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Art Glossary
Art Glossary Terms: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

TermDescription

Sacral-Idyllic

A landscape scene whose theme is usually of country life.

Saint Paul Art Center

See St. Paul School of Fine Arts

Saint Paul Gallery and School of Art

See St. Paul School of Fine Arts

Saint Paul School of Art

See St. Paul School of Fine Arts

Salmagundi Club

Founded in 1871 in New York City by a group of artists, it became an important gathering place for artists to exhibit their work, exchange ideas, and have much camaraderie. The group began as a sketching club, but expanded to formal exhibitions and auctions, elaborate social events, and the building of a commodious building for meetings. An underlying bond was and remains a commitment to realist styles regardless of trends among critics and the marketplace. Early members first met in the studio of sculptor John Scott Hartley, and among their activities was boxing, fencing, much smoking, eating, and drinking coffee. Women were not admitted until 1973. In its early days, Salmagundi Club members were followed closely by the press because of their bohemian lifestyle and exotic parties. The Club has been located in Greenwich Village, which in 1871 was the center of culture and gentility. Source: "American Artist" magazine, 'Salmagundi Club Turns 125', December, 1996

Salon d'Automne/Autumn Salon

Organized in Paris in 1903 and continuing to operate, founders were Georges Rouault, Andre Derain, Henri Matisse and Albert Marquet. It was a breakthrough exhibition venue of rebellion against conservatives running the Paris Salon. Immediately Salon d'Automne became the showcase for innovation in 20th century sculpture and painting. Other painters who were active included Auguste Rodin, Pierre Renoir, Paul Cezanne and Pablo Picasso. Source: wikipedia.org/wiki/Salon_d'Automne

Salon de Champs de Mars

See Societe National des Beaux Arts

Salon de la Societe Nationale des Beaux Arts

See Societe National des Beaux Arts

Salon des Artistes Francais

Formed by French painters and sculptors in 1881, it took over the French government's sponsorship of the Annual exhibition, known as The Salon. William-Adolphe Bouguereau was the first president, and was controversial because of his suggestion that non-established artists be included in the annual show. Bouguereau resigned, and his opponents, in 1891, created a competing entity, the Salon de la Societe Nationale des Beaux Arts. The original Salon kept its name of Salon des Artistes Francais, and the two entities continued annual exhibitions. The exhibition of the Salon des Artistes Francais became known as the Salon de Champs Elysee, and the Salon of the Societe Nationale des Beaux Arts has the name of Salon of the Champ-de-Mars. Source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Société_des_Artistes_Français

Salon des Champs Elysees

See Societe des Artistes Francais

Salon des Independants

See Societe des Artistes Independants

Salon des Tuilleries

Founded in 1923 in Paris, France in the vicinity of Porte Maillot, the purpose of its founders was to provide an exhibition venue for artists of avant-garde styles, many of them anti-establishment, so they could keep their independence. Among artists who exhibited there are Fernand Leger, Henri Matisse and Edouard Manet. Sources: Wikipedia; serving history.com

Salon/Paris Salons

A word generally descriptive of a fashionable gathering of artists, writers and intellectuals held in a private home, the term is linked to Paris, France where Salons began as state-sponsored exhibitions of conservative academic art juried by government appointees. Early Salons were controlled by the Academy of Fine Arts, but the term’s meaning expanded to included a variety of both official and dissident organizations. Being asked to participate in these Salons was a special mark of prestige for American artists, who, following the Civil War, began going to Paris in large numbers. Salon entry criteria also set international standards for painting and resulted in American taste switching preferences from English to French fine art. Salon exhibitions originated in the 17th century with members of the Academie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture and sanctioned by King Louis XIV. Installation was at the Salon Carre of the Louvre. In the 19th century, these exhibits grew too large for the Salon Carre, but continued to be named after the venue. Before 1834, the Salons were biennial, but then became annuals sponsored by the French government. In 1881 control was transferred to the Societe des Artistes Francais. In 1890, the French government organized a new Salon on the Champs Elysses under the auspices of the Societe Nationale Des Beaux-Arts, and its exhibitions were held in the spring at the same time as that of the Society des Artists Francais. Among 18th and 19th century American artists studying in Paris who exhibited at the Salons were John Vanderlyn, George Healy, Oliver Frazer, Christian Schussele, Marie-Francois-Regis Gignoux, Thomas Hicks, John LeFarge and Edward Harrison May. Sources: Barbara Weinberg, "The Lure of Paris"; ArtLex.com, courtesy of Michael Delahunt (See Glossary for Societe des Beaux-Arts and Societe des Artistes Francais)

Salons de la Rose + Croix

A series of important Symbolist* exhibitions in Paris, they were organized by Joséphin Péladan (1858 – 1918) a novelist and mystic. “From 1892 to 1897 his salon welcomed work that subscribed to the illusionistic style of Renaissance art and was spiritual in subject; he specifically rejected anything that might have associations with Realism, such as portraits, landscapes or genre scenes, preferring ‘Catholic Ideal and Mysticism … Legend, Myth, Allegory, the Dream, the Paraphrase of great poetry’. He was very influential; such artists as Carlos Schwabe, Fernand Khnopff, Ferdinand Hodler and Jean Delville participated in his salons…” Source: Museum of Modern Art (glossary), New York.

Salons of America

Formed in 1922 in New York City and active until 1936, it was a group of artists opposed to organizational methods of the Society of Independent Artists. Hamilton Easter Field, objecting to the financial and publicity techniques of the Independents, was a leading Salon member. Early Salon exhibitions were held at the Anderson Galleries, and had no jury nor prizes. First year membership was limited to 250 painters, sculptors, print makers and carvers, all representative of a wide range of styles from "conservative to post-Dadaist." Among members were George Ault, Joseph Stella, Walter Ufer, Agnes Pelton and Oscar Bluemner. Sources: "The New York Times", July 3, 1922; Boston Universities Libraries Research Guide

Salons of the Societe Nationale des Beaux Arts

Founded in the 1880s, it was a rival exhibition to the official French Salon. Organizers began holding Spring Salon in the Palais des Beaux Arts on the Champ-de-Mars. Source: Peter Hastings Falk, Editor, "Who Was Who in American Art"

Salt Lake Art Center School

Art school affiliated with the Salt Lake City Art Center and the Utah Museum of Contemporary Art, it opened in 1931 and offers exhibitions, programs and educational publications. Among the teachers were Joseph Everett, Maurice Brooks, Rose Salisbury and Michael Cannon. Gordon Cope served as the first director. Source: www.localfirst.org/directory/arts-and-galleries/galleries-a-framing/salt-lake-art-center

Saltus Medal

See J. Sanford Saltus Award

San Francisco Art Association

Founded in 1871 to promote and cultivate "fine arts in the community," organizers, including civic-minded non-artist patrons, met at the library of the Mechanics Institute. The first SFAA exhibition was 1872, and painter Juan Buckingham Wandesford served as first president. In 1874, the Association began its involvement with art education and museums by opening the San Francisco School of Design, which, affiliated in 1893 with the University of California and became the California School of Design with its museum being the Mark Hopkins Institute of Art. In 1916, the Association joined with the San Francisco Society of Artists, avant-garde painters, and took over the directorship of the Museum of Modern Art in the Palace of Fine Arts. The teaching academy name then changed in 1917 to the California School of Fine Arts, which in 1926 was housed in the Association headquarters at 800 Chestnut Street. In 1961, the Association and the CSFA merged under the name of the San Francisco Art Institute, a name it has retained. Early artist members included Rowena Meeks Abdy, Harry Best, Albert Bierstadt, Hugo Fisher. Euphemia Fortune, Armin Hansen, William Keith, Jules Tavernier and Raymond Dabb Yelland. Sources: Betty Hoag McGlynn, “The San Francisco Art Association”, Traditional Fine Arts Online: http://www.tfaoi.com/aa/2aa/2aa651.htm; AskART database

San Francisco Art Institute, California School of Art

A name taken in 1961, by the California School of Fine Arts, emphasis is on contemporary art. The main campus is in the Russian Hill district of San Francisco at 300 Mission Street. Among its students are Ronald Davis, Chris Ballantyne, Robert Graham and Michael Heizer. Sources: Wikipedia, San Francisco Art Institute; AskART biographies.

San Francisco School of Design

See San Francisco Art Association

San Ildefonso Pottery

From a Tewa-speaking Indian Pueblo north of Santa Fe, New Mexico, San Ildefenso Pottery of the 20th century is polished black-on-black ware. Its most famous potter is Maria Martinez, who often signed her work "Maria" or "Marie" and is thought to be the first Pueblo potter to sign a pot. She and her husband, Julian, developed the unique blackware by using powdered dung in the firing process that changed the traditional red pots to black. The couple worked together until his death in 1943. She died in 1980. Source: "Native American Art of the Southwest" by Linda Eaton

Sand Painting

From a Navajo Indian word "iikaah", meaning "the place where the gods come and go", Sand Paintings, from time undocumented, have been linked to Southwest Navajo religious rituals, especially the healing ceremony. For this, a Sand Painting is created under guidance of a medicine man and is traditionally destroyed before dawn to prevent dire retribution on both the medicine man and the person he is attempting to help. The patient is supposed to sit in the middle of the completed painting and face the east towards the door of the eight-sided hogan to receive Navajo gods of healing. Until the late 20th century, Sand Paintings were one to three inches thick and composed of a sprinkling through a cupped hand of different colored materials such as flower petals, rocks, fresh sand and pollen. Four principal colors were used: White symbolizing dawn and the sacred mountain of Shell Peak or Mount Blanca in Colorado; Turqoise blue for the sky and for Turquoise Mountain or Mount Tailor in New Mexico; Yellow for twilight and for Abalone Shell Mountain or San Francisco Peak in Arizona; and Black for darkness and for Black Coal Mountain or Mount Hesperus in Colorado. A woven batten made from cloth or animal skin was used to smooth the mixture. In the 1940s, Navajos began making permanent sand paintings to sell to reservation visitors. Components are sprinkled onto an epoxy-covered board, and designs are original to protect the magic and special significance of the traditional paintings. Also, dating from the 1930s, Navajos have used traditional sand-painting designs in weaving, but again motifs are varied so as not to violate sacred meanings. Source: Helaine Fendelman and Joe Rosson, Scripps Howard News Service, "Scottsdale Tribune", 7/9/2005, D2

Santa Barbara School of the Arts

Reflecting a 1920s upsurge of cultural awareness in Santa Barbara, California, the school was founded by business persons as well as painters, sculptors, photographers, architects, composers and writers. Fernand Lungren, attending an organizing meeting in June 1920, served as President from the school's incorporation in January, 1921, until his death in 1932. Operating with Board decision to focus solely on training artists, the school faculty was composed of some of California's leading artists including John Gamble, Albert Herter, Carl Oscar Borg, DeWitt Parshall, Colin Campbell Cooper and Edward Borein. Stylistic leaning was to realism. The school struggled financially, although a Carnegie Grant saw it through its first years. However, the Depression and inability to get other supportive funding led to closing of the school in 1938. Its contribution continues because it was a major factor in the cultural enrichment of the community and led to the training of many successful artists. Source: Gloria Rexford Martin and Mildred Redmon, 'Santa Barbara School of the Arts, 1920-1938', "American Art Review", February 2010.

Santa Clara Pottery

Pottery whose signature mark is the bear's paw, it is made by Pueblo Indians of Santa Clara, New Mexico. Polished blackware and polished redware are the two most common types known commercially. They date back to about 1879 when examples were collected by representatives of the Smithsonian Institution. Demands for ceramics as collectibles rather than practical items led to a growing commercial market and to modifications such as pots which no longer hold water and aesthetic carved decoration. Carved designs first appeared in 1920, pioneered by Sefarina Tafoya, one of the most famous of the Santa Clara potters along with her daughter Margaret Tafoya. The blackware was smothered in dung before firing, causing carbon in the smoke to be absorbed by the clay. The bear's paw, a unique Santa Clara design, commemorates the bear who, according to Santa Clara legend, led the Indians to water in time of drouth. Source: "Native American Art of the Southwest" by Linda Eaton

Santa Cruz Art League

An association founded in Santa Cruz, California in 1919 by Frank Heath and Margaret Rogers, it was an outgrowth of a student painters' group of of Heath's and continues into the 21st Century in a location at 526 Broadway in Santa Cruz. The mission is encouragement of visual and performing arts through classes and exhibitions. Sources: Edan Hughes, "Artists in California, 1786-1940"; website: http://www.scal.org/

Santa Fe Art Colony

A loose knit association of artists active in the early 20th Century in Santa Fe, New Mexico, it was well established between 1900 and 1920 and remained active until 1942. Members "helped forge a robust regional art movement" and included artists and writers. About 75 artists lived there year round, and others were seasonal visitors. Credited founders of the Santa Fe colony were Carlos Vierra and Kenneth M. Chapman, and other members were Marsden Hartley, Andrew Dasburg, Robert Henri and John Sloan, who is regarded as the most dominant member. Accomplishments include establishment of the Museum of New Mexico in the Palace of the Governors, and participation in archaeological research led by professionals from the University and the American Archaeological Institute. Source: "Santa Fe Art Colony", Gerald Peters Gallery", Exhibition catalogue by Sharyn Udall and Julie Schimmel, 2006; Arrell Morgan Gibson, "The Santa Fe and Taos Colonies".

Sao Paulo Art Biennial

Founded in 1951 in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and held every two years since then, it is the second oldest biennial in the world. (Venice Biennale is the oldest, founded in 1895). Ciccillio Matarazzo (1898-1977), Italian-Brazilian industrialist, was the founder with the goal of bringing contemporary art to Brazil. The exhibition pavilion, named for him, features international and Brazilian art. Exhibition curators are rotated. American exhibiting artists include Peter Agostini, Anne Barry, Peter Shoemaker and Todd Siler. Sources: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/São_Paulo_Art_Biennial; AskART biographies.

Saturation

See Chroma or Intensity

Saugatuck (Ox-Bow) School of Painting

Founded by Chicago Art Institute teachers Walter Marshall Clute and Frederick Fursman in 1910 as a summer school, it was near the village of Saugatuck, Michigan. Subsequently the school was renamed Ox-Bow and was moved several times from its original site of Bandle Farm, property owned by artist Bessie Bandle and a place where Clute and Fursman loved to paint on the east bank of the Kalamazoo River. Final location was in Saugatuck at the Riverside Hotel, later named Ox-Bow Inn. In 1915, Fursman began a 30-year School Directorship and that same year, the School was gifted 110 acres for expansion and painting expeditions. In 1919, it was renamed Ox-Bow School of Painting and was taken over by the Art Institute of Chicago. Source: www.michiganhistorymagazine.com/extra/2008/septoct/saugatuck.html; http://www.ox-bow.org/history/; Edward Bentley

Scale*

Size in relation to some “normal” or constant size. Compare with proportion.

Scalp Lever School of Painting

A group of painters working in Scalp Level, Pennsylvania near Johnstown, the leader was George Hetzel who first visited the region in 1866. Between that time and 1898, Hetzel returned nearly every summer and brought other artists with him. The location was described as appealing to painters because in a small area it had "all the landscape elements a painter might desire." Among the visitors were Alfred Wall, Hugh Newll, Trevor McClurg, Olive Turney and Agnes Way. Source: Judith Hansen O'Toole, 'Painters of The Scalp Level School Revisited, American Art Review, February 2009.

Scandinavian Academy

See Academie Scandinave

Scarab Club

A Detroit organization formed in 1910, it had the purpose of providing a place of fellowship, instruction, and exhibition for artists. It is the descendant of the Hopkin Club, which started in 1907 by admirers of old "Bob" Hopkin, Detroit's first painter of wide repute. After Hopkin's death in 1910, Club members reorganized with the name Scarab Club, after the Egyptian beetle which, in the Egyptian culture, was a symbol of immortality. The Clubhouse is at 217 Farnsworth in Detroit, and the lounge has a large mural by Paul Honore. Source: www.dia.org/ucca/scarab/scarab.html

Scenography

Giving the appearance of a stage design or movie set, the term originated in theater with persons (scenographers) who could create such a dramatic effect. Included are sets, lighting, costumes and other effects such as projection. Source: "Wikipedia", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scenographer

School of Art

An art term, it refers to artists sharing creative ideas and methods that committed them "to a single theme, style, technique, and/or art philosophy".(60) An example is the 19th-century Hudson River School, about 60 artists whose 'school' was not an art school with classrooms, but was shared ideas and painting experiences with easels and sketch pads in the Hudson Valley. Source: Arrell Morgan Gibson,"The Santa Fe and Taos Colonies"

School of Fine Arts

See Minneapolis School of Fine Arts

School of Paris

An art term descriptive of three groups of French artists: Medieval manuscript illuminators, French artists working before World War I and French artists working between the two World Wars and beyond. The term is used most often to describe the latter group of artists who, when living in Paris, were influenced by artists from all over the world and by stylistic forces of modern art: Fauvism, Cubism, Abstraction and Surrealism. Leaders of this new era, which followed Impressionism, were Pablo Picasso, Henri Matisse, Constantin Brancusi, Amedeo Modigliani, Chaim Soutine, Marc Chagall, Piet Mondrian and Wassily Kandinsky. The movement's heyday succumbed to World War II and then to the rise of the New York School. Sources: Tate Modern – http://www.tate.org.uk/collections/glossary/definition.jsp?entryId=264; Wikiipedia; http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/School_of_Paris

School of Posillipo

A 19th century art movement in Italy, its exponents defied strictures of classicism of The Naples Academy of Fine Arts, and promoted depicting regional scenes generally recognizable. Common subjects were Bay of Naples, Mount Vesuvius, Pompeii and local landmarks. Artists associated with the movement are the Carelli family---Achille, Raffaele, Gonsalvo and Gabriel. Source: V. Bianco in AskART biography of Achille Carelli.

School of Representational Art (SORA)

Founded in 1990 in Chicago by Bruno Surdo, SORA is dedicated to training art students in traditional, academic methods, which Surdo learned in Minneapolis at the Atelier Lack. SORA has a four-year curriculum, with the first year learning to draw from casts, "the time honored tradition", and from live models. The second year is a transition from charcoal drawing to monochromatic oils, moving to bust portraiture and emphasizing accuracy of angles and anatomy. Still life is introduced in the third year, with life drawing and portraiture continued. In the fourth year, creative portraiture is the focus with emphasis on expressiveness or emotions, mood and symbolism. Source: Mark Mitchell, 'Sight-Size and More at SORA', "Drawing" magazine, Summer 2007

School of the Art Institute of Chicago

Descendant of the Chicago Academy of Design, whose first quarters were destroyed in a citywide fire in 1871, it became a part of the Art Institute of Chicago in 1882 with both a museum and this school. It has become one of America's largest accredited independent schools of art and design and provides undergraduate and graduate degrees. Its campus in downtown Chicago has seven buildings in the vicinity of the Art Institute building and with the Institute shares much administration and human resources. Source: Wikipedia

School of the California Guild of Arts and Crafts

See California College of Arts and Crafts

Schuler School of Fine Arts

Founded in 1959 in Baltimore by Hans C. Schuler (1912-1999), American sculptor and son of sculptor, Hans K. Schuler (1874-1951), the school continues into the 21st Century and is operated by Schuler family members including granddaughter, Francesca Schuler Guerin and great grandsons, Andy and Hans Guerin. Teaching is based on the Classical style commitments of Hans K. Schuler and Jacques Maroger (1884-1962) and their espousing of methods of the Old Masters. Housed in the former Schuler father/son studio at 9 East Lafayette Avenue in Baltimore, it is a four-year non-accredited atelier with classes in drawing required as the foundation for painting and sculpture. Source: http://www.schulerschool.com/

Scottish Colourists

A group of post-impressionist painters from Scotland, their work had a highly developed use of color and was first exhibited in the 1920s and 1930s. Their aim was "to subvert the classical use of tone and texture in landscape painting." Among this group were John Duncan Fergusson, Francis Cadell, Samuel Peploe and Leslie Hunter. In later years, the Scottish Colourists came to have significant influence on Scottish landscape painters. Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scottish_Colourists

Scratchboard

A method of creating a surface which can be scratched to produce an outline drawing, the underlying medium is a support board coated with a layer of alkyd clay, which then is coated with India Ink. This surface is scratched, scraped and stippled with sharp tools creating white lines (grooves) in a variety of textures to define the image. It is a precise and exacting medium and can have a dramatic effect. Scratchboard artists include Ernest Baber, Walter Battiss and Jerry McKellar. Source: Cynthia McBride, McBride Gallery, Annapolis, MD; Wikipedia

Screenprint, Silkscreen, Serigraph

An image made from a commercial reproduction process, paint or ink is forced through a fine screen onto the paper that has a stencil design so that exposed areas receive the paint. Parts that do not appear on the print are blocked with photosensitive emulsion that has been exposed with high intensity arc lights. To produce the direct transfer of the image from screen to paper, a squeegee is pulled from back to front. A separate stencil is required for each color if paint is used, and one hundred or more colors may be necessary to achieve the desired effect. The process is commonly used for printing posters, wallpaper, ceramic designs and text instructions on manufacturers goods. The term Serigraph means nearly the same thing as Screen-print or Silk-screen, but differs because of the degree of participation of the artist. Silk-screen printers are persons who make commercial art by doing translations from artists' sketches. In other words, as printers they are copying images and not creating them. But Serigraphs result from an artist's total involvement beginning with the making of the design and the stencils, and then the applying of the medium, usually paint, and then the pulling the copies. Because the creative hand-of-the-artist is totally involved, many art professionals argue that Serigraphy is a fine-art original process and not simply a printing process. This "fine-art" or creative approach to Screen-printing began in 1938 with New York City artists working for the Federal Art Project. Especially active were Anthony Velonis, Doris Meltzer, Harry Shokler, and Edward Landon. Art critic Carl Zigrosser coined the name and was so taken with the innovation he arranged for Serigraph exhibitions. Credit: Ralph Mayer, “A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques”; Peter Falk, "Who Was Who in American Art"

Scrimshaw Art

One of the oldest folk arts in America, it refers to any carving or etching by a whaler, and was a common pastime in the 18th and 19th Century and was often carving on ivory such as tusks. Origin of the name is not verified, but perhaps comes from the words "scrimp" to save and "shaw" to saw, or possibly from the British word "scrimshanker", meaning a time waster. Scrimshaw art did not become popular or collectible until it became known that President John F. Kennedy was a collector. The earliest known scrimshaw artist was Edward Burdett, and others are N.S. Finney and James Cox. Source: http://www.theantiquesalmanac.com/scrimshaw.htm

Sculpture in the Park

An annual sculpture exhibition and sale since 1983 in Loveland, Colorado during August, it is sponsored by the Loveland High Plains Arts Council. Each year, several sculptors are selected to do a work that will be installed in Benson Park, Loveland's city park. Participating sculptors include Darlis Lamb, George Walbye, Martha Pettigrew, Jan Mapes and David Turner. Source: Editor, 'Rocky Mountains Best of the West', "Southwest Art", July 2006, p. 96

Sculpture of the Inuit: Masterworks

Organized by the Canadian Eskimo Arts Council with the full name of “Sculpture of the Inuit: Masterworks of the Canadian Arctic”, also referred to as “Sculpture/Inuit”, was one of the first landmark exhibitions to introduce modern Inuit art to the world. It included works by 150 artists from 24 communities across the Canadian Arctic. The exhibition toured from 1971 to 1973 visiting the British Museum, London; the Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg; Les Grand Palais, Paris, France; the Philadelphia Museum of Art, Pennsylvania; Vancouver Art Gallery, B.C.; and National Museum of Man, Ottawa. Source: “Sculpture of the Inuit: Masterworks of the Canadian Arctic” (1971), by William E. Taylor Jr., George Swinton and James Houston (see AskART book references). Submitted by M.D.Silverbrooke.

Sculpture*

A three-dimensional form modeled, carved or assembled.

Sculpture/Inuit

See Sculpture of the Inuit: Masterworks of the Canadian Arctic

Scumble

The term for a "film of color laid over another paint so that it modifies the original color" but does not completely conceal it, the method creates paintings usually characterized by a pearly opalescence or a soft smoky optical effect. Scumblers are stiff bristle brushes used in the application of scumble. Source: Reed Kay, "Painters Guide to Studio Methods and Materials"

Scumblers

A term with two meanings, the first being stiff-bristled brushes that apply scumble (see Glossary) and the second being a self-assigned name of Bucks County, Pennsylvania artists who, from 1900 to 1920, regularly spent their summers together in Edison, near Doylestown in Bucks County. The area was noted for picturesque scenery and distinguished by a seven-arched stone bridge, dating from 1821, which crossed the Neshaminy River. Artist members identified as "Scumblers" include Winfield Bardsley, Clive Clevenger, Louis Dougherty, William Hofstetter, Ellis Oliver, Charles Grafly and John Ramsey Conner. Many of these visitors were lodged at Turk's Head Tavern in Edison, but the place where they socialized and did indoor painting was called "The Shack", a structure on property near Neshaminy Creek. Source: //www.employees.csbsju.edu/roliver/eao/scumblers/

Scuola Romana, Scuola di via Cavour

A 20th Century Italian art movement, primarily in Rome, its followers were committed to Expressionism, a rebellion against prevalent Neo-Classicism. There were two phases, 1928-1945 and mid 1950s, and the initial meeting place was a studio in a palace at 325 via Cavour in Rome. Members included Enrico Falqui Giuseppe Ungaretti, and Libero de Libero. Source: Wikipedia, //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scuola_Romana

Seavest Collection of Contemporary Realism

Focused on Contemporary Realist painters with the goal of realism in art, primarily American, the collection began in 1980 with Richard D. Segal of Westchester County, New York. He wrote: "What attracted me to the art which I purchased was simply appreciation of the aesthetic. . . I have learned and appreciated the power of poetry to offer 'a momentary stay against confusion' and found that works of art had that same effect on me". Artists represented include Janet Fish, Richard Estes, Neil Jenney, Richard Prince and Alice Neel. From September 14, 2003 to February 15, 2004, the Neuberger Museum of Art in Purchase, New York held an exhibition of the collection titled "Facing Reality". Sources: http://www.seavestcollection.org/; http://www.tfaoi.com/aa/4aa/4aa92.htm

Secession Art

Reference to a number of modernist groups, primarily in Europe, it was a late 19th, early 20th century movement of artists to separate themselves from Academic Art. The first secession was in Paris in 1890 with the establishment of the Salon au Champs-du-Mars. Led by Puvis de Chavannes and Meissonier, it was followed by Munich (1892), Vienna (1897), Berlin (1898)and Cologne-Budapest (1909). The term was coined by Georg Hirth, editor of the publication, "Junged", meaning Youth in English. Source: 'Secession Art', Wikipedia

Secondary Colors*

A hue created by combining two primary colors, as yellow and blue mixed together yield green. In pigment the secondary colors are orange, green and violet.

Seed Art

See Crop Art

Self-Portrait

A two or three-dimensional work of art, it is an artist's capturing his/her own image. Many of them as originals, or even as prints, are desirable collector's items because it is a way of sharing something very personal with the artist. Self-portraits are common in Europe and America from the 19th century, but the tradition is much earlier. In ancient Greek civilization in 438 B.C., sculptor, Phidias, reportedly was jailed for placing his self-portrait in the frieze he did for the Parthenon because it was perceived as equating himself with the gods. German artist, Albrecht Durer (1471-1528), was the first artist to create a significant number of self-portraits, beginning when he was age 28 with a depiction of himself as a Christ-like figure. Between 1629 and 1669, Van Rijn Rembrandt (1606-1669) did a series of self-portraits. Among 19th and 20th-century painters, styles of self-portraits are wide ranging from the more formal poses by William Merritt Chase and George de Forest Brush to semi-modernist of Thomas Eakins to the ultra-modernist renderings by Jean-Michel Basquiat and Jim Dine. Source: AskART database; John O’Hern, ‘Artists’ self-portraits’, “American Art Collector”, May 2006, pp. 40-45.

Sepia

A semi-transparent brown pigment, it comes from the ink sac of octopus and other cephalopods or tentacled marine animals. It is fairly permanent but as a watercolor fades in sunlight. Sepia was one of the inks used by Romans but enjoyed its greatest popularity during the hundred years war after the 1780s. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Serigraph

See Screenprint

Serravezza Marble

White marble from centry Italy, it comes from quarries near Pietra Santa where the Serra and Vezza Rivers converge. American sculptor Hiram Powers found this marble, having searched for material that was more pure than traditionally used Carrara marble. Serravezz marble is fine grained and resembles porcelain, which resembles the pure white-appearance sought by Powers. Source: Donald Martin Reynolds, "Masters of American Sculpture"

Sesquicentennial Exposition, 1926

An international world's fair in Philadelphia, May 31-November 1926, it commemorated the 150th anniversary of signing of the US Declaration of Independence, and the 50th Anniversary of the 1876 Centennial Exposition. Exposition symbol was an 80-foot Liberty Bell covered in 26,000 light bulbs at the entrance of the grounds, then known as League Island Park. Although about 10 million people attended, the Fair lost money and went into receivership. American artists participating included Louis Oscar Griffith, Albert Laessle, Hayley Lever, Wellington Reynolds, Eda Casterdon and Marie Danforth Page. Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sesquicentennial_Exposition; AskART biographies

Seven and Five Society

Formed in London in 1919, it held its first exhibition the following year. Initially it was a conservative group, espousing traditional art, and was a British manifestation of the return to order mentality following World War I. However, in 1924 Ben Nicholson, one of the pioneers of abstract art in Britain, joined the Seven and Five, and he was followed by other modernists including Barbara Hepworth and Henry Moore. They effectively hijacked the group, expelling the non-modernists. In 1935 they renamed it the Seven and Five Abstract Group and at the Zwemmer Gallery in London, held the first abstract exhibition in Britain. Source: Tate Collection, http://www.tate.org.uk/collections/glossary/definition.jsp?entryId=270

Sevres Porcelain, Sevres Porcelain Factory

Named for the French word for paste, both hard and soft, Sevres Porcelain was made from 1756, first at Vincennes and then at the royal factory of Sevres near Versailles. With the decline of Meissen Porcelain after 1756, it became the leading porcelain factory in Europe. The patronage of Madame de Pompadour played a major role in its prestige, and because of her the factory was moved to Sevres. Source: Encyclopedia Britannica eb.com

Sezessionstil

See Art Nouveau. This is the Austrian term for Art Nouveau and means Secession style.

Sfumato

From the Italian word for “smoke”, it is a technique of painting in thin glazes to achieve a hazy, cloudy atmosphere, often to represent objects or landscape in the distance. Use of the word came from Leonardo Da Vinci who used it to describe gradations of smoky tones in painting. Source: Wikipedia

Sgraffito, Sgraffiti

A technique used both for wall decoration and ceramics, it has layered applications of tinted plaster in contrasting colors onto a moist surface and then a scratched outline drawing on it. The technique has been used in Europe since classical times, and the term is derived from the Italian word "sgraffiare", which means to scratch. Artists associated with the technique include Hannah Bolton Barlow, Ernie Baber, Peter A. Davis and Heinz Gaugel. Sources: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sgraffito; AskART biographies

Shade/Shading

See Tone

Shape

A two-dimensional area having identifiable boundaries created by lines, color of value changes or some combination of these; broadly, form. See Form.

Shaped Canvas

A ground-breaking art method begun in the 1960s, it is description of canvas when it is manipulated to three dimensionality from its traditional use as two-dimensional. The term "shaped canvas" first appeared in September 1960 to describe a Frank Stella New York City exhibition at the Leo Castelli Gallery. Other American 'shaped-canvas' artists are Edward Clark, Lee Bontecou, Sven Lukin, Neil Williams, Charles Hinman, Richard Smith, Ellsworth Kelly, Kenneth Noland and Leon Polk Smith. Sources: “Phaidon Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Art”; Robert Atkins, “ART-SPEAK”

Sherwood Studio Building

Located at 58 West 57th Street in New York City, it has been described as the "uptown headquarters of art, seminal in the history of both art and housing." (Gray) Constructed in 1880 by art patron and real estate developer James Sherwood, it was pioneering as the first structure in the city to combine living and working space and was also the initial art-related facility in the neighborhood that became New York City's art center. Nearby buildings following The Sherwood were the Museum of Modern Art, the Art Students League, Carnegie Hall and upscale galleries such as Knoedler & Durand-Ruel. According to its builder, The Sherwood was to be a place for artists "in receipt of sufficient income to live comfortably, even elegantly." (Gray) The completed structure was a seven-story brick building with 44 apartments, 15 foot high studios, one or two bedrooms, an over-sized elevator to accommodate large artworks, and speaking tubes. Sherwood's great nephew, J. Carroll Beckwith, along with Frederic Church are credited with suggesting the facility, and Beckwith, who oversaw the construction, "lived and worked on the top floor of the building for over thirty years." Located near big brownstone town houses such as the Cornelius Vanderbilt mansion, 'The Sherwood' became the leading center of the city's social and cultural life in the early 1900s. (Harris) However, living there was not always blissful. Occupants including Beckwith complained that there was a party every night, that Sherwood was tightfisted about maintenance, that the building's heating system did not work, the elevator was not reliable, and dogs were not allowed, etc. Resident artists included Robert Henri, Al Hirschfeld, Willard Metcalf, Robert Van Boskerck, Henry Siddons Mowbray, Herbert Denman, William Allen Sullivant, Robert Reid, Samuel Isham, Harry Watrous and Carleton Chapman. The building was demolished in 1960, and replaced with an apartment house. Sources: Christopher Gray, 'Streetscapes', archives, "The New York Times", 8/9/1998. Harris Antiques biography; http://www.flickr.com/photos/smithsonian/2548320884/; John Davis, "Paintings and Sculpture in the National Academy of Design, 1826-1925", p. 35.

Shidoni Foundry

A foundry nationally known for the quality of its bronzes and their patinas, it is located in the Tesuque Valley five miles north of Santa Fe. The name, Shidoni, is from a Navajo word for greeting. The owner and operator is Tommy Hicks, who bought the 8 acres of land in 1971 when it was a farm. He replaced an apple orchard on the property with a sculpture garden and the chicken coop with the foundry. By 2004, there were 25 full-time employees who pour an average of 3500 pounds of bronze a week and create more than 1000 sculptures each year. A specialty is monumental pieces including a 36-foot tall depiction of "Don Juan" by John Houser that took four years in the casting process. Most of the casting is done with the lost-wax method, which involves 10 steps including digital computations. Single pour capacity is 750 pounds. Source: Dottie Indyke, "Southwest Art", July 2004. 'Playing with Fire'

Shin Hanga

A Japanese word meaning 'new prints' in English, it refers to a Japanese art movement that was strong between 1915 and 1962 but has lost strength because of sophistication within the international art market. Shin Hanga was a bringing back of the prevalent 17th to 19th century Japanese collaborative method of creating prints so they were affordable for many people. Market driven, especially in the United States, 20th century proponents rebelled against the dominant method of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which involved expensive prints made by artists as sole creators. Shin Hanga artists and promoters reinstated traditional "ukiyo-e" process of mass production with multiple creative hands. But Shin Hanga prints were not popular in Japan and have come to be regarded as having less value than “sosaku hanga”, solo artist created prints. Japanese “shin hanga” artists included Hashiguchi Goyo, Kawase Hasui, Ota Masamitsu and Yoshida Hiroshi. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shin_hanga

Shinnecock Summer School of Art

A school dedicated to plein-air painting, it was organized and opened in 1891 by William Merritt Chase in the Shinnecock Hills of Southampton on the east end of Long Island. The school, whose location was known as Students at the Art Village, lasted for twelve years and was the first major out-door art school in America. It was a pleasurable place for his many students to get away from the hot summers in New York City and also brought income to Chase who struggled financially during some of these years. The area was known for its beaches and dunes and conducive to Chase’s interest in "plein-aire" painting, especially atmospherics. Reportedly his daughter once ran to him shouting "Papa come quickly; here is a cloud passing for you." In addition to landscapes and genre scenes, Chase and his students painted Native Americans who occupied a nearby reservation. Chase’s large family, some serving as models for him and his students, stayed nearby in Southampton, a town that continues today to be an art colony. Open-air classes conducted by Chase attracted many curious observers. Once a week, he held public critiques that sometimes became loud and confrontational when he expressed strong disapproved of a painting. Reportedly he shouted at a student, who said her canvass expressed the way she felt, “the next time you feel that way, DON’T PAINT.” He repeatedly urged his students to keep their eyes open, “to be free and vigilant observers”. Fortunately for posterity, his wife Alice was a dedicated photographer whose surviving photos document many scenes of life at the Shinnecock Summer School. Well-known artists who studied there include Alson Skinner Clark, Alice Schille, Rockwell Kent, Gifford Beal, Elizabeth Strong, Charles Hawthorne, Arthur Burdett Frost, Ellen Rand, Rhoda Nicholls, Lydia Emmet, Gaines Donoho and Julian Onderdonk. Sources: Prudence Peiffer, ‘William Merritt Chase’, “Plein Air” magazine, July 2005; William Gerdts, “American Impressionism”; AskART database.

Ship Carvers

Sculptors who carved, usually in wood, decorative items for ships, including figureheads, furniture and architectural features, they had skills most in demand in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when America was beginning to build its fleet of sailing vessels and forming its Navy. In the last quarter of the 18th Century, Boston and Philadelphia were rivals in this activity, and a number of Ship Carvers worked there, producing a wide variety of work. Many of the early figureheads were allegorical with names such as Harmony, America, Minerva and/or referenced heroes in history such as Julius Caesar or Hannibal. However, by the early 19th Century, the trend shifted from Baroque, allegorical figures to less dramatic-appearing subjects including realistic portraiture such as Presidents George Washington and John Adams. William Rush of Philadelphia was one of the most famous Ship Carvers and for fifty years, oversaw a woodcarving shop in Philadelphia. Other Ship Carvers were Samuel McIntire, the Skillin brothers, John and Simeon Jr., and Samuel; John Brown, William Dearing and Daniel Train. (See Figureheads) Source: Ralph Sessions, 'William Rush and the American Figurehead', "The Magazine Antiques", Fall, 2005, pp. 148-153

Siccative, Drier

A compound obtained from several metals including lead, iron, manganese and cobalt, it accelerates the drying process when added to oil paint. However, pigments affect the drying process so some colors with driers added respond more quickly than others. Cobalt drier is regarded as the most effective. Siccative is another word for Drier, and Retardant is the opposite of Drier. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Silhouette

A term for any portrait, design or image in single line profile, it was historically an art form taken from a shadow cast by a candle on a sheet of paper. The name came from Eteinne De Silhouette, a mid 18th-century French Minister of Finance, who was derided for shallow, empty headed unfair taxation. At the time, French people, on the eve of the French Revolution, frequently dressed in black to symbolize their dark fate and described themselves as "a la Silhouette", or 'just shadows'. Silhouette portraiture became popular during the 18th and 19th centuries and was most often freehand cutouts of black paper pasted onto white cardboard. Carew Rice, a 20th century artist, became very popular in the American South for silhouettes of children and landscape scenes. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; Jack Morris, Morris & Whiteside Galleries, Hilton Head, SC

Silicon Carbide

See Carborundum

Silkscreen

See Screenprint

Silvermine Art Colony

Located in the 'silver mining' area of New Canaan, Connecticut, the colony was founded in the early 1900s when Solon Borglum, who loved the countryside and saw its potential, encouraged others to join him. With hospitality, he opened his home and barn, and from this gesture grew the Knockers, a group which, from 1908, met regularly in Borglum's barn to talk about developing an art school and creating exhibition opportunities. These early artists included Borglum, his brother Gutzon, Howard Hildebrandt, Edmund Ashe and George Avison, and they held their first exhibition together in 1908. Also, they critiqued each others' work and referred to this activity as 'knocking', so they called themselves the Knockers Club. In 1922 Solum Borglum died, and in 1924, the Club was incorporated as an art school with the name Silvermine Guild of Artists. The Colony continues into the 21st century and has hosted many luminaries such as Merce Cunningham, Milton Avery, Helen Frankenthaler and Jacques Lipchitz. Source: http://silvermineart.org/about/story.php

Simultaneous Contrast*

The tendency of complementary colors to seem brighter and more intense when placed side by side.

Singerie

French word for 'Monkey Trick', it was a satirical depiction of monkeys copying human behavior and was a popular subject among French Rococo painters. The French decorator Jean Berain the Elder is credited as reviving the depictions from the thirteenth century Egyptians. Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Singerie

Sir J.J. School of Art

See Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art

Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy School of Art

Known also as the Sir J.J. School of Art, it was founded in 1857 and is the oldest art institution in Mumbai, India. The name derives from Sir Jamsetjee Jeejebhoy, a businessman-philanthropist who donated initial funds. The government of India took over the school in 1866. That same year, Lockwood Kipling, father of Rudyard Kipling, became a leading, organizing professor at the school, which is now affiliated with the University of Mumbai. Students can earn Bachelor's Degrees in fine art and sculpture and Master's Degrees in Fine Art. Famous attendees include painters Akbar Padamsee, Francis Newton Souza and syed Haider Raza. Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sir_Jamsetjee_Jeejebhoy_School_of_Art

SIRIS

An acronym for Smithsonian Institute Research Information System, it is the inventories of American Painting and Sculpture. The Inventories of American Painting and Sculpture document more than 400,000 artworks in public and private collections worldwide. The Inventory of American Paintings includes works by artists who were active in America by 1914. The Inventory of American Sculpture has no cut-off date and includes works from the colonial era through contemporary times. These online databases are supplemented by a photographic collection of over 80,000 images. The photographs are available for study purposes in our Washington, D.C., office. Digital images are in the process of being added to the online database. Search the art inventory databases online via SIRIS (the Smithsonian Institution Research Information System). Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke; Source: http://www.americanart.si.edu/research/programs/inventory/

Site Specific

The words usually pertain to sculpture that is conceived for, dependent on, and inseparable from the location where it is placed. Scale, size, and placement result from an analysis of the particular environmental components. Richard Serra, installation sculptor, said: "The concept of site-specific sculpture has nothing to do with opinion or belief. It is a concept which can be verified in each case. . .The evidence of the process can become part of the content. . .How the work alters the site is the issue, not the persona of the author." ("Art and Theory", Edited by Charles Harrison and Paul Wood).

Situationist International

An artistic, political and cultural movement which was founded in the Italian village of Cosio d'Arroscia on July 28,1957, it is a fusion of several things among them CoBrA, Lettrism, Dada, Imaginist Bauhaus and Surrealism. Its most prominent member was the French writer Guy Debord (1931 - 1994). However, during its life several important artists were counted as members, among them, Asger Jorn, Jorgen Nash, Ralph Rumney, Armando, Jacqueline de Jong, Lothar Fischer, Heimrad Prem, Helmut Sturm, Hans Peter Zimmer, Ansgar Elde and Constant Nieuwenhuys. The movement’s political ideology was anti capitalist and called for the destruction of modern consumer, mass media driven society. Its artistic components were detournement, Anti-art, graffiti and Dada. They produced films, paintings, graphics, comics and posters. Their artistic stance was ‘there is no situationist art only situationist uses of art.’ Their most famous/infamous venture was decapitating the sculpture of the Little Mermaid in Copenhagen harbour (1964). A tamer example was mechanically painting 70 to 90 foot rolls of canvas then cutting them up to sell as individual works of art. Its architecture advocated buildings suspended from wires and cities constructed as one labyrinthine interconnected structure. The movement went through many purges and splits. J.V. Martin and Guy Debord were its only two constant members from its beginning to end, in 1972. Source: Written and submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke, Art Historian and Collector, West Vancouver, British Columbia.

Six Realists of Baltimore

An early 1960s group in Baltimore, it included Joseph Sheppard, John Bannon, Frank Redelius, Earl Hofmann, Thomas Rowe and Evan Keehn, all early students of Jacques Maroger. Their showings drew thousands to their downtown Baltimore gallery. Often paintings by the Six Realists were juried into annual exhibitions at The Butler Institute of American Art in Youngstown, Ohio. Most notable was the inclusion of work by Sheppard, Rowe and Miller in the 1962 Annual at The Butler Institute, [that stood] along with work of Ben Shahn and Edward Hopper." Source: http://melvinmiller.com/artist.htm

Skagen Painters

Scandinavian artists who painted "en plein aire" between 1870 and 1900 in Skagen, Jutland, the northernmost part of Denmark, they were attracted to the beautiful scenery and quality of light. Influenced by modernist movements in Paris, Colony members broke traditions of the Royal Danish Academy. Members included Laurits Tuxen, Karl Madsen, Viggo Johansen and Carl Locher. Because the artists made the location so popular, the colony folded because members could not find enough places to stay to gather at the same time and live in proximity to each other. Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skagen_Painters#Members_of_the_group

Sketch Artist

An artist who records an impression quickly in watercolor, pencil, or some other medium that is easily managed. The term applies to a number of circumstances, historical and current, including expedition artists who sketched geographical descriptions or to newspaper-hired artists working in courtrooms to record proceedings where cameras were either unavailable or not allowed.

Sketch/Study

A preliminary drawing for a more finished work of painting or sculpture or other type of artwork, it often is done hastily, spontaneously, and without detail to show only-to-be-developed compositional lines, mood, etc. A Sketch differs from a Study in that a Study is usually very detailed, well thought out, and not spontaneous. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Sketchbooks

Books with blank paper, they can be used for rough, usually un-detailed pencil, charcoal, chalk or watercolor sketches, which can be used for creating finished artwork. Some artists use these books for notes to document locations and or compositional ideas. The Fogg Museum at Harvard University has an extensive sketchbook collection, which, after five years of cataloging, resulted in 2006 exhibition. Source: Editor, 'Famous Sketchbooks on Display', "Drawing Magazine", Summer, 2006, p. 6

Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture

In Skowhegan, Maine on Lake Wesserrunset, it is a nine-week summer artists retreat residency program, founded in 1946 by artists including Willard Cummings, who served as its first President. Original and continuing focus has been on giving young artists a chance to study with established, leading-edge painters, who have included Alex Katz, Ben Shahn, Max Weber and Robert Indiana. The idea for the school was conceived by Cummings with Henry Varnum Poor and Sidney Simon, when they served in a war unit together during World War II. When the war ended, they spent a winter converting chicken coops and barns into studios on what had been Cummings' poultry farm. As time passed enrollment for each session is limited, and participants are chosen by a jury of artists and school governors. Each Enrollee is given a studio and living quarters, and more than half receive scholarships. Participants include Janet Fish, John Angus Chamberlain, Robert Indiana, and Mark Grotjahn. Sources: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skowhegan_School_of_Painting_and_Sculpture

Slade School of Art

Founded in 1871, and now a part of the University of London, it was an art school whose founding purpose was to "provide progressive training based on intensive study from the life model." Yearly prizes were awarded for portrait, life, antique and landscape drawing, and beginning in the 1890s, the University kept the award-winning works. North American artists attending the School include Philip Evergood, Helen McNicoll, Georges Ault, Cecily Brown, Anthony Caro, and Rachel Whiteread. Among famous English artist attendees were Dora Carrington, Ben NIcholson and Mark Gertler. Sources: Miriam Kramer, 'Reports from Europe', "The Magazine Antiques", January 2007, p. 40; AskART biographies.

Slipware

A type of pottery, it is decorated with clay body suspensions which have quartz feldspar and mica. Sometimes 'slips' are used to cover defects but primarily they are for decoration, a method that dates back to pre-historic cultures. Source: Wikipedia

Sobey Art Award

Canada's largest prize for a young Canadian artist, it is named for art collector and businessperson Frank Sobey. He established the Sobey Art Foundation, which is administered by the Art Gallery of Nova Scotia. Each first place winner receives $50,000., and $5000. is awarded to each of the 4 runners up. The criteria is that the artist be under the age of 40 and has exhibited in a public or commercial art gallery within 18 months of being nominated. From 2002 to 2006, it was a biennial award, and from 2006, an annual award. Recipients include David Altmejd, Brian Jungen, Marcel Dzama (runner up) and Annie Pootoogook. Sources: http://www.artgalleryofnovascotia.ca/en/sobeyartaward/abouttheaward/default.aspx; Wikipedia: Sobey Art Award

Social Realist, Social Realism

In American art, the term references socio-political themes beginning in the 1920s and 1930s Depression period as led by Robert Henri and John Sloan. Some of these artists and their followers were also dubbed by critics as the ASHCAN school because themes addressed victims of the industrial revolution and the extremes of capitalism and often were depictions of ordinary people going about daily life---some of them beggars whose food came from alleys and 'ash cans'. Ash Can artists included George Luks, George Bellows, Everett Shinn and Ben Shahn. After World War II, Social Realism became an all-purpose term applied to realistic artwork of working classes. The meaning also took on the implication that it was artwork for the less sophisticated, those who could only relate to blatantly realistic styles and not to the subtleties of abstraction. Sources: “Phaidon Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Art”; AskART database; Robert Atkins, "Art Speak".

Societe Anonyme, Inc.

Known as A Museum of Modern Art, the Societe opened in April 1920 at 19 East 47th Street in New York City and remained active until 1950. Organizing members were artists Katherine Dreier and Marcel Duchamp, and they served respectively as President and Secretary during the Societe's existence. The purpose was to provide a location to exhibit and promote modernist art, a venue that had disappeared with the 1917 closing of 291 Gallery of Alfred Stieglitz. At that time other galleries and museums were unwilling to be exclusive sponsors of contemporary art, so the Society Anonyme became the first museum of contemporary art in the United States as well as Europe. Between 1920 and 1940, the Societe held 84 exhibitions of artwork by avant-garde American and European artists. Also held were radio shows, symposia, readings and performances of modern dance and modern music. The ongoing legacy of the Societe Anonyme was its collection of over 600 works in all media, formed largely by Dreier and Duchamp and bequeathed in 1941 to the Yale University Art Gallery. Source: "Phaidon Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Art"

Societe des Artistes Independants

Formed in Paris in 1884 as a reaction against academic controls of exhibition-worthy painting, its founders included Georges Seurat, Paul Signac and Odilon Redon. Two years later they had their first exhibition, which, excepting the World War years, established a pattern of regular exhibitions, which focused on trends in early 20th century art. Since 1920, their headquarters have been in the Grand Palais. These exhibitions are known as the Salon des Independants and participants have included Bernard Buffet, Maurice Boitel, and Jean Carzou. Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org;/wiki/Société_des_Artistes_Indépendants; Online Encyclopedia Britannica

Societe Nationale des Beaux-Arts

An umbrella name for two groups of French artists who united, originally for occasional exhibitions, and then for annual exhibitions. The SNBA was organized in 1862 by writer Theophile Gautier and painter Aime Millet, and its first president was Ernest Meissonier. Other members were Auguste Rodin, Puvis de Chavannes, Eugene Delacroix and Leon Bonnat. In 1864, with the death of Delacroix, the SNBA held a retrospective of his work, 248 paintings and lithographs, and then ceased much activity until 1890 when it was revitalized. Its annual exhibition was reviewed with the name Salon de Champ-de Mars. This opened a fortnight after the Salon de Champs-Elysees of the Societe des Artistes Francais, and the exhibition continues into the 21st Century. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Société_Nationale_des_Beaux-Arts

Society for Sanity in Art

Founded in Chicago by Josephine Hancock Logan in 1936, it was opposed to all forms of modernism, including abstract expressionism, surrealism, and many other avant-garde movements. Branches of the group established themselves all around the country. Haig Patigian, a San Francisco sculptor and member of that city’s Bohemian Club, was an influential supporter of the Society and served as its president in the 1940s. Artists championed by the group included William Winthrop Ward, Florence Louise Bryant, Henry (Percy) Gray, Rudolph F. Ingerle, Frank Montague Moore, Thomas Hill; Frank C. Peyraud, Theodore Wores and Chauncey Foster Ryder. In 1939, a western branch of the Society for Sanity in Art changed its name to the Society of Artists, and later to the Society of Western Artists (SWA), which was eventually to become the largest representational art society west of the Mississippi. Source: Wikipedia

Society for Traveling Art Exhibitions

See Wanderers

Society of American Artists

A progressive art group organized in New York City in 1877 by young artists, it was a rebellion against strictures of the National Academy of Design and included Frank Duveneck, William Merritt Chase, Walter Shirlaw, John LaFarge, Eastman Johnson, George Inness, Alexander Wyant, Elihu Vedder, Abbott Thayer, Theodore Robinson, John Twachtman, J. Frank Currier, Thomas Dewing, William Morris Hunt, William Sartain and Homer Dodge Martin. Their purpose was to stir tolerance for non-traditional styles such as Tonalism and Impressionism, and to object to Academy policies such as the Board's adoption in 1877 of the 'eight-foot' rule, which reserved exhibition space on that line for each Academician so they had a visual-display advantage. The Kurtz Gallery in New York City hosted the first SAA exhibition in 1878. In 1906, the Society, having achieved its goals, merged with the National Academy of Design. Sources: William Gerdts, "American Impressionism"; "The Britannica Encyclopedia of American Art"; David A. Cleveland, ‘The New York Water Color Club’, “The Magazine Antiques”, November 2005, pp. 116-121; John Davis, 'John Beaufain Irving', "Painting and Sculpture in the Collection of the National Academy of Design, 1826-1925".

Society of American Etchers

Incorporated in 1888 and based in New York City, the purpose was the advancement and promotion of the art of etching and engraving. The first Directors were Thomas Moran, Charles Y. Turner, Frederick Dielman, James O. Nicoll, Henry Farrer, Hamilton Hamilton and William Sartain. Source: Archives, "The New York Times", December 22, 1888.

Society of American Landscape Painters

A short-lived exhibition group of twelve Tonalist-style painters, it was formed in 1898. Its members held five annual exhibitions and then terminated their association in 1903. Only the first two exhibitions made much impression, and the others had mixed reviews. reason given for the failure of sustaining interest is that the best-known Tonalist painters did not join such as Henry Ward Ranger, Dwight Tryon and Birge Harrison. Also, there was waning interest generally in Tonalism, and members of the Society went diverse ways. Source: Ralph Sessions, Introduction, "The Poetic Vision: American Tonalism", Spanierman Galleries, LLC exhibition book, 2005

Society of Animal Artists

The Society of Animal Artists is an association of animal and wildlife painters and sculptors. Founded in 1960, it is devoted to promoting excellence in the portrayal of the creatures sharing our planet, and to educating the public through its informative art seminars, lectures and teaching demonstrations. The Society's membership is represented by artists from the United States, Canada, Europe, Africa, Japan, and Australia are represented in the Society's membership. The goal of these artists is to help animal and wildlife art to achieve a place of honor in the field of fine art. Source: http://www.societyofanimalartists.com

Society of British Artists

See Royal Society of British Artists

Society of Canadian Painters-Etchers and Engravers

See Print and Drawing Council of Canada

Society of Graphic Designers of Canada

An organizational entity since 1956 with national certification. Its purpose is promoting high standards of visual design and ethical business practices through seminars, conferences and exhibits. Members are design professionals, educators and students. Source: http://www.gdc.net/

Society of Illustrators

Founded in 1901 in New York City by nine artists to "promote the art and appreciation of illustration, as well as its history and evolving nature", the Society of Illustrators continues as an educational and exhibition entity. Members are voted into admittance by being proposed by one active member, being sponsored by four additional ones, and completing an application form. Headquarters are at 128 East 63rd Street. Early members included Maxfield Parrish, Howard Pyle, James Flagg, Frederic Remington, and Howard Christy. Soruce: http://societyillustrators.org/about/history/index.cms

Society of Independent Artists

Founded in 1916 in New York City, membership was American and foreign artists who wanted a venue for exhibiting modernist artwork without restrictions of jury selection, style, or subject matter. It was a counter-gesture to the National Academy of Design and was modeled on the French Societé des Artistes Independants, a pre-World War I group that opened exhibitions to artists without controlling style or subject matter. A key figure was modernist Marcel Duchamp who came to New York in 1915 from France for his first extended stay. The first exhibition was March 6 to April 6, 1917 and was held at the Grand Central Palace in New York. With about 2500 paintings and 1200 artist participants, it was the largest art exhibition in American history. It was also one of the most controversial because it had no jury, and installation, which was alphabetical by artist name, appeared random and disorganized. Exhibitions continued on an annual basis, although none was as sensational as the first. By 1919, participation had dropped to about one third of the original group with many foreign artists dropping out in the face of increased American political isolationism. Among the most important artist-founders of the Society of Independent Artists in addition to Duchamp were Katherine Dreier, William J. Glackens, Albert Gleizes, John Marin, Walter Pach, Man Ray, John Sloan and Joseph Stella. The first managing director was Walter Arensberg, and John Sloan was President from 1918 to 1944. However, Duchamp and Arensberg dropped out after the first exhibition because Duchamp was denied entry for his “Fountain by R.Mutt”, the urinal piece that many found so shocking. Source: “Phaidon Dictionary of Twentieth Century Art”; Clark Marlor, “The Society of Independent Artists Exhibition Record 1917-1944.

Society of Medalists

Established in 1930 to encourage skilled sculptors to create medallic art, it is the oldest art medal organization in the United States. The Society has released 129 limited edition medals from 1930 to 1995. Each medal is bronze, and is struck exclusively by the Medallic Art Company. The first medal, "Hunter and Dog", 1930, was designed by Laura Gardin Fraser, and Geri Gould designed the 1995 medal, "Last Supper". In 1998, the Medal Collectors of America was formed in Portland, Oregon, and spearheaded by David Alexander, who was awared that collectors of medals had never formed their own organization. Although the organization is not officially tied to the Society of Medalists, it does publish a list of Society of Medalist winners for its collectors. Sources: Wikipedia; http://www.medalcollectors.org/Guides/SoM/SOM.html

Society of Men Who Paint the Far West

See Society of Painters of the Far West

Society of New Mexico Painters

See New Mexico Painters

Society of Ozark Painters

Founded in 1914 by Chicago artists Carl Kraftt and Rudolph Ingerle, the Society was dedicated to regional landscape painting of the Ozarks of south-central Missouri. Kraftt first visited the mountainous region in 1912. Painters were attracted there because they were enchanted by the dramatic landscape of the region and "the delicate color of its hazy atmosphere". The appeal of the Ozarks as a sanctuary increased with the turmoil of World War I, and many of the artists focused on scenes that contrasted with the ugliness of war. Kraftt painted there for more than two decades and referred to the region as his "cathedral of nature". (Kennedy 128) Sources: Elizabeth Kennedy, "Chicago Modern" Peter Falk, "Who Was Who in American Art"

Society of Painters in Oil and Watercolours

See Royal Watercolour Society

Society of Painters in Pastel

The first organized group in the United States to promote pastels as a serious medium. Founded in 1884 in New York City, the Society was also one of the more short-lived art societies as it dissolved in 1890, having had only four exhibitions. Reasons for termination are vague, but the founding of the New York Water Color Club in 1890 that embraced both watercolor and pastel and had many members of the SPP likely was regarded as a legitimate replacement. Members included Robert Blum, William Merritt Chase, John Twachtman, J. Alden Weir and Hugh Bolton Jones. The Society of Painters in Pastel has been credited as one of the major venues for the spread from Europe to America of the stylistic and personal influence of James McNeill Whistler because of his exhibition promotion in the Society led by Weir, Blum and Twachtman. Whistler, opening the door to Impressionism and Tonalism, has been described as having a "sketchy, intimate, and idiosycratic style, which successfully translated the most transitory effects of atmosphere and light onto toned paper." Source: David A. Cleveland, ‘The New York Water Color Club’, “The Magazine Antiques”, November 2005, pp. 116-121.

Society of Painters in Watercolour

See Royal Watercolour Society

Society of Painters of the Far West

Also known as the Society of Men Who Paint the Far West, this reference is to a group of early 20th Century eastern painters who traveled and worked in the American West. The earliest were sponsored in 1910 by the Santa Fe Railroad and the American Lithograpic Company, and the destination was the Grand Canyon of Arizona. Included were Elliott Daingerfield, Edward Potthast, Frederick Ballard Williams and De Witt Parshall. In 1912, they exhibited their paintings in numerous venues in the East, and among the additional artists were George Inness, Jr., George McCord, William Ritschel, Thomas Moran and Joseph Henry Sharp. Source: William Gerdts, "Art Across America", Volume III, p. 170

Society of Six

An association of post-impressionist painters formed in 1917 in Oakland, California, its members were William Clapp, August Gay, Selden Gile, Maurice Logan, Louis Siegriest and Bernard von Eichman. They were plein air painters who became known for their shockingly fresh, high color and direct approach. The height of their association lasted for more than a decade, and made a permanent impact on American art. William Gerdts wrote in his book "American Impressionism", 'The Oakland Six may constitute the most important modernist development that occurred in this country during the 1920s.' The Great Depression of the 1930s brought an end to the appeal of their optimistic, spirited expression. Source: "Society of Six", Essay on www.askart.com

Society of Western Artists (1896-1914)

Active in the American Midwest, it was founded by a group of eighteen impressionist artists led by William Forsyth, Theodore Steele, J. Ottis Adams and John Elwood Bundy. They were painters in Brown County, Indiana, and taking much inspiration from the lush countryside, expressed themselves in the style of Impressionism, which was being brought to America from France. The SWA was a banning together of these artists for exhibitions and mutual support in the face of strong opposition, especially after they exhibited their work at the Chicago 1893 Exposition. Chicago artist Francis Hopkinson Smith was one of the leading opponents of the work of these Brown County painters and their Society of Western Artists. Wikipedia; AskART Biography of Theodore Steele

Society of Western Artists, 1939 to Present

Founded in San Francisco as a branch for the Society for Sanity in Art, it has become the largest society of painters in realist style in the United States. One of their awards was the Logan Medal of Art, named for Josephine Hancock Logan, founder of the Sanity in Art. Among members were Oscar Berninghaus, Percy Gray and William Wendt. Source: Wikipedia and AskART biographies.

Society of Wildlife Artlists

See Federation of British Artists

Society of Wood Engravers

An international group of about seventy invited artists, they share the desire to promote relief printing techniques of wood engraving through mutual encouragement, education and exhibition. The Society was founded in 1920 by a group including Philip Hagree, Robert Gibbings, Lucien Pissaro, Gwen Raverat and Eeic Gill, and shortly after they were joined by David Jones, John and Paul Nash, Paul Gauguin and Clare Leighton. The organization, stressed by World Wars, now continues as a strong entity with regular exhibitions. Source: The Society of Wood Engravers, http://www.woodengravers.co.uk/about.html http://www.woodengravers.co.uk/about.html

South Kensington School of Art, London

A general and informal reference to what is now the Royal College of Art, the entity was founded in 1837 in London. Its initial name was Government School of Design. In 1853, then in separate buildings, it had the names of National Art Training School and Female School of Art. In 1967, these institutions received a Royal Charter as the Royal College of Art, which meant the two schools were combined as an independent university, which could grant its own degrees. The College, with wide-ranging art-related courses, has played a major role in the development of Pop Art in the 1960s in Britain and in modernist sculpture earlier in the 20th Century. The RCA building is in Kensington Gore, a street in central London along side Hyde Park. Students include Tony Cragg, Frank Auerbach and Chris Ofili. Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org

Southern States Art League

An organization formed in 1921 in Charleston, South Carolina and continuing into the 21st century, its purpose is to promote art and artists of the region through exhibitions focused on Southern art. Elizabeth O'Neill Verner was "Charleston's most dedicated member of the League." Source: Martha R. Severens, "The Charleston Renaissance"

Southwestern Association for Indian Arts

Established in 1980, the purpose is to provide financial support to living American Indian artists whose careers are highly promising. Also included is exhibition space at the Santa Fe Indian Market and increased national publicity through special promotion. Recipients include Angela Babby and Larson Goldtooth. Source: http://www.swaia.org/cnewsd.php?id=115

Spanish Village Art Colony

In Balboa Park, San Diego, it is an art colony on 1,200 acres dating back to the mid 1930s, when its Center building of Spanish-Renaissance architecture was constructed for the California Pacific International Exposition in 1935. Sherman Trease was the initial organizer of the art center, which grew from a dilapidated set of buildings into an tourist attracting art village of 1200 acres with zoo, performing arts theatres, museums, restaurants, and 38 artist studios. It closed during World War II and resumed operation in 1947. Activities include woodcarving, painting, pottery, fiber art, metal work and glass blowing. Early Spanish Village artists included Jeanne Rimmer and Anni Baldaugh. Sources: http://www.aroundandaboutsandiego.com/spanish_village.html; San Diego Historical Society

Spatialism

An art movement founded by Lucio Fontana in Milan in 1947, its purpose was to denounce traditional artwork methods and media and bring together 'artwork' that combined color, sound, space, movement and time. Fontana's first piece representing his theories was "Black Spatial Environment", an all-black room. Other works followed including canvases with holes and slashes. It is written that "although Fontana's ideas were vague, his outlook was influential, for he was one of the first to promote the idea of art as gesture or performance, rather than as the creation of an enduring physical work." Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spatialism

Spin Art

Spin art is an art form that primarily uses paint, a canvas and a spinning platform. To create spin art, an artist initially decorates or drips paint onto a canvas. The canvas can be anything; however, the most common form of canvas is a small rectangular piece of cardboard. Before the paint on the canvas dries, the artist secures the canvas to a platform that can be rotated at high speed. Once the canvas is secure, the artist can then begin spinning the canvas. Most spinning platforms are electrical or battery operated, with more elaborate platforms enabling the artist to vary the rotational speed. As the canvas rotates, centrifugal forces draw the wet paint outwards, creating intricate designs. The artist can drip more paint onto the canvas while it is spinning, thus layering paints on top of each other, creating different effects. Using different colors, a skilled spin artist can blend colors together into subtle designs. Source: Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spin_painting

Spiral Group

A New York City-based collective of fifteen African-American artists, mostly within the tradition of modernist abstraction, they met "in the 1960s to discuss their relationship to the civil rights movement and the shifting landscape of American art, culture and politics." Included were Charles Alston, Romare Bearden, Hale Woodruff, Merton Simpson and Norman Lewis. Incentive for banding together was the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in August 1963. In 1965, the group held their first exhibition at a space on Christopher Street, which was also their meeting place. Although the group disbanded with time having had much dialogue of varying opinions, questions they discussed such as aesthetic sensibilites specific to racial identity and relationship of black artists with social concerns of black Americans continued to influence contemporary black American artists. Source: www.studiomuseum.org

Sporting Art

A general term for paintings and sculpture, usually in realist style, depicting people in outdoor recreational activity involving hunting and fishing, which is also known as ‘field and stream’. Also included are equestrian activities such as racing and field hunting with dogs and horses as well as yachting. Other common subjects are wild animal hunting, fly fishing, shooting waterfowl and shorebirds, waterfowl decoys, foxhunting, and even still life of hunting objects. The term has expanded from its origins, which are tied to gentility and the leisure activities of 18th-Century British noblemen. While enjoying their sport as 'country gentlemen, they wanted to commemorate their favorite horses, dogs or other sporting scenes, and would ask the top artists of the day to depict these subjects. A scholar and collector of Sporting Art is Robert B. Mayo, whose essay, “American: The Sporting View”, was published in 1985 by the Longwood Fine Arts Center in Farmville, Virginia. In this essay, he traces Sporting Art in America back to 1607 in Jamestown Colony when Captain John Smith made the comment that “birds blocked out the sun on their Southern migration.” At first hunting was a necessity for survival, but by the mid-18th Century, some Americans of comfortable circumstances were treating it as sport. By the mid-19th Century, hunting and fishing were common activities of genteel men. Gradually Sporting Art has worked its way into a respected part of American Art, but its status remains secondary because of its close association with illustration in popular magazines such as “Field and Stream” and the purchase by the ‘masses’ of widely published lithography prints of Currier & Ives and by Ducks Unlimited, a conservation organization of the late 20th Century. American artists known for Sporting Art include Robert Abbett, Bob White, Frank Benson, Edmund Osthaus, Ogden Pleissner, William Tylee Ranney, Aiden Ripley, and Arthur Fitzwilliam Tait. Sources: “Gray’s Sporting Journal”, Christie’s Auction House-Sporting Art Auction; Stephen O’Brien Jr. Fine Arts; Cross Gate Gallery; http://www.tfaoi.com/aa/2aa/2aa238.htmAskART database. (LPD)

St. Botolph Club

A men's club organized in Boston in 1880 to promote art and literature. The group sponsored exhibitions from which they formed a Club collection. In 1888, the Club held the first (anywhere) one-man exhibition of work by John Singer Sargent, which was a huge success. St. Botolph's Club also held Boston's first exhibition of paintings by French Impressionist Claude Monet. The Club, located at 199 Commonwealth Avenue, continues its existence with more emphasis on socializing than on art exhibitions. Credit:http:www.jssgallery.org/Letters/Notes/St_Botolph_Club.htm

St. Ives Colony

A group of American and British painters and sculptors who have worked and socialized together in St. Ives, a fishing village in Cornwall, England. Continuing as an active colony into the 21st century, it began in the late 19th century with British painters Julius Olsson, Adrian Stokes and Louis Grier. They set up an organization called the St. Ives Arts Club, composed of visiting and resident artists. St. Ives in its early years attracted many American painters who found the extraordinary light conducive to their newly-adopted style of Impressionism. The town of St. Ives with its cobbled streets, fishermen’s cottages and exotic harbor views, was on an early railroad line, which facilitated visitors who came in droves beginning in the late 1870s. One of the early arrivals was James McNeill Whistler who visited in 1883 with British painter Walter Richard Sickert. Among the American artists to spend time at the newly-established colony of St. Ives was Edward Emerson Simmons who arrived in 1886. He became a key figure in the colony, and did "a series of marine paintings that remain his best-known easel paintings". (Gerdts) Impressionist Francis Brooks Chadwick was there in 1887, and Walter Schofield arrived in 1903. George Gardner Symons arrived in 1898, and inspired by the scenic outdoor vistas, adopted plein-air painting techniques. Hayley Lever was at St. Ives in the 1890s and began his signature seacoast paintings. Modernist painter Edith Cockcroft was there in the early 20th century, and exhibited one of her resulting paintings at the National Academy of Design in 1908. Canadian Emily Carr was there in 1901, and painter and illustrator Anne Fish was at St. Ives before World War I. George Turland Goosey arrived in 1921. Many of these artists took over fishermen’s cottages, which were increasingly vacated with the decline of the marine industry. Ironically the influx of artists boosted the local economy at a time of economic depression. During World War II, the St. Ives School of Paintings, was established under the influence of British sculptors Barbara Hepworth and Ben Nicholson. American sculptor Brian Wall became Hepworth's assistant there in 1954. Sources: "Phaidon Dictionary of Twentieth Century Art"; William Gerdts, "American Impressionism"; AskART database; http://www.bbc.co.uk/legacies/work/england/cornwall/article_1.shtml

St. John's Wood Art School

Founded in London in 1878 at 7 Elm Tree Road NW in the City of Westminster, its curriculum co-ordinated with the Royal Academy Schools, which means the teaching of traditional, sound, and basic techniques. Source: Internet, "Every Woman's Encyclopedia"

St. Paul School of Fine Arts

Founded in 1894 by several local artists and community leaders as the St. Paul School of Fine Arts, it was incorporated in 1926 as the St. Paul School of Art. Professors were Dewey Albinson, George Resler and Cameron Booth, who saw the school through growth and the move to a mansion home on Summit Avenue in St. Paul. In 1940, the school added an art collection with a large bequest of Chinese Jade. From the 1950s it had successive names: Saint Paul Gallery and School of Art, Saint Paul Art Center, Minnesota Museum of Art (1969), and Minnesota Museum of American Art (1992). Other locations included the Landmark Center and West Publishing Company in St. Paul. The Museum is now closed, and its 3,500 works of American art are stored in a facility near St. Paul. Source: Minnesota Museum of American Art, http://www.museumsusa.org/museums/info/6415

St. Petersburg Academy of Arts

See Russian Academy of Arts

Stable Gallery

Originally located in an old livery stable in New York City on West 58th Street, it became famous for representation of New York School Abstract Expressionist painters. Its founder was Eleanor Ward who originally sold mannequins from the location. In the mid 1950s with the 9th Street Art Exhibition, she began featuring the abstract painters with the Stable Annual. Among the artists were Elaine and Willem De Kooning, Hans Hofmann, Joan Mitchell and Robert Motherwell. By 1960, the Stable Gallery was located at 33 East 74th Street. It closed in 1970 with Edith Ward announcing she was going to become a private consultant. Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stable_Gallery

Starving Artists of North Texas

Beginning in 1966, this group started with a painting class taught in Arlington by artist Josephine Mahaffey and Dora Nichols, long-time Arlington educator and artist. The goal was to provide a venue for regional artists to sell their works to the public at reasonable prices. Soon other area groups started similar projects, and by 1970 the name changed to The Arlington 200 Art Association and in 1992 to Arlington Visual Arts Association. Source: http://www.arlingtonvisualarts.com/about_avaa.html

Statue/Statuary

A carved or modeled figure, especially of a person or animal, it derives from a tradition which goes back to earliest recorded cultures. However, among 19th and early 20th-century American sculptors, creating statuary, usually in neo-classical and realist styles, was ‘bread and butter’. It was a time when heroes were celebrated with public monuments, and sculptors received commissions for commemorative works from institutions, city governments and individuals. Many of the sculptures had allegorical and religious themes to suggest that the subject transcended commonality and was associated with that which was lofty, grand and noble. Nude figures were acceptable in that Victorian period as long as certain rules were followed. The context was to be an uplifting theme to avoid any suggestion of carnality or sensual desire. Often white marble was used for these nude figures to suggest virginity and purity. American sculptors of this era known for their public statues included Thomas Ball, Augustus St. Gaudens, William Couper, Daniel Chester French, Thomas Crawford, Gertrude Whitney, Richard Greenough, Hermon Atkins MacNeil, Lorado Taft, Alexander Milne Calder, Myra Musselman-Carr and Launt Thompson. Sources: Greta Elena Couper, "An American Sculptor on the Grand Tour"; Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; AskART database

Statuette

A carved or modeled figure or figurine that is half size or less of the actual figure. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Ste. Genevieve Art Colony

Active from 1932 to 1940 in Ste. Genevieve, Missouri, a French Colonial town near St. Louis dating to 1735, artists were attracted to its picturesque beauty. Most Genevieve artists were Regionalists dedicated to finding meaning in their own surroundings. Founders were Jesse Beard Rickley and Aimee Schweig. Affiliated artists were Thomas Hart Benton, Joe Jones, Fred Conway, Max Ziegler, Joseph Vorst, Oscar Thalinger, Bernard Peters, Joseph Meert, Miriam McKinnie, Martyl Schweig and Sister Cassiana Marie. The town remains a tourist attraction with local groups sponsoring tours of French Creole homes, the annual King’s Ball, and a Winter Rendezvous with French Christmas festivities. From October 16 to December 3, 2005, the St. Louis Art Guild sponsored an exhibition titled “The Art Colony of Ste. Genevieve”. Sources: http://www.stlouisartistsguild.org/art_exhibits/bio/ste_gen.htm; http://www.saintegenevievetourism.org/events.htm

Stencil Graffiti Art

Made from a cut out design, it is transferred to a surface through the use of spray or roll on paint. The method with political message meaning has become a worldwide subculture movement among certain artists mid to late 20th century artists including Banksy, Jef Aerosol, Hugo Kaagman and Blek Le Rat. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stencil_graffiti

Stencil Print (Inuit)

An Inuit (Eskimo) printing method. ‘The printmaker traces the source drawing onto stiff sheets of water-resistant stencil paper. Using a very sharp knife, she or he cuts openings into the stencil papers where colour is to be applied to the ground, or print paper. Laying a cut-out stencil directly against a clean sheet of print paper, the printmaker uses a thick stencil brush to tap inks through the openings on the stencil and onto the print paper. After one ink dries, the process is repeated using separate stencils to apply different colours. Stencil is often used in accompaniment with stonecut, allowing for subtle tonal or colour variation.’ Kenojuak Ashevak, Luke Anguhadluq, and Luke Iksiktaaryuk are prominent artists in this medium. Source: Canadian Museum of Civilization. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke.

Stencil/Stenciling

See Theorem Painting/Stenciling

Stendahl Art Galleries

Founded in 1921 on Wilshire Boulevard in Los Angeles by Earl Stendahl, the gallery played an important role in early 20th century southern California art. Initial focus of the gallery was Primitive or Pre-Columbian art, but contemporary art was added. Among the artists who exhibited there were Jean Charlot, Edgar Payne, Guy Rose, William Wendt and Armin Hansen. Source: siris-archives.si.edu/ipac20/ipac.jsp?uri=full

Stereochromy/Mineral Painting

A method of mural painting, intended to resist the effects of damp and pollution, it had a brief period of popularity in the 19th century. It is essentially a variation of fresco: after the paint has been applied to the plaster, it is coated with a solution of water glass (potassium silicate or sodium silicate), which provides a protective film when it dries. Because water glass is strongly alkaline, it can be used only with certain pigments. Some of the mural paintings in the House of Lords in London were executed in the medium because it was thought that they would be proof against the damp and dirty atmosphere of London. However, they deteriorated within ten years. Later the process was improved, but because of its complexity and limitations it never became popular. Source: http://arts.jrank.org/pages/14249/water-glass-painting-%28also-called-mineral-painting-stereochromy%29.html

Stereography/Stereoscopy

A photographic method that produced the illusion of depth, it was invented in 1840 by Sir Charles Wheatstone. The method involved lenses spaced the same distance apart as human eyes, which, in turn provided the viewer with side-by-side images. When viewed through a stereoscopic apparatus, the effect was three-dimensional. Oliver Wendell Holmes wrote that the effect “is a surprise such as no painting ever produced. The mind feels its way into the very depths of the picture.” (Viewpoints) On an 1859 Lander Expedition of the Overland Route west through Wyoming, Albert Bierstadt and Francis Frost went along as artists and creators of stereoscopic images. Bierstadt's brothers, Albert and Charles Bierstadt, became well known as stereographers. Sources: Wikipedia; Gordon Hendricks, "Albert Bierstadt"; Fern and Kaplan, "Viewpoints", p. 26

Stile Liberty

See Art Nouveau. The term in Italian derives from the London department store that made and sold Art Nouveau fabrics.

Still Life*

A painting or other two-dimensional work, the subject matter is usually an arrangement of inanimate objects such as fruit, flowers, tableware or pottery. Traditionally they are brought together for pleasing contrasts of shape, color, and texture and/or to feature the arrangement of the objects to each other. Source: Merriam-webster.com

Stimmungsimpressionisten

Meaning “mood impressionists”in English, it is a style of late 19th Century Austrian landscape painters. They preferred picturesque effects and mixed colors, and produced paintings substantially different from those of the French Impressionists of the same decade. The landscape paintings of Tina Blau is representative of this style, known for startling simplicity and directness. Source: Richard Rhoda, Richard Rhoda Fine Art.

Stipple, Stippling

A unique type of engraving, it is created by employing a multitude of flicks or dots rather than the lines used in etching or engraving. The higher the density of dots in an area the darker the plate will print and therefore, the stipple is a tonal as opposed to a linear method, producing light and dark contrasts. Francesco Bartolozzi (1727-1815), an Italian artist, was especially noted for stippled engravings. Source: Rogallery.com

Stippling

A pattern of closely spaced dots or small marks, it is used to create a sense of three-dimension on a flat surface, especially in drawing and printmaking. See also HATCHING, CROSS-HATCHING. Stippling can be achieved with an engraving or etching process by using a needle to inflict "minute depressions of varying depth into the surface of the copper plate". The method, developed in England and perfected in France in the early 19th century, is especially conducive to to receiving color. Because of subtlety of tone and "seamless transition of color", it has been a popular method with botanical artists. Source: "Joel Oppenheimer" 35th Anniversary Catalogue, 2004, of the Natural Art Gallery

Stone

Rock that has been suitably cut for carving, it is a traditional material for sculptors since prehistoric times and up to the advent of bronze casting. Sandstone, marble, granite and limestone are the most commonly used stone for sculptors, but in modern commercial definition, marble is in a separate category. Of working with stone, sculptor Isamu Noguchi said: "Stone is directly linked to the core of matter. It is a molecular conglomeration, so to speak. If you strike a stone it echoes back with the spirit of existence within us. It is an echo of the whole universe . . . It had a life before the existence of human beings . . . Stone is always old and new, and like a living being it exists with links to the past, the present,, and the future. . . Stones are the bones of the earth." (Duus 317) For most sculptors, stone is extracted from quarries such as Carrara in Italy or Aji in Japan. The work, which often involves slicing into mountainsides, is extremely dangerous, and a single mistake with loose boulders or flying chips can kill and injure workers. Among American sculptors other than Noguchi who are noted for working in stone are Jenny Holzer, who carves text political and social messages into site-specific stone formations, and Oreland Joe who carves Indian figures reflective of his Navajo-Ute heritage and who works primarily in alabaster, marble and limestone. Likely the most famous stone carver in western art history is Gutzon Borglum, who designed and oversaw the carving of the Presidential portraits into the side and top of Mount Rushmore in South Dakota. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; Masayo Duus, "The Life of Isamu Noguchi"; AskART database.

Stone City Art Colony

During the Depression year summers of 1932 and 1933, Grant Wood organized the Stone City Art Colony to promote regional art, specifically that which reflected the distinctive character of the Midwest. He was assisted by Marvin Cone, and funding came from a Carnegie Foundation Grant. The Colony was headquartered in the large, limestone mansion of the Green Estate, overlooking Stone City, Iowa. Students lived in ice wagons converted into living quarters. The Depression caused the colony to close after only two seasons. Stone City is a small unincorporated village situated along the Wapsipinicon River in east central Iowa. Before the invention and widespread use of Portland Cement, Stone City was a thriving community. It's three large limestone quarries supplied the finest building stone in the region. Today Stone City is a slow, quiet, picturesque place where one can remember the past and consider the future. Source: The Stone City Art Colony and School, http://projects.mtmercy.edu/stonecity/colony.html

Stonecut Print

An Inuit (Eskimo) relief printing method, it is much like linocut or woodcut except utilizes stone, which is abundant in the Arctic. Kenojuak Ashevak and Luke Iksiktaaryuk are prominent artists in this medium. Source: Canadian Museum of Civilization. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke.

Stonelain Pottery

See Associated American Artists

Stoneware

Pottery fired at a high temperature so that it is non-porous and extremely long lasting, it is the opposite of earthenware, which is porous, hard paste and fired at a low temperature. Examples are many 19th-century stone crocks and stoneware. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"

Straight Photography

See F/64

Straw Applique, Straw Art

A decorative art method, spread to North America from Spain via the Moors in the 18th and 19th centuries, it became popular in the Rio Grande Valley as an inexpensive way to decorate churches with artwork that looked like it was made from gold and ebony. The process involves splitting and flattening straw and then removing of the soft inner pith, which results in very thin pieces of golden straw. There are many methods of straw "applique" such as gluing the straw to a surface, "encrusting" the straw in a layer of pine pitch or other varnish or lacquer, or actually inlaying it into the usually wooden surface. Straw can be applied to many surfaces, including fabric and wood. Current thought holds that the art of straw appliqué died out in New Mexico in the late nineteenth century and was revived in the early twentieth century by master artists Eliseo and Paula Rodriguez. Sources: Richard McCord, 'Eliseo and Paula Rodriguez', "Santa Fe Living Treasures", 'Straw Applique', "American Museum of Straw Art", //www.strawartmuseum.org/app_tour1.htm; 'Straw Applique & Inlay', "Spanish Colonial Arts Society"//www.spanishcolonialblog.org/traditional-arts/straw-applique/

Street Art

See Graffiti, Street Art

Street Painters

A group of painters in New York City in the late 1970s and early 1980s, they were committed to directness and avoidance of interference or time lapse between seeing, recording and preserving in paint of what the artist saw. The Street-Painter method was to set up an easel on the street and then paint on the spot what was observed. Because there was no masking of harsh realities, the movement resembled the early 20th century social- realist Ash Can painters that included Robert Henri and John Sloan. Source: Jessie Benton Gray and Don Gray, Street Painters. Members of the Street Painters were Tad Day, Ronald DeNota, Jessie Benton-Evans, Simon Gaon, Don Gray, Myron Heise, Kenneth McIndoe, and Philip Sherrod.Gaon and Sherrod were the founders, and began as Street Painters with Times Square as their painting location. They received media coverage, held panel discussions, were reviewed in magazines and newspapers, and held exhibitions including at the Bond Street Gallery, World Trade Center, and Adelphi University.

Studio Building, Boston

From 1861 to 1906, it was located on Tremont Street and became the center of 'bohemia' in Boston. It housed artist studios and theatre companies and offered art classes and exhibitions. Tenants included artists William Morris Hunt; William Furness, Jr.; William Rimmer, and gallery owner, Seth Morton Vose.

Studio Building, Toronto

The home and working place for several members of the Group of Seven (see Glossary) painters, it is located at 25 Severn Street and is "of enormous significance in the history of Canadian art." Today the building has National Historic Site status, which protects the exterior but not the interior from alteration. The structure was completed in 1914 and has northern exposure conducive to studio painting. It was financed by Lawren Harris, who had family fortune from Massey-Harris farm machinery company, and Dr. James MacCallum. Among the original occupants in addition to Harris were Alexander Young (A.Y.) Jackson, Arthur Heming, and Tom Thomson. Frederick Varley and Tom Thomson occupied a shack at the rear of the building, and in 1962, the McMichael Canadian Art Collection moved the shack to its facility in Kleinburg. By 1946, the heyday of the building had passed; Lawren Harris moved to New Hampshire, and sold the building to Gordon MacNamara, an attorney and watercolor painter. A.Y. Jackson was the only original tenant who stayed on, and he left in 1955. In a letter to him, Lawren Harris wrote: "Your moving from the Studio Building marks the end of an era, . . ." Source: Wikipedia: Studio Building

Studio Group, Wilmington, Delaware

Founded in 1935 in Wilmington, Delaware by three artist friends, Mildred Edinger, Marion Howard and Eugenia Rhoads, the goal was to find a studio where they could work together and have critic guests for artistic advice. Other early members included Margery Pyle, Jeannette Edwards and Clara Finkelstein. From inception, the group has met once a week and continues into the 21st century. The first studio location was 1616 Rodney Street in the Bancroft Studios area, and today the Studio is the building that housed the studio of Howard Pyle. Source: Helen Farr Sloan Library, Delaware Art Museum, http://www.delart.org/collections/HFS_library/finding_aids/Studio_Group_archive.htm

Study

See Sketch/Study

Stump

See Tortillon

Style

A characteristic, or number of characteristics, which we can identify as constant, recurring, or coherent in a work of art, it is the personal means of expression and techniques of the artist. Source: William Kloss,"The World's Greatest Paintings", The Teaching Company

Stylized

Descriptive of works based on forms in the natural world, but simplified or distorted for design purposes. Source: Artlex.com with permission of Michael Delahunt.

Sublime

In the context of aesthetics, it is a concept dating back to the ancient world, and when applied to American landscape painting, it especially pertains to the 19th-century Hudson River School. Historical American painter Washington Allston (1779-1843) lectured on the Sublime from principles he had learned in England. He described it as an "infinite idea" of which we are not necessarily even aware, but which operates as the ‘true cause’ of the ‘ever stimulating, yet ever-eluding’ nature of experience that . . .’the imagination cannot master’ and which will thus ‘master the imagination’. Perpetuated by Thomas Cole and his followers, the sublime relates to creating artwork so large in size and so stirring of imagination the viewer is overwhelmed and is transported by feelings of reaching a plane higher than 'humaness'. In other words, a special power seems to be emanating, which often stimulates imagination and stirs fear and uncertainty. It is the opposite of 'beautiful'. Techniques to create the Sublime for the Hudson River School painters were depictions of wilderness as overpowering with vaguely threatening geological structures – such as mountains, canyons, and trees split by lightening. These effects inspired shudders of fear and feelings of awe at the enormity of the divine creation and uncertainty as to the resolution. Source: Andrew Wilton and Tim Barringer, "American Sublime, Landscape Painting in the United States, 1820-1880", pp. 11-12

Sufism, Sufi

Inner mysticism of Islam, Sufism is spread through congregations or Sufis, followers who gather around a master and seek perfection of worship or what they believe to be the pure original form of Islam as revealed to Muhammad. Artists described as practicing Sufism create artwork asserting the truth of this Islamic religion. Artist followers include Shakir Hassan Al Said and Jawad Saleem. Source; 'Sufism', "Wikipedia", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sufism (Accessed 6/3/2013); AskART biographies

Sugar-Lift Etching (aka: Lift-Ground Etching

A process which enables a positive image to be made on the etching plate in any shape that has been first painted with a solution mixed with sugar. To achieve this the artist first executes a drawing (painting) on the ungrounded etching plate in water-soluble ink, usually containing a high proportion of sugar syrup, then covering it with a water-permeable ground. The plate is then immersed in water so that the areas of ground above the ink lift away as the sugar dissolves. The plate is then exposed to the action of acid, so that all areas of bare metal are corroded. For more information about the etching process see the glossary entries for Etching and Aquatint. Source: Museum of Modern Art, New York. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke.

Sumi-e ink

A Japanese word, which when translated to English, means “ink picture”. It’s an ancient Asian painting style carried out in the fewest possible brush strokes entirely in black ink, with no additional color but often giving the impression of color through manipulation of tone. This aesthetic concept of tonal balance has found powerful applications in contemporary Western painting and other disciplines from photography to graphic design. Sources: “The Thames and Hudson Dictionary of Art Terms” (1984), by Edward Lucie-Smith; and Touching Stone Gallery, Santa Fe, New Mexico www.touchingstone.com/Paintings.htm. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke, West Vancouver, Canada.

Sundblom Circle/Sundblom Studio

A group of illustrators working for Haddon Sundblom (1899-1976) in Chicago during the 1920s, 30s, 40s, and 50s, they were distinctive because of creating some of the images that remain in the collective memories of people living in that era such as the Santa Claus in the Coca Cola ads. Sundblom was the leading commercial art illustrator in Chicago, and had prestigious clients such as Coca Cola, Cashmere Bouquet, Maxwell House, Proctor and Gamble and Colgate. The original business was named Sundblom and Anderson and was located at 840 North Michigan Avenue. Other locations were 510 North Dearborn and on Ontario Street. Among illustrators around Sundblom were Howard Terpning, Charles R. Showalter, Pearl Frush, Waler Parke, Chuck Miller, Don Buhrman, Morgan Kane and Dick Thompson. As a group they worked together in that one artist did the initial work, and others then contributed finishing touches. Sources: John F. Showalter, M.D., 'The Life and Art of Charles R. Showalter', "Illustration" magagine, Spring, 2006; Robert E. Olsen, 'The Rediscovery of Charles R. Showalter', "Illustration" magazine, Spring 2006, pp. 25-44.

Support/Ground

The surface on which a work of two-dimensional art is made, i.e., canvas, paper, cardboard, or wood. Source: Artlex.com with permission of Michael Delahunt

Suprematism

A Russian art movement of rebellion beginning 1915, it lasted several years during the country's revolution. Kazimir Malevich was the founder, and he and his followers focused on basic geometric forms such as circles, squares and rectangles. The term refers to the "supremacy of pure artistic feeling" rather than realistic depiction of objects. Artists included Ivan Puni, Liubov Popova, Nikolai Suetin and Ilya Chashnik. Their avant-garde expression was suppressed by Stalinism and replaced by Socialist Realism. Source: 'Suprematism', "Wikipedia",//en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suprematist

Sur Le Motif

A French fine-art term meaning 'from the theme', it refers to an artist working directly from an actual or realistic subject such a still life, figure or landscape that is in view of the artist while it is being painted. Sources: Jim Smyth and Brigitte Curt, 'The Real Meaning of our Favorite Art Terms', "Plein Air Magazine", May 2005; website of Galerie Plein Aire, Carmel, CA

Surrealism

A painting style of the early 20th century, it emphasized validity and fascination with images and visions from dreams and fantasies, as well as an intuitive, spontaneous method of recording such imagery, often combining unrelated or unexpected objects in compositions. The movement was founded in Paris by Andre Breton and launched in 1924 with the publication of his "First Manifesto of Surrealism". A year later the Galerie Pierre in Paris hosted the first Surrealism exhibition. The movement, named by Andre Breton from work by poet Guillaume Apollinaire, caught hold in the United States in the 1930s and was much dominated by the influence of Salvadore Dali. Other 20th-century American artists associated with early Surrealism were Man Ray, Max Ernst, Yves Tanguy, Lorser Feitelson, Helen Lundeberg, Arshile Gorky, Philip Evergood, Jackson Pollock, Bradley Tomlin, Peter Blume, William Baziotes, Enrico Donati and Mark Rothko. As an expression of a coherent group, Surrealism ended with the outbreak of World War II, but its themes continue to appear in American and European art. Sources: Artlex.com, courtesy of Micheal Delahunt; "Phaidon Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Art"; AskART database

Swadeshi Movement

Part of the Indian independence movement, the emphasis was on developing Indian nationalism and remove power of the British Empire. It was reflected in Indian art, with Abanindranath Tagore being one of its chief exponents. Wikipedia, "Abanindranath Tagore".

Swain School of Design

Now part of Dartmouth College of Visual and Performing Arts at the University of Massachusetts, it began in 1881 as the Swain Free School in New Bedford, Massachusetts. Initial funding came from William W. Swain, New Bedford philanthropist, whose purpose was to provide free education in a variety of subjects to students who could not afford post-public school education. In 1902, trustees narrowed the mission, and renamed it the Swain School of Design. In 1991, it merged with the University of Massachusetts. American artist students include Elizabeth Armitage, Donald Beal, Peter Dickison, Thomas Higham, Clifford Riedell and Judith Szarama, and teachers include Martin Blank, Philip Kelsey, and David Loeffler Smith. Source: Wikipedia; AskART database

Syllabics

Referring to writing systems of a large number of Canada's Aboriginal cultures, they include those of the Ojibwa and Cree nations, as well as the Inuit (Eskimos) of Canada’s eastern Arctic. These systems originated from the same source: the script devised in the late 1830s and early 1840s by a team of Native speakers of the Ojibwa and Cree languages, under the supervision of Reverend James Evans, a Wesleyan missionary. They were charged with the job of creating a written form of the Ojibwa language, which could be used to translate hymns and biblical texts. Syllabics is thought to have been largely derived from shorthand. In contrast with the common alphabet, it uses symbols representing whole syllables rather than separate vowels and consonants. Most Woodland and Inuit artists sign their paintings, prints and sculptures in syllabics. For examples of syllabic writing see the signatures of Kenojuak Ashevak, Ennutsiak, Norval Morrisseau and Saul Williams. For a syllabic translator see http://www.katilvik.com/content/bio/index.php. Sources: "The Canadian Journal of Native Studies XXIII", 2(2003): 277-304, by R. Alison Lewis and Louis-Jacques Dorais; and Waddington’s. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke.

Symbol/Symbolism

An image or sign that represents something else, because of convention, association, or resemblance and is not, in this context, something of the real world. Symbolism as an art movement is linked to a late 19th-century group of French poets led by Baudelaire, Mallarme, Rimbaud and Verlaine. They, in turn, were influential on French painters Pierre Puvis de Chavannes, Odilon Redon, Gustave Moreau and James Ensor. They never formed a cohesive group but shared a common interest in mystical and spiritual expression in their art and a rebellion against realism and impressionism that depicted the observable world. In American art, Symbolist Painting was a movement from 1890 to 1925. Exponents drew from a variety of religions and philosophies including Theosophists led by Madam Blavatsky and teachings of Emmanuel Swedenborg. American Symbolist painters include William de Leftwich Dodge, Reginald Machell, Maxfield Parrish, Abbott Handerson Thayer, Arthur Mathews, Charles Rollo Peters, Rex Slinkard, Mabel Alvarez, Agnes Pelton, Gottardo Piazzoni, Kahlil Gabran, Pamela Colman Smith, John White Alexander, Elizabeth Alexander, and Magda Heuermann. Many Native American artists have employed Symbolism for centuries and today continue to reference their religion and traditions. Exemplary twentieth-century Indian symbolists include Fritz Scholder, Allan Houser, Fred Kabotie and Pablita Velarde. Sources: "Phaidon's Dictionary of Twentieth Century Art"; Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"; AskART database

Symmetrical

Descriptive of a design in which the two halves of a composition on either side of an imaginary central vertical axis correspond to one another in size, shape, and placement.

Synaesthetics, Synesthesia

Primarily a 20th/21st Century American art movement, it derives from Greek words meaning together (syn) and sensation (aisthesis) and is a combining in one's mind of abstract and natural elements. It is a neurological condition in which stimulation to one sensory pathway leads to automatic or involuntary reaction in another--i.e. seeing a flower causes one to smell its fragrance, and if you are an artist inspired by this to paint a flower trying to convey its fragrance. Many artists are influenced by the condition including Menthe Wells, Wassily Kandinsky and Carol Steen. Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Synesthesia; AskART biographies

Synchromism

A style of painting focused on pure color and its harmony (synchromy), it is focused on creating shapes by color delineations rather than sharp lines and juxtaposing those colored shapes to produce interesting effects of the spectrum. The Synchromist movement originated in Paris between 1908 and 1911 by American painters Morgan Russell and Stanton MacDonald-Wright. Synchromism was brought to public attention in the New York Armory Show of 1913. With the outbreak of World War I, Russell and Wright ceased their collaboration, but the influence of their work continued. Thomas Hart Benton, friend of Wright, used the work "synchromy" in his titles, and Andrew Dasburg did painting much influenced by Synchromism. Sources: "Phaideon Dictionary of Twentieth Century Art"; "The Britannica Encyclopedia of American Art"

Synthetic Cubism

Synthetic Cubism grew out of Analytic Cubism. It was developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque and then copied by the Salon Cubists. Picasso and Braque discovered that through the repetition of "analytic" signs their work became more generalized, more geometrically simplified and flatter. Overlapping planes sometimes shared one color (passage). Real pieces of paper replaced painted flat depictions of paper. Real scores of music replaced drawn musical notation. Fragments of newspaper, playing cards, cigarette packs, and advertisements that were either real or painted interacted on the flat plane of the canvas as the artists tried to achieve a total interpenetration of life and art. Source: http://arthistory.com

Synthetism

A term associated with the style of symbolic representation of observed reality, it was favored by Paul Gauguin and his followers at Pont-Aven in the 1880s. The artwork, rather than offering naturalistic representation, synthesizes the subject-matter with the emotions of the artist and aesthetic concerns. An exhibition of Synthétisme was mounted by the Pont-Aven artists in 1889, and the Groupe Synthétiste, including Gauguin and Emile Bernard, was founded in 1891. Another follower of the movement, Paul Sérusier, founded the Nabis group [see glossary]. Source: Tate Modern.

Systemic Painting/Systems Art

Descriptive of the initial phase of Conceptual Art in the 1960s and 1970s, the term relates to mobility, meaning artwork that moves or appears to move in a controlled manner. It was first used in 1968 by Jack Burnham in an "Artforum" article, 'Real Systems Art'. Two years earlier, Lawrence Alloway curated "Systemic Painting", an exhibition at the Guggenheim Museum, which featured Color-Field and Hard-Edge painting that had "systemic variations on a single geometric motif, such as a circle or chevron."(Atkins, 69). Artists involved include Marcel Duchamp and Neil Williams. Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Systems_art; Robert Atkins, "ArtSpeak"
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