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Art Glossary Terms: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

TermDescription

O'Keefe Art Award

The O’Keefe Art Award was created by the O’Keefe Brewing Co. Ltd. of Toronto in 1950 and available to artists between the ages of 18 and 30. There were four prize levels – $1,000.00, $750.00, $500.00 and $200.00. The first prize that year went to Kenneth Lochhead, second prize to Joseph Purcell, and third prize to Ghitta Caisserman. Fred Ross was in a group of 15 who were each awarded $200.00. The group included John Bennett, Pierre de ligny Boudreau, Roy Kiyooka and Ronald Spickett. All 18 winners were featured in an exhibition that year at the Art Gallery of Toronto [now Art Gallery of Ontario]. Sources: Google News Archives, and "The Shawinigan Standard", Shawinigan Falls, Quebec, July 5, 1950. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke

Objet d’art

French for “art object”, the term is used to refer to an artwork’s size, often diminutive or miniature.

Odalisque

Nineteenth century virgin female slave figures often found as attendants in Ottoman seraglios, they became popular subjects for artists who did Orientalist-theme paintings such as Frederick Bridgman, Francois Boucher, Hovsep Pushman and Jean Leon Gerome. While access to private homes or interior courtyards was difficult even for locals, artists such as Gérôme and Bridgman seemed to have succeeded better than many others in befriending locals enough to sketch and paint their domestic lives. In turn, fascination about this secret life of odalisques created a strong market for artists depicting them. Source: Abby M. Taylor, Fine Art; Wikipedia

Oeuvre

The total or substantive body of life-work produced by an artist, the term is French for “work”. Source: www.merriam-webster.com

Oil Paint

Artists' medium, it is made by grinding pigment in linseed oil or another vegetable oil to a smooth paste-like consistency and then mixing in a drier, a stabilizer and plasticizer such as wax to give each color the same consistency. Since 15th century Europe, oil paint has been the most traditional medium, replacing tempera, because it results in rich coloration; dries slowly, allowing for changes; does not alter colors when dry; allows both opaque and transparent effects; and matte and gloss finishes. Today a group of western painters called Oil Painters of America actively promotes oil as a medium. Members include Howard Terpning, Roy Andersen, Joan Potter, George Carlson, Clyde Aspevig, David Leffel, Sherrie McGraw, Mian Situ and Ramon Kelley. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; AskART biographies.

Oil Painters of America

Begun in 1991 and founded by Shirl Smithson, the group is dedicated to advancing the cause of traditional, representational painting and to providing a forum for artists working in that style. Several national and regional shows are held throughout each year. Members include David Leffel, Peter Adams, Ken Carlson, and Howard Terpning. Sources: "Southwest Art" magazine, April 2002; AskART biographies.

Oil Painters of Ireland

A group dedicated to promoting traditional, realist style art, OPI was founded in Dublin in the early 21st century by Norman Teeling, Paul Kelly, Henry McGrane, John Morris and David Nolan. Source: Online Encyclopedia of Irish and World Art: Norman Teeling

Old Lyme Colony,

One of many art colonies originating between 1890 and 1910 and devoted to landscape painting, it was in Old Lyme, a small village at the confluence of the Connecticut River and the Long Island Sound. The colony was first called “The American Barbizon” because of its founder, Tonalist-style painter Henry Ward Ranger. However, Ranger's stylistic influence was overshadowed by the 1903 arrival of Impressionist Childe Hassam, which resulted in the Colony becoming "the most famous Impressionist-oriented art colony in America” (Gerdts 221). To its detriment, Colony painters clung to that style after World War I when Impressionism lost its popularity. In its heyday, many painters stayed on Main Street at the Griswold House, a Georgian-style home of Florence Griswold, who took in boarders because she needed the income. Today it houses the Lyme Historical Society. Colony artists included Willard Metcalf, Clark Voorhees, Frederick Sexton, Charles Ebert, Walter Clark and Walter Griffin. Sources: William Benton Museum of Art, “Connecticut and American Impressionism”; Helen K. Fusscas, “Frederick Sexton, 1889-1975”; William Gerdts, “American Impressionism” (221-227.

Old Master

A rather vague and very general descriptive term, it references skillful, fully-trained European artists who worked before 1800. The term has also come to be loosely applied to any revered deceased European artist of pre-modernist styles. Included as an Old Master are Leonardo Da Vinci (1452-1519), Rembrandt Van Rijn (1606-1669), Diego Velazquez (1599-1660), Titian (1483-1490), and El Greco. Source: Wikipedia; ASkART database

Old Water Colour Society

See Royal Watercolour Society

One Ear Society

An arts society in the Miami, Florida area, it has this mission statement: "To help support area artists by providing continuous juried exhibition, promotion and sale opportunities in donated venues in and around greater Miami-Dade, and by sponsoring professional development and cultural enrichment activities within the community.We are an inclusive rather than exclusive organization, and exhibit quality art in all styles, created by seasoned professionals as well as talented amateur artists." Ongoing, the One Ear Society continues to explore ways to further serve the needs of the community and the artists who live and work here. Recently, members partnered with the Wolfson Campus of Miami-Dade Community College to offer a visual arts component of their classes and workshops (non-credit. Source: www.oneearsociety.com

Ontario College of Art and Design

See Ontario College of Art

Ontario College of Art and Design University

See Ontario College of Art

Ontario College of Art, Ontario College of Art and Design University

Located in Toronto, Ontario, the school is tied to several entities, the first one being the Ontario School of Art, founded in 1879. In 1890, it became the Central Ontario School of Art and Design, the Ontario College of Art in the early 1900s, the Ontario College of Art and Design in 1996, and Ontario College of Art and Design University in 2008. The Ontario School of Art, founded in 1879 was an art school run by the local Board of Education. Under George Agnew Reid, teacher, principal and artist, it became a separate entity named the Ontario College of Art and moved into a building designed by Reid. Currently (2011) it is the largest art school in Canada, and operates under the name of Ontario College of Art and Design University. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke, Art Historian, West Vancouver, British Columbia.

Ontario Institute of Painters

The Ontario Institute of Painters [Canada] was devoted to the exhibition of non-abstract artists. It was formed in 1958 by traditional or representational artists, and their supporters who were disgruntled with the Ontario Society of Artists (see glossary) and the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts (see glossary) accommodation of abstract art. The OIP founders included Kenneth Forbes, Archibald Barnes, Manly MacDonald, Robert Allan Barr (see all previous in AskART), Gordon Conn (collector) and Samuel Weir (collector). Perhaps their most famous exhibition was “Points of View”, Museum London, Ontario in 1959. Then the works of 10 OIP members were hung with those of the abstractionist group Painters Eleven (see glossary) and figurative abstractionists like York Wilson (see AskART). The point of the show was to illustrate the conservative, experimental and intermediate trends in painting. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke, West Vancouver, British Columbia. Sources: “The Consummate Canadian: A Biography of Samuel Edward Weir, Q.C.” (1990), by Mary Willan Mason; “Art and Architecture in Canada” (1991), by Loren R. Lerner and Mary F. Williamson; and the Art Gallery of Ontario –http://www.ago.net/assets/files/pdf/special_collections/SC016.pdf

Ontario School of Art

Founded in 1879, it became Central Ontario School of Art and Design in 1890, the Ontario College of Art in the early 1900s, the Ontario College of Art and Design in 1996, and Ontario College of Art and Design University in 2008. See Ontario College of Art and Design. Source: Ontario College of Art and Design University. Courtesy, M.D. Silverbrooke, Art Historian, West Vancouver, British Columbia

Ontario Society of Artists

Founded in 1872, the Ontario Society of Artists is Canada's oldest continuously operating artistic society. Its founders were John Fraser, J. W. Bridgman, R. F. Gagen, James Hoch, Marmaduke Matthews, C. S. Millard and Thomas Mower Martin. The Society’s mandate was ‘the fostering of original art in the province, the holding of annual exhibitions, and the formation of an art library and museum and a school of Art.’ To date (2010): it has held annual exhibitions continuously since 1873; in 1876 it founded the art school now known as the Ontario College of Art & Design; in 1900 it founded the museum now known as the Art Gallery of Ontario; and it is the parent organization of the Canadian Society of Graphic Arts, the Ontario Association of Architects, the Sculptors' Society of Canada, the Canadian Society of Painters in Water Colour, and the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts. Sources: Ontario Government Archives - http://www.archives.gov.on.ca/english/on-line-exhibits/osa/index.aspx; Centre for Contemporary Canadian Art - http://www.ccca.ca/history/osa/english/references/osa100yr-2.html?languagePref=en&o; and the Ontario Society of Artists - http://ontariosocietyofartists.org/about_the_osa. Prepared and contributed by M.D.Silverbrooke.

Onteora Club

An artist’s colony in Tannersville, New York, it was founded in 1887 by design pioneer Candace Thurber Wheeler and her brother Frank Thurber. Early visitors included Mark Twain, conservationist John Burroughs and painter George Bellows. Some of the first residents included writers Mary Mapes Dodge and Elizabeth Custer, actress Maude Adams, as well as painters John White Alexander and Carroll Beckwith. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke, Source: Onteora Club website – http://onteoraclub.com/heritage.php.

Op Art

A short term for Optical Art, it is an abstract style popular in the 1960s that was based on optical principles and optical illusion creating the sensation of movement. Op Art deals in complex color interactions to the point where colors and lines seem to vibrate before the eyes. The term was coined in 1964 by George Rickey when he was talking with Peter Selz and William Seitz, curators at the Museum of Modern Art, and was first used in a publication when it appeared in a 1964 "Time" magazine article to describe paintings "that manipulate visual cues in order to reorder viewers' perceptual responses." ("Southwest Art') Antecedents of Op Art go back to Josef Albers and his classes on color theory at the Bauhaus School in Germany during the 1920s. In 1965, the Museum of Modern Art gave the movement its most public attention to date with its exhibition, "The Responsive Eye". However, the uniqueness of the movement and popular interest subsided when fabric designers adopted it and made the optical designs commonplace. American Op artists include Julian Stanczak, Yaacov Agam, Richard Anuskiewicz, Larry Poons, Bridget Riley and Victor Vasarely. Sources: Robert Atkins, "Art Speak"; 'Op Art', "Southwest Art", April 2006, p. 62.

Op-Ed Art

Characterized by black and white crosshatching and moody imagery, it was visual commentary and interpretation on editorials. John-Claude Suares, illustrator for "The New York Times", was one of the early Op-Ed artists. His goal was to get emotional reaction, and he and many he trained, used surreal symbolism. In 1973, the Musee des Arts Decoratifs in Paris hosted an Op-Ed art exhibit with a catalogue written by Suares. Source: AskART biography of Jean-Claude Suares including his New York Times obituary.

Optical Color Mixture

The tendency of the eyes to blend patches of individual colors placed near one another so as to perceive a different, combined color. Also, any art style that exploits this tendency, especially the pointillism of Georges Seurat. Source: http://studiochalkboard.evansville.edu/c-optics.html

Order of Canada

Established in 1967 by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, the Order of Canada is the centrepiece of Canada’s honours system and recognizes a lifetime of outstanding achievement, dedication to the community and service to the nation. The Order recognizes people in all sectors of Canadian society. The Order has three ranks – Companion of the Order of Canada (C.C.) is the highest, then Officer of the Order of Canada (O.C.) and Member of the Order of Canada (C.M.). Canadian artist recipients include William Kurelek, Edward Hughes, Alexander Colville, Doris McCarthy, Charles Comfort, Jack Shadbolt and Jessie Oonark. Sources: The Office of the Secretary to the Governor General of Canada and AskART biographies. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke.

Order of the Palmes Academiques

A French recognition for distinction, it was founded in 1808 by Napolean to honour university members, and later (1866) expanded to honor eminent French and foreign contributors to the education and culture of France. It is awarded in three grades – Chevalier, Officer and Commander. Sources: Consulate General of France in Toronto; and the Association of Members of the Order des Palmes Academiques. Courtesy of M.D. Silverbrooke

Oregon College of Arts and Crafts

In Portland, Oregon, the original name was Oregon College of Arts and Crafts, and later changed to Oregon School of Arts and Crafts. The College grants BA degrees in drawing, painting, book arts, metals, photography, fibers and wood. In 1907, photographer Julia Hoffman was the founder with the desire to perpetuate the Arts and Crafts movement through classes and exhibitions. In 1978, the campus was much expanded and boosted financially. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oregon_College_of_Art_%26_Craft

Oregon School of Arts and Crafts

See Oregon College of Arts and Crafts

Organic

An image, it shows a relationship to nature or living matter as opposed to man-made images. The term references any shape that resembles a naturally occurring form or that suggests a natural, growing, or expanding process. Source: Free Online Dictionary

Organic Art

An art form that emphasizes an object alive in its own right and not contrived.

Organic Cubism

See Orphism

Orientalist/Orientalism

A 19th-Century movement, predominantly in France and England and reflected by American artists and writers, it reflected fascination with the cultures of North Africa, the Middle East and Asia. The geographical concept of most Orientalists was that the Orient was one vast region with a cohesive, uniform culture composed of rather simplistic, passive peoples. Much of the interest grew from western perceptions that these Eastern peoples were exotic, sensual, and attuned to mysterious religion and philosophy. The first Orientalists were 19th-Century English scholars who translated writing of the 'Orient' into English and French so that occupying westerners such as the English would have knowledge of the people they dominated. The period from 1870 to 1880 was a formative period for Orientalism among American artists, and general interest in Orientalism grew among western people with increasing travel opportunities. Fascination with Orientalism was expressed at the Chicago World's Fair of 1893 where Oriental villages were fabricated with snake charmers, Algerian dancers, odalisques and turbaned Moors. Artistic expression embraced many subjects including realistic and imaginary genre scenes, harems, landscapes, eroticism, and religion. The movement in art played out with the advance of Modernism such as Cubism in the early part of the 20th Century. Among Orientalist American artists are Henry Ossawa Tanner, Maurice Braun, Hovsep Pushman, Theodore Wores, Frederic Arthur Bridgman and Helen Hyde. Sources: AskART biographies; Susan Fort, Sotheby's New York; http://www.english.emory.edu/Bahri/Orientalism.html; 'Henry Ossaw Tanner and the Lure of Paris', "American Art Review", December 2005.

Orphism, Orphic Cubism

An abstract art movement from 1912 to 1914 in Paris, it paralleled the geometry of Cubism but with a brighter palette of overlapping planes of contrasting colors. "The color combinations were based on the 'law of simultaneous contrast of colors' developed by French chemist, Michel-Eugene Chevreul in the 19th century." The name, Orphism, also called Orphic Cubism, was taken from the Greek poet and musician Orpheus, and was first used in 1912 by the poet Guillaume Apollinaire to describe the paintings of Robert Delaunay. Other artists in the movement were Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia, Fernand Leger, Franz Kupka, and Sonia Delaunay, wife of Robert Delaunay. Source: World Wide Arts Resources

Ottawa Group

Canadian artists who organized in 1923 and held an exhibition the following year at Hart House at the University of Toronto, they appear to have disbanded the following year. Members included Paul Alfred, Harold Beament, Frank Hennessey, Florence H. Mc Gillivray, Graham Norwell, Yoshida Sekido and David Milne. Sources: Charles C. Hill, "The Group of Seven"; Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke, Art Historian and Collector, West Vancouver, British Columbia.

Outer Art

A movement dating from 1990 as a protest against random modern art, 'outer artists' asserted that anything could mean art. Focus is on making artwork that is ugly as possible, wrong as possible, and generally as impossible as possible. Outer-art was initiated by artist Florentin Smarandache, a Rumanian now living in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Source: AskART biography of Smarandache.

Outfootage

Outfootage, a filmaking term, it refers to footage mostly unprinted camera original but contains important information not included in the final film. Outfootage could also be found as a work print that ended up in the editor's bin. Source: Internet, Karl Spreitz Film Collection, Maltwood Museum.

Outsider Art

A term whose meaning is a bit vague, it has become a catch-all description of artwork not based on tradition and not marketed traditionally through galleries or private dealers. Outsider Art was first used publicly as a description in 1972 by British art writer Roger Cardinal in his book with that title. In this context, it is the equivalent of the French term "art brut", which means art of the insane. However, this description is subjective in that it often reflects the opinion of the viewer or critic and not necessarily a professional diagnosis. In the United States, Outsider Art is an umbrella term referencing artwork by creative persons outside the mainstream of society including prisoners and artists in psychiatric treatment. It also includes folk art that is memory painting, meaning dreams or fantasy depictions by non-academically trained artists. Names associated with Outsider Art include Martin Ramirez, Ike Morgan, Henry Darger, Steven Ashby, Joseph Yoakum and Ted Gordon. Sources: Chuck and Jan Rosenak, "Museum of American Folk Art Encyclopedia of Twentieth-Century American Folk Art and Artists; Christie's New York; Robert Atkins, "Art Speak".

Overbeck Pottery

Pottery produced in the midst of the Arts and Crafts movement in Cambridge City, Indiana, Overbeck Pottery was a family enterprise ceramics factory founded in 1911. It was run exclusively by the Overbeck sisters, educated women who had been raised to be independent, industrious and avoiding of marriage because it could thwart their potential: Elizabeth (1875-1936; Hannah (1870-1931); Margaret (1863-1911) and Mary Frances (1878-1955). In the book about the operation, "The Chronicle of a Studio Pottery”, Elizabeth Overbeck was quoted as saying that initially “No one concerned in the enterprise had any practical experience in clay working or was even personally familiar with the simplest of pottery making as carried on in a factory.” (59). Margaret Overbeck is credited as the main initiator of the operation, and the other sisters were already adept at china painting, having won many design competitions in a monthly pottery and decorator magazine. Before embarking on the business venture, Margaret and Mary studied with Arthur Dow, a leading figure in the Arts and Crafts movement. The same year the business opened, Margaret died, and the remaining three stayed the course with Elizabeth being the potter and firing technician, Mary painting, finishing and glazing; and Hannah doing the decorative designs, sometimes from sketches left by Margaret. The sisters lived simply, wore simple clothing and remained in the family home, using the parlor for a studio and another room as the showroom. The kiln was in a shed in the backyard. The early pieces were utilitarian such as cups and saucers, but the later work was more purely decorative. Most pieces are identified by the incised initials “OBK”, and sometimes to the left under the monogram is the first initial of the potter. In 1936, Elizabeth was elected a Fellow of the American Ceramic Society, making her the most publicly visible of the group. Eight months later she died, which brought an end to the unique enterprise as Hannah had died five years earlier. Mary carried on until her death in 1955, which ended the production of Overbeck pottery, whose formula went to the grave with Mary but whose pottery has become highly collectible. The production had numbered many thousands of pieces, and it was written that “their real genius lay in their complex Art Deco designs and subtle matte glazes . . . the sisters’ design contribution alone should secure their firm’s position as one of the best art potteries in the country”. (69) Source: Judith Vale Newton and Carol Ann Weiss, "Skirting the Issue"

Overlap Effect

Spatial relationships achieved by placing one object in front of another, it gives the effect of the object closest to the viewer blocking out the view of any part of any other object located behind it. In other words, where the two objects overlap, the one in back is obscured. Source: ArtTownGifts.com

Overpainting

Layers of paint applied to a painting after the first layer has dried, the process allows for detailing, whereas the preliminary paint generally sets the form and design. Source: Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"

Ox-Bow Artists' Colony, Art School

Located in Saugatuck in western Michigan, it became a gathering place for artists in 1896, when Bessie Bandle, student at the Chicago Art Institute invited fellow students Albert Krehbiel, John Norton, Walter Enright, Galin Perrett and Horace Brown to her family resort just north of Saugatuck Village. One-hundred fifteen acres later became the summer school campus of the the Art Institute of Chicago. The area, now part school, part camp, part artist colony and major tourist attraction is scenic with the Kalamazoo River running through the middle of the town on its path to Lake Michigan. Source: R.H. Love Galleries; AskART biographies

Ox-Bow School of Painting

See Saugatuck (Ox-Bow) School of Painting

Ozalid Print

A trademark name, it refers to a process with sensitized paper and ammonia vapor for reproducing line drawings, manuscripts and the like and is an alternative to blueprinting. Ozalid prints are positive and made directly from a drawing. Sources: "Random House Unabridged Dictionary", Copyright © 1997, by Random House, Inc., on Infoplease; and "Britannica Compton's Encyclopedia" (online). Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke, West Vancouver, British Columbia

Ozark Society of Painters

See Society of Ozark Painters
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