financial remuneration, and many of America’s respected art schools opened because of the demands for trained “gravers”. In turn, many poor young men and a few women acquired skills that later transferred to fine-art painting. It was the beginning of formal art-school education in the United States. Sources: Peter Falk, "Who Was Who in American Art"; James Flexner, “History of American Painting”, Vol. III, p. 54; James Thorn, 'Distilled Spirit: Asher Durand', Ulster Publishing.com

Enlarging

A process of increasing size, for artwork, if skillful, it is done without changing the scale of the parts. A slide projector is often used to magnify the size of an artist's sketch so that the projection in actual size can be superimposed on the ground of the final work. This projection is especially handy with murals. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Entablature

See Frieze/Entablature

Entasis

Slight swelling in depiction of the shaft of a column, it was invented by the ancient Greeks to overcome the illusion of concavity when parallel-sided or regularly tapered columns were used together. Source: Julia M Ehresmann, "The Pocket Dictionary of Art Terms"

Environmental Art, Environments

Large-scale outdoor art, it is large enough for viewers to enter and move about, and experience first hand as well as observe. Environmental Art was introduced in the late 1950s as a part of the breaking down between barriers of art and life. An early example of Environmental Art was "Store" by Claes Oldenberg (1961-1962). He rented an actual store, made 'saleable' goods in the back room, marketed plaster and cloth sculptures in the front, and displayed his 'wares' in the display window. One of the most spectacular 'environments' was done by Andy Warhol who did a room of floating, helium-filled pillows. One wall was covered silk screened with cow-image wallpaper. Other Environmental Artists are Louise Nevelson who did bas reliefs that covered entire walls; Herbert Ferber who built sculpture rooms; Les Levine who covered room spaces with mylar; and Dan Flavin who created 'rooms' of flourescent light. Mark di Suvero built huge constructions from junk material that people could climb on; Tony Smith made space-frame structures for the Corcoran Gallery and the 1971 World's Fair in Osaka. Sources: "The Britannica Encyclopedia of American Art"; "Phaidon Dictionary of Twentieth Century Art"

Epigraphy

Deciphering and interpreting ancient inscriptions carved on stone, clay, metal or other hard surfaces, it is a primary method that archaeologists use to understand the past. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Epoxy Resin

See Resins

Epreuve d’artiste

A French term for Artist's Proof, it was the artist’s set of prints used for copyright purposes. Sometimes it was abbreviated “E.A”.

Equilibrium

In fine art, it is a word used to describe balance of compositional entities such as shape, spatial qualities, color and linearity. A work without equilibrium can seem aesthetically unpleasant to some viewers. However, many avant-garde artists deliberately violate rules of "equilibrium" as part of their rebellion against conventional art. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques".

Eric Pape School of Art

Founded in Boston in 1898, it was founded by Eric Pape, 1870-1938. He served as Director and Head Instructor. Among its distinguished students were NC Wyeth, Robert Owen, and Henrietta Mears. Source: AskART biographies; Oxford Gallery inc.

Esparto

A coarse grass grown in Spain and North Africa, it is used in the production of paper, especially in England. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Esquisse

A French word, it refers to a preliminary sketch for a painting, sculpture or drawing. The "esquisse" is the vehicle for working out the details and can be two-dimensional or three-dimensional such as clay for sculpture. When it is used by English-speaking artists, it is considered an affectation. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Etching

A process of making a design on a hard surface such as glass or metal plate, it was pioneered in the early 1600s with Parmigianino (1503-1540) being one of the earliest to experiment with the process. On glass it can be scraped with a sharp object, and if it is on a metal plate, it is called intaglio. The plate is first coated with a layer of soft wax on which the design is applied by the artist with a sharp needle. Then the etcher uses controlled acid immersion to burn the drawing into the plate where the needle has scratched away the waxy substance. The original print made with this process is called an etching. Famous etchers include George Charles Aid, James Whistler, Leonard Baskin, Gene Kloss, and Gustave Baumann. Source: Ralph Mayer, A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques; AskART database

Ethel Wickes School of Art

Operated in San Francisco around 1928, it was founded by watercolor artist Ethel Wickes (1872-1940). Source: Edan Hughes, Artists in California, 1780-1940

Etruscan Art

Art of the people of ancient Tuscany, known as Etruria, it was established by 7th Century BC in the central part of Italy and ended about 3rd Century BC. During the 6th Century BC, Etruscans ruled Rome but by the 3rd Century BC they were under Roman domination. Funereal art found in the tombs of the Etruscans had happy expressions including the carved and painted daily-life scenes. Included in Etruscan art were murals, terra cotta figures, pottery, painted vases, ivory, gold jewelry and bronze. Some of the most remarkable surviving examples are in the tombs at the ancient Etruscan city of Tarquinia, and have scenes of religion, hunting, fishing and athletic contests. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"; Julia M Ehresmann, "The Pocket Dictionary of Art Terms"

Ex-Voto

Latin for 'out of thankfulness', it means dedicated to God for blessings and thankfulness. Usually the word is a painted or sculptured image, and occasionally the donor is depicted in the work. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; Julia M Ehresmann, "The Pocket Dictionary of Art Terms"

Exhibition of the Fascist Revolution

Held in Rome from 1932 to 1934, it featured visual images of Fascist propaganda telling the evolution of Italian history from 1914 to Mussolini's March on Rome, October 1922. Mussolini opened the exhibit, which attracted about four million visitors. Dino Alfieri was the Director and Designer, and Luigi Frddi and Cipriano Efisio Oppo worked with him. Source: 'Exhibition of the Fascist Revolution', "Wikipedia", en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exhibition_of_the_Fascist_Revolution"

Existentialism

A philosophy rejecting universal truths or ethical systems including Christianity, its ideas are traced to late 19th Century Danish writer, Soren Kierkegaard, and carried forward in France by Jean Paul Sartre and Albert Camus. The underlying idea is that responsibility for ethical behavior is placed on the individual. This assertion was especially popular with people disillusioned by World War II. In the 1940s and 1950s, Existentialism was widespread in the visual arts because artists felt the need to impose their own self expression of order in the face of chaos. American artist Robert Motherwell expressed these ideas in his paintings, which he described as "ordered chaos". Existentialism influences much American modernist painting including Abstract Expressionism, Bay Area Figurative, and Expressionism. Source: Robert Atkins, "Art Speak"

Exploded View

A rendering for illustration or mechanical drawing of a complex object, each of its parts are shown separately in the same scale and in relation to each other so that they can be better understood visually. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Explorers Club

Founded in 1904 in New York City, member focus is a "wide-ranging fascination for the world's wilder places", visiting them, and collecting artwork and artifacts reflecting those places. Club meetings are famous for the prominence of the attendees such as John D. Rockefeller and Charles Lindbergh, formal dinners with displays of wild animals, and exotic dishes featuring foods from geographical places of interest. The Club has a distinguished collection of paintings, sculptures and artifacts. Represented American artists include Arctic-scene painters Albert Operti and Frank Wilbert Stokes and portraitists Robert Brackman and Edwin Tappan Adney, whose subjects were Arctic explorers Admirals Peary and Amundsen. From 1965, the Club's lavishly appointed quarters have been the residence of Stephen Carlton Clark, heir to the Singer Sewing Machine Company, and founder of Cooperstown's Baseball Hall of Fame. It is a six-story Tudor-style building at 46 East 70th Street, and when occupied by the Clark family, housed one of the premier art collections in New York City. Source: Robert McCracken Peck, 'The Explorers Club', "Magazine Antiques", December 2004

Exposition Internationale des Arts Decoratifs et I

A World's Fair in Paris, France from April to October 1925, its title's became the derivative for the term Art Deco because of the entries of sleek machines, stylized fountains, and lightening-flashed motifs. The location was between the esplanade of the Les Invalides and the entrances of the Grand Palais and Petit Palais. Although many countries participated, a goal for the hosts was to show with fashionable luxury market industrial and decorative products, Paris "reigned supreme" in spite of the ravages of World War I. Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Exposition_Internationale_des_Arts_D%C3%A9coratifs_et_Industriels_Modernes

Exposition Universelle in Paris

First held May 15 to November 15, 1855 as a promotion by Napolean III in response to London's 1851 Great Exhibition, it led to other late 19th century world exhibitions including 1878, 1889, 1900. The 1855 event, held on the Champs Elysees, attracted 20,000 exhibitors from 34 countries, and reportedly had over 5 million visitors. The Exposition Universelle of 1889 celebrated the 100th anniversary of the storming of the Bastille, and the main symbol and entrance to the Fair was the Eiffel Tower. In 1900, the Exposition attracted more than 50 million visitors to celebrate in the "City of Light" progress of the past and optimism for the future of western civilization. There were nearly 80,000 exhibits from 60 countries including "paintings in all genres stacked high on the walls, and booths filled with display cases cluttered with objects, giving the look of an enormous exotic bazaar." Art styles were in transformation between historical modes and the style of the 'day', Art Nouveau. Also it was the era of the Arts and Crafts Movement with emphasis on pride in workmanship. In 2008, the Cleveland Museum of Art held an exhibition of some of the fine art including Tiffany jewelry and Lalique crystal that had been shown at the Paris Exposition. Sources: http://www.answers.com/topic/exposition-universelleStephen Harrison, 'Exposition Universelle in Paris', "The Magazine Antiques", October 2008.

Expositions/Worlds Fairs

Cultural-themed displays from countries around the world, Expositions in western culture began with the 1851 International Exposition in London. This event marked the first time extensive displays of technology and fine and industrial art were brought together in one venue. Held regularly from that time into the mid 20th century, these events became known by other names including World Fairs and Exhibitions. Many Expositions, all intended to focus on progress, had commemorative titles such the 1876 Centennial Exhibition in Philadelphia of 1876 celebrating the countries 100th year birthday; and Louisiana Purchase Exposition of 1904 in St. Louis, commemorating the 100th anniversary of the Purchase. These exhibitions "shrunk the world", stirred competition among countries, and had lasting influence on architecture, engineering, agriculture and fine art. With technological advances in circulating information through cinema, television and computers, the appeal of International Expositions has declined. Sources: Robert Atkins, ART SPOKE

Express Ranches Great American Cowboy Award

A prize for "best portrayal of the American Cowboy" of the annual exhibition, Prix de West, it is given at The National Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum in Oklahoma City. The award, sponsored by Bob and Nedra Funk, includes a medal and three-thousand dollars. Recipients include Bill Anton, Carrie Ballantyne, Mehl Lawson and Tim Cox. Sources: The National Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum; AskART database

Expressionism

Art in which the emotions of an artist are paramount over a rational and faithful-to-life rendering of subject matter, it is conveyed by distortion of color, surface and shapes. Because of emphasis on carefully-executed method, Impressionism is the opposite of Expressionism. The term Expressionism appears to have been coined by Herwarth Walden in 1911 in the publication, "Sturm", which he served as editor. Originally the term referenced all modernist or progressive movements from the inception of Cubism and Fauvism. Today, the meaning is more specific in that it refers to one specific early 20th century art movement emanating primarily from Germany. Much Expressionism was prompted by desires for social reform, psychological and spiritual issues. Expressionist style was simple, bold and colorful with large areas of unbroken color and dramatic brushwork. Although the movement remains associated with modernism, it had roots further back historically. Late Medieval and early Renaissance Expressionist artists were Hieronymus Bosch (fl 1488-1516) and Matthias Grunewald, (fl. 1475-1528). Spanish artist El Greco (1541-1614) had dramatic Expressionist distortion in his figure paintings. In the 19th Century, Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890) and Paul Gaughin (1848-1903) led the first phase of what is officially defined by art historians as the Expressionist movement. From France, the movement spread to Germany and to Norway where Edward Munch (1863-1944) embraced the style. American artists much influenced by Expressionism include Marsden Hartley, George Grosz, Max Weber, Ben Shahn, Ivan Albright, Abraham Ratner, Jack Levine, Karl Knaths and Philip Evergood. After World War II in America, elements of Expressionism evolved into Abstract Expressionism. Sources: "The Britannica Encyclopedia of American Art"; "Phaidon Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Art"; Robert Atkins, ART SPOKE

Exquisite Corpse

A game adapted to drawing, collage and computer and even to playing through the mail, it derives from a word game called "Exquisite Corpse" whereby the first participant makes part of a drawing ending in lines going just over the fold of a piece of paper. It is folded in such a way that the second participant cannot see what the first drew except these lines, from which the second continues the drawing, and so on. Source: Daniel C. Boyer, Artist

Extender

Any substance added to a material to increase its bulk, it is called a filler if its purpose is to cheapen pure material. However, extenders can also increase working qualities such as diluting excessive color. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Extender-bulk

Substance added to a material to increase its bulk, it is a filler that dilutes purity and cheapens the product. However, many artists find extenders desirable because they can control mediums such as the intensity of colors and the consistency of printing inks to achieve transparency, etc. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Extender-Typeface

A typography term, it references the part of a letter that extends below or above the baseline such as the letter p (below) and d (above). Source: Bob Bahr, "Drawing" magazine, Spring 2006, pp. 83

Eye-level

The perceived line that runs across a painting, it is level with the viewer's eye. This perspective allows the viewer to imagine where the artist was in relation to his or her subject. Sources: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"; Julia M Ehresmann, "The Pocket Dictionary of Art Terms"
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