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Art Glossary
Art Glossary Terms: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

TermDescription

Waichulis Studio

An atelier in Mocanaqua, Pennsylvania, it was founded in 1997 by Anthony Waichulis, trompe l'oeil painter, to offer traditional instruction in painting and drafting. For most students, completion of the program is three years, and instruction is offered in Still Life, Trompe L'oeil, Landscape, Portrait and Figure painting. Joshua Suda is an assistant at the Studio. Source: http://www.thewaichulisstudio.net

Walter Gutman Foundation Grant

Established by Walter Gutman (1903-1986), New York stockbroker and newsletter writer, it recognizes students with special interest in film making. Source: "The New York Times" obituary, 04/30/2009

Wanderers (The Wanderers)

19th Century itinerant Russian Painters, they formed touring shows to take their work to the people. In 1870 in St. Petersburg, they created a cooperative of realist-style artists to protest the tight reign on their art of the St. Petersburg Academy. This organization evolved into the Society for Traveling Art Exhibitions. Themes were about social mores and the beauty of common people. Participants included Ilya Pepin, V.M Vasnetsov, Ivan Kramskoi, Nikolai Ge and Vasily Petrov. By the 1890s, the Academy of Art was including this type of work in their exhibitions. Source: http://www.museum-online.ru/en/Epoch/Peredvizhniki

War Artist

See Combat Artist

Warm Colors

Colors which suggest a sense of warmth, they include red, yellow, and orange and brownish grays. All Warm Colors "lie in the red-yellow half of the Color Circle. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Wash

Used in watercolor painting, brush drawing, and occasionally in oil painting and sculpture, the term describes a broad thin layer of diluted pigment, ink, glaze, or patina. It also refers to a drawing made with that technique. Source: Artlex.com, courtesy of Michael Delahunt

Washington Color Painters, Washington Color School

Although having much variety of style and theme, it was a group of artists in the 1960s whose commonalities were residence in Washington DC, working together at the Washington Workshop, and exploring de-personalized optical color pattern effects through acrylics that could be applied directly to un-sized, unprimed canvas. WCP painters were Morris Louis, Kenneth Noland, Paul Reed, Thomas Downing and Howard Mehring, and they were first identified as a group in their single exhibition together at the Washington DC Gallery of Modern Art in 1965. Louis and Noland were the first ones to experiment with acrylics, having seen acrylic paintings by Helen Frankenthaler in 1952 where she had poured paint onto canvas. Morris Louis thinned acrylics and played with the effects of pouring it onto canvas and then tilting the canvas to let the paint flow in a variety of directions and create overlapping areas and contrasting bare spots. Kenneth Noland did hard-edged, repetitive patterns such as chevrons, and Gene Davis did thin vertical stripes. In 2007, "Color School Remix" exhibitions were held in several museums in DC to re-visit the paintings of Washington Color Painters. Sources: "Phaidon Dictionary of Twentieth Century Art"; J.W. Mahoney, 'To a Different Drum', "Art in America", May 2008, p. 95

Washington DC Water Color Club/Association

Founded in 1896 by Marietta Andrews, the Washington Water Color Club was later renamed the Washington Water Color Association. Parker Mann was its first president, and the first exhibition was held at the Cosmos Club in 1896. Later exhibitions were held in the Hemicycle and other rooms of the Corcoran Gallery of Art and the National Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, now the Museum of Natural History. Being one of the earliest professional artist organizations in the Washington, D.C., early exhibitions included artists from New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, France, Germany, Holland, England, Canada and Australia as well as Washington, D.C. Its past members included James Henry Moser, August H. O. Rolle, William Henry Holmes, Seward Hume Rathbun, Omar R. Carrington and Andrew Wyeth. The WWCA is still based in Washington, D.C. Source: Washington Water Color Association. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke.

Washington Landscape Club

Beginning in 1914 as an informal group of artists called "The Ramblers" in Washington DC, the Washington Landscape Club evolved in 1920 from this group, which originally included Benson Bond Moore, Charles Seaton, Winfield Clime and Edwin Cassedy. Numbers expanded with many "Sunday painters," as well as big names, and together they roamed the surrounding countryside, painting and then critiquing each others work. Activities were curtailed during World War II, but exhibitions continued on a slightly reduced schedule. During the 1950s, the Landscape Club was known for its opposition to modern art. In the next decades membership numbers and activities diminished and increased in the 1980s, and in 1986 the name changed to Washington Society of Landscape Painters. The group commemorated its 80th anniversary in 1993, at which time its constitution was amended, opening membership to women. Sources: Stephanie Strass, Researcher of the Neville-Strass Collection; http://www.wslp.org/history.htm

Washington Society of Landscape Painters

See Washington Landscape Club

Water Street Atelier

A School founded by Jacob Collins to teach Classical Realism, it has a successor, the Grand Central Academy of Art, established by Collins in the fall of 2006. Students of the Atelier include Juliette Aristides, Scott Waddell and Sarah Lamb. Source: http://www.jacobcollinspaintings.com/teaching.html

Watercolor

A medium which has only recently become 'respectable' for finished paintings, it was used pre-20th century only for thinning, lightening, mixing or sketching. However attitudes were changed by influences such as East Coast artists including Charles Burchfield, Edward Hopper, Winslow Homer, John Marin and Andrew Wyeth. Burchfield ultimately worked exclusively in watercolor, asserting it was more pliable and quick. A huge boost to watercolor as a respectable finish medium has been the acceptance of paintings by West Coast California Style painters such as Millard Sheets, Paul Sample and Emil Kosa Jr. Sources: "Watercolor" magazine, October 2006; Gordon T. McClelland and Jay T. Last, "The California Style".

Waterscape

A painting that includes a body of water; specifically to include a riverscape or marinescape or oceanscape.

Wax

In its pure form, it is a plastic-like animal substance secreted by bees, but the meaning is expanded to include materials that resemble beeswax and may be vegetable in origin such as Paraffin, Carnauba and Candelilla. Unless specified in artist's materials, wax refers to white bleached beeswax. Although wax is related to oil, it is not fluid at normal temperature, which makes it useful as protective covering. However, all waxes, although varying in melting points, are not very durable because they melt at less than 100 degrees Centigrade or 212 degrees Fahrenheit. Among American artists using wax have been sculptors Daniel Bowen, Johann Rauschner, Giuseppe Valaperta, Theodore Garlick, Reuben Moulthrop, Johann Rauschner and Patience Lovell Wright. Lucy Rosado of New Orleans came from a family of waxworkers who went back several generations. Ethel Mundy revived the art of wax portraiture in 20th-century American sculpture, and she worked with a chemist to create methods of preservation and color-fading prevention. Petah Coyne, a contemporary sculptor, incorporates wax into her modernist installations. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; Peter Falk, "Who Was Who in American Art"; AskART database

Weathervane

A weathervane is movable device used to show the direction of the wind. It is placed high up on a building, often on a cupola (an ornamental dome put on a roof). The history of weathervanes can be traced all the way back to 48 B.C., to the Tower of the Winds in Athens, Greece. That marble structure contained a huge weathervane in the shape of a Triton, a Greek sea-god that was part man, part fish. Although weathervanes come in all shapes and sizes, the rooster has traditionally been the most popular. According to legend, in the 9th century the pope decreed that all church steeples must have a rooster placed on top. This was a reminder of the Bible story in which Peter, one of Jesus’ twelve disciples, denied knowing Jesus three times before the rooster crowed in the morning. Seeing the rooster would encourage believers to have strong faith. Today, you can find weathervanes in many different shapes–horses, eagles, mermaids, dogs, and angels, to name just a few. Source: Minneapolis Institute of Arts

Western

A term referencing non-urban land west of the Mississippi and the painting and sculpture whose images depict that landscape and its inhabitants---usually hunters, cowboys and Indians." Source: Patricia Broder, "Bronzes of the American West".

Western Academy of Art

Founded in St. Louis, Missouri in 1858, and inaugurated in 1860 by the Prince of Wales, its members had the stated purpose "to form a collection of art, to establish an art school, and to provide gallery space in which artists could regularly display their work. Early members included Carl Wimar, Ferdinand Boyle, Manuel de Franca and Alban Jasper Conant." Source: Quote from AskART Joseph Meeker biography by Cynthia Seibels. Internet, "The New York Times", September 29, 1960.

Western Reserve School of Design for Women

See Cleveland School of Art

Westminster School of Art, London

A leading art school in late 19th century London under the directorship of Frederick Brown and located at 18 Tufton Street in Westminster, it was part of the old Architectural Museum, on the second floor. The curriculum was leading edge for illustration, and drawing and painting from life with classes segregated by sexes for nude models. It also provided copying from Roman and Greek statuary. However, in 1893, with the departure of Brown to the Slade School of Art, the school declined because of neglecting its former strength and devoting itself to the "classical and historical painting that kept England in the backwater of European art." (36) Among its students were Duncan Grant, Aubrey Beardsley, Diane Ethel Walker, and Emily Carr of Canada. Sources: Maria Tippett, "Emily Carr: A Biography"

Wet Plate Photography

Named for Wet Plate, a process invented by Frederick Scott Archer of England in 1851, it was widely used to produce negatives but also employed in a modified form to produce positives. As a negative process, a piece of clear glass is coated with a very thin layer of iodized collodion (made from gun-cotton [nitrocellulose] dissolved in ether and alcohol, mixed with potassium iodide). The coated plate is dipped in a silver solution in the darkroom which makes it light-sensitive and then is immediately exposed in a camera. The exposure needs to be completed before the chemicals on the plate have time to dry out – hence the name of the process. After development and fixing, the negative can be printed on any material. Most wet plate negatives, however, were used to make prints on albumen paper (see AskART glossary). Photographers using this process included William Abraham Bell and William Wallace Armstrong. Sources: The American Museum of Photography; AskART biographies

Weyhe Gallery, New York

Established in 1919 in New York by Erhard Weyhe, a German-born art and book dealer and philanthropist, it operated until 1951 and was one of the first New York galleries to specialize in prints. Carl Zigrosser was the gallery's long-time director and encouraged many artists in printmaking at a time when the fine art print was just emerging as an important form of American Art. He staged exhibitions by European artists such as Edouard Manet and Henri Matisse and Americans including Wanda Gag, Rockwell Kent, Howard Cook and Paul Landacre. Source: The Frick Collection; Julie L'Enfant, "The Gag Family"

Whalebone

The bone of whale, it is sometimes used for carving when it has become fossilized. New whalebone leaks oil and will break if carved, so it must be aged at least 75 years before an artist works with it. Whalebone is abundant in the Arctic thanks to centuries of whaling, both by Inuit, their ancestors the Thule and non-Aboriginal people.” Source: Alysa Procida, Educational Coordinator, Museum of Inuit Art, Toronto. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke

Whiskey Painters of America

An exclusive miniature painting society, its members share a painting ritual and credo, which asserts that an artist should be able "to enjoy two of the three greatest pleasures in life while sitting on a bar stool or at a dimly lit cocktail table." It began in Akron, Ohio in the late 1950s with artist Joe Ferriot, who traveled for a plastics firm and wanted to paint 'on the road'. For portability, he devised a small cigar box palette and carrying method for watercolor paper, 4 inches by 5 inches. At the end of the day, he would go to a local bar, paint and drink whiskey. His paintings became sought after, and cohorts, mostly members of the Akron Society of Painters, joined in the fun. Fourteen of them formalized into an Association in 1962, and Ferriot served as President for 10 years. The official group is limited by charter to 150 members who, in turn, have to be sponsored by an active member. For exhibition entries, the size of the work can be no larger than 4 X 5 inches and was begun with the ritual of dipping a brush into watercolor and then dipping the brush into alcoholic spirits from which the artist then takes a sip. WPA sponsors two yearly exhibitions, one in Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio, and the other in Augusta, Georgia. Members also have nation-wide shows in museums and galleries. Members included Arnold Boedeker, Louis Mong, Jack Mulhollen and Tony Cross. Source: Whiskey Painters of America, http://www.whiskeypaintersofamerica.org/

Whiskey Painting

A miniature watercolor painting, 4 inches by 5 inches, it must be created by a bona-fide member of the Whiskey Painters of America. (See Glossary)

White Cube Gallery

Opening in May 1993 in Duke Street at 25 Mason's Yard St. James in the West End of London by art dealer, Jay Jopling, it is noted for being the first exhibition venue of the avant-garde Young British Artists (YBA's). In its first location the gallery rule was that an artist could only be exhibited once, but in 2000 the rule was relaxed because of the larger space gained in a move to 48 Hoxton Square in the Hoxton/Shoreditch area of London. A second site opened in 2006 at the original site in St. James. The galleries remain venues for leading edge conceptual artists such as Anselm Kiefer, Lucian Freud, Sam Taylor-Wood and Damien Hurst. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/White_Cube

White Mountain Artists

During the 19th century, the White Mountains of New Hampshire attracted countless artists, especially the areas around Conway Valley and Mount Washington. Luxurious hotels were developed for visitors, and artists often became associated with them, offering souvenir artwork to tourists. In turn, hotels provided studio space and customers. Benjamin Champney is considered by many to be the founder of the White Mountain School. Among other noted artists who were part of the 'school' were Edward Hill, Thomas Doughty, Alvan Fisher, John Frederick Kensett, Frank H. Shapleigh, and Winslow Homer. Source: http://whitemountainart.com/; AskART database.

White Rabbits

A nickname given to six female sculpture assistants to Lorado Taft, they oversaw construction of many of the largest sculptures at the 1893 Chicago Exposition. Most of these women had been students of Taft's at the Art Institute of Chicago. Their tasks included assisting Taft in the scaling up of wax mold sculptures by other artists. When he, sensing the need for assistance, told the Exposition's chief architect, Daniel Burnham, that he wanted to employ female assistants, Burnham reportedly said: "That was all right . . . to employ any one who could do the work . . . white rabbits if they will help out." (95) The 'white rabbits' were Janet Scudder, Bessie Potter Vonnoh, Enid Yandell, Julia Bracken, Caroline Brooks and Zulime Taft, Lorado's sister. Source: Charlotte Rubinstein, "American Women Artists", p. 94-95; Julie Aronson, "Bessie Potter Vonnoh, p. 20

White Stag Group

London artists focused on introducing modern art ideas, they were centered around Basil Rakoczi and Kenneth Hall, formed in 1935 and moved to Ireland in 1939 until after World War II. It was involved in the "Irish Exhibition of Living Art", and in 1944 the Group held the "Exhibition of Subjective Art". Participants referred to their philosophy as Subjectivist Art because in a variety of styles, often non-conforming with each other, it was an exploration of psychology and modernist ideas. Sources: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_White_Stag_group; AskART biography of Basil Rakoczi

Whitney Biennial

An exhibition every other year beginning 1932 of leading edge, contemporary art "by young and lesser-known American artists, it is on display at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York City. Because of its prestigious reputation, the Biennial is often responsible for creating trends in the contemporary art world including the art market. 2010 participants included James Casebere, George Condo and Michael Asher. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Whitney_Biennial

Whitney Studio, Whitney Studio Club

A New York City gathering place in a three-story building at 8 West 8th Street of 'progressive art-minded' persons, the Whitney Studio was funded by Gertrude Vanderbilt Whitney with exhibitions under the name of Whitney Studio beginning 1914 and with the goal to help artists gain exposure and gallery representation. Among exhibiting artists were William Zorach, John Sloan and George Luks. In 1918 at the same location, Whitney and Juliana Force founded the Whitney Studio Club, which not only sponsored exhibitions but created a place for artists to socialize with billiards and a squash court, to read in the library, hold meetings and attend classes with live models at 20 cents per session. The Club, which was the precursor of the Whitney Museum, was not a venue for sales. Source: Lindsay Pollock, "The Girl with the Gallery-Edith Halpert".

Who's Who in American Art

See American Art Directory

Wickes School of Art

See Ethel Wickes School of Art

Wilkes Expedition

Officially titled the "Wilkes United States Exploring Expedition", it began in 1838 and was recorded by its official artist, Joseph Drayton of Philadelphia. The assignment led him to be one of the most widely-traveled artists of that era, going from the farthest points South and North on the globe. Commissioned by the United States Senate, the exploration was stimulated by the theories of an eccentric named John Symmes who claimed that the Earth was hollow and that entrances at each pole led to the interior of the earth. Symmes pressured the Senate to fund the search for those portals, which they called Symmes Hole. However, his promoter, Ohio journalist Jeremiah Reynolds, spotting a potentially fruitless search, lobbied instead for a major American Naval operation. With three ships and supply vessels, and a commander, Charles Wilkes, described as a "vain and fractious New York aristocrat", they set sail southward in 1838. The purpose was to explore the Atlantic Ocean, pass through Cape Horn and along the coast of South America, Antarctica, the Sandwich Islands, the American Northwest, the Pacific and Indian Oceans, around the Cape of Good Hope and return to New York. In contrast to the Lewis and Clark Expedition, the earlier major predecessor to this exploration, the Wilkes Expedition was highly controversial and stimulated much ill will because of the demoralizing leadership of Wilkes. He flogged his men, mutiny nearly occurred, and when Fiji Islanders killed two of his men, he razed villages and killed eighty-seven people. One of the engravings of Joseph Drayton is titled "Fiji Drummer" and is in the Alfred Agate Collection. In 1842 upon the conclusion of the expedition, Drayton may have gone to Washington to work on the illustrations for the Wilkes reports. He had contributed to a wealth of materials that have brought credit to the Wilkes Expedition as a major source of visual knowledge about the geological, botanical, zoological and anthropological aspects of the lands they had visited. Sources: Groce & Wallace, "The New York Historical Society's Dictionary of Artists in America"; http://www.uh.edu/engines/epi1904.htm; http://www.washingtonhistory.org/wshs/columbia/articles/ 0187-a1.htm

Will Eisner Award Hall of Fame

See Eisner Awards

Will Eisner Awards

See Eisner Awards

Willingdon Prize

Governor General and Lady Willingdon of Ontario instituted the Willingdon Arts Competition in music, literature, painting and sculpture. The National Gallery of Canada conferred the visual arts awards from 1929 until 1931, when the Willingdons left Canada. First recipient was Prudence Heward, for painting. Other winners include George Pepper and Frederick Varley splitting the painting award in 1930, Pegi Nicol Macleod in 1931 and Emanuel Hahn for sculpture in 1930. Source:"The Group of Seven - Art for a Nation" (1995), by Charles C. Hill Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke, art historian and collector, West Vancouver, British Columbia.

Willmington Academy of Art

Founded in 1928 by Henryette Stadelman Whiteside, it was first located at 2 East Eighth Street in Wilmington, Delaware. By 1932, hard hit by Depression times, it was moved to the Lea Mill at 18th and Market Streets. When the Delaware Art Center opened in 1938, it merged with it. Four years later, weakened by loss of students because of World War II, the Academy closed and became the art component of the Delaware Art Museum. The Academy had a distinguished record for its art education. Instructors included N.C. Wyeth, Frank Schoonover and Charles Hawthorne. Source: AskART biography of Henryette Stadelman Whiteside.

Wilmerding Collection

Fifty one paintings, they were the personal collection of 19th-century works donated to the National Gallery of Art in May 2004 by John Wilmerding, retiring from his position of Senior Curator and Deputy Director of the Gallery. Some of the paintings were especially critical in filling out the Gallery Collection such as its first painting by George Caleb Bingham, the first oil from Winslow Homer's Cullercoats period, the first marsh scene by Martin Heade, and first drawings by Ralph Blakelock and Fitz Hugh Lane. Wilmerding's interest in art derived from his family who were ardent collectors and was reinforced by his art education at Harvard University. His first acquisition was a Gloucester scene by Fitz Hugh Lane, and this work set the standard for following purchases. His second painting was Bingham's "Mississippi Boatman", acquired from Vose Gallery. Other artists represented in the Wilmerding Collection are Alfred Bricher, Frederic Church, Adelheid Dietrich, Thomas Eakins, Alvan Fisher, William Haseltine, John Kensett, Jervis McEntee, John Peto and Edward Seager. Source: Nancy Anderson, 'The John Wilmerding Collection', "Magazine Antiques", September 2004.

Winnipeg Art Gallery, Winnipeg, Manitoba

With over 10,700 Inuit (Eskimo) works, the Winnipeg Art Gallery is home to the largest public collection of contemporary Inuit art in the world. Since the mid 1960s, 38 catalogues have been published and over 140 exhibitions of Inuit art have been organized by the gallery, with titles such as “Eskimo Sculpture” (1967); “The Coming and Going of the Shaman: Eskimo Shamanism and Art” (1978); “The Inuit Amautik: I Like My Hood To Be Full” (1980); “The Inuit Imagination” (1994); and “Creation & Transformation: Defining Moments in Inuit Art” (2013). Sources: The Canadian Encyclopedia (online); and the Winnipeg Art Gallery. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke.

Winnipeg School of Art

The art school of the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Canada, it has a large faculty whose subject matter includes drawing, photography, painting, art history, graphic design, and ceramics. Founded in 1913, it is one of the oldest degree-granting art schools in Canada. The school was joined to the University in 1950, and moved to the Fort Garry Campus from downtown Winnipeg in 1965. Source: http://www.umanitoba.ca/schools/art/index.php?sel=STA

Winsor & Newton

English watercolors developed for artists, they originated with a company founded in London in 1832 by a chemist, William Winsor and produced in Wealdstone, near Harrow. Winsor & Newton was the "first business of its type to fuse art with science" and became "the world's largest supplier of artist-grade watercolors". Innovations were the use of glycerin, which retained moisture and the replacing of the previous method of rubbing dry cakes to produce color to creating a ready-made watercolor palette. James Turner and John Constable were some of the early artists to make big use of Winsor & Newton watercolors. Today, many of the Company's watercolors are enhanced with results of modern technology from the automotive and plastics industry. Source: Editor, 'Winsor & Newton English Watercolours', "Watercolor" magazine, Spring 2006.

Womanhouse

A feminist art installation and performance exhibition, January and February 1972 at run down mansion in Hollywood California, it became a "milestone in women's art, one of the biggest and most celebrated exhibitions of art by and about women ever assembled." Originators were art historian Paula Hays Harper working with artists Judy Chicago and Miriam Schapiro. Participants included members of Harper's feminist art class at the California Institute of Art. Source: Wikipedia, New York Times obituary of Harper, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/26/arts/design/paula-hays-harper-feminist-art-historian-dies-at-81.html?_r=1&ref=obituaries

Women Artists of the West

Established in 1971 by a small group of women artists, it is an organization supporting and promoting women artists through a network of exhibitions, cooperative advertising and promotion. Initially the focus was on American painters of western themes and realist styles. However it is now worldwide and embraces a variety of styles and subjects including florals, European and American landscapes, equine subjects and wildlife. The first president was Gloria Bilotta, one of the twelve founders, and members include Margo Petterson, Betty Billups and Michele Usibelli. Source: www.waow.org

Women of Color Quilters Network

A non-profit organization, it was founded in 1985 by Carolyn L. Mazloomi, a nationally-acclaimed quilt artist and lecturer, to foster and preserve the art of quilt making among women of color. It supports its membership through exhibitions, venues for sharing technical information, grant writing, and researching and documenting African-American quilt making. An important component of the network's activity is its use of quilt making in social and economic development projects. These programs present the benefits of quilting to audiences of all ages, income levels, ethnic background and learning abilities. Source: http://www.wcqn.org/

Women Painters of Washington

An association of professional women throughout the state of Washington, it was organized in October 1930 to "overcome limitations they faced as women artists and to realize their artistic potential through fellowship." Founders were Elizabeth Warhanik, Dorothy Dolph Jensen, Lily Norling Hardwick, Myral Albert Wiggins, Anna B. Stone and Helen Bebb. From the beginning the group has met the first Thursday of every month at the Seattle Art Museum. In the summer of 2005, an exhibition of work by WPW was featured at the Whatcom Museum. Sources: www.womenpainters.com/ABOUT/About.htm; Membership acceptance letter of Helen Ladd, courtesy of her son, Robert Ladd.

Women's Art Association of Canada

Founded by Mary Ella Dignam in 1886 as a Toronto art club based on the Art Students League of New York, its members met to work together in painting, drawing, modeling and sketching from still life and living models. In 1890 the informal club had become a "women's art club" for the purpose of creating general interest in art and specifically the encouragement of women's works, through the exchange of ideas and cooperation among its members, as well as the holding of art exhibitions and lectures. In 1907, the organization was officially incorporated as the Women's Art Association of Canada by a bill passed in the House of Commons. The Women's Art Association of Canada is still headquartered in Toronto. WAAC past members have included Frances Loring, Lila Knowles and Dorothy Stevens. Source: Women's Art Association of Canada. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke.

Women's Art Registry of Minnesota (WARM)

Chartered in 1976 to reflect the vitality of the womens' art movement in Minnesota with commitment to feminist ideas, it is based in Minneapolis/St. Paul. Early members built their own gallery space in Minneapolis, which remained operational until 1991, when they moved their exhibition venue to smaller quarters in St. Paul. A primary ongoing purpose is to serve as a networking entity, and programs in this regard include regular exhibitions, social gatherings, a mentoring program, registry with links to members' websites and a quarterly newsletter. Members include Phyllis Wiener, Hazel BelvoSource: http://www.thewarm.org/pages/index.php; AskART biography of Phyllis Wiener; http://www.mnhs.org/library/findaids/00101.xml

Wonderland Way Art Club

Early 20th Century American artists, they did "plein aire" painting on the Wonderland Way, an area along the Ohio River from Evansville, Indiana to Louisville, Kentucky to Cincinnati, Ohio. Particpants included John Bauscher, Paul Plaschke, Joseph Krementz and Sidney Crosier. Source: Cowan's Auctions

Wood Engraving

An intaglio printmaking method distinct from woodcut in that the line is incised into the woodblock, rather than the background being cut away to leave a line in relief. It is usually done on the end grain of a block of boxwood, which is very hard, and so extremely fine detail is possible. Wood engraving became widely used in the nineteenth century as a method of reproducing pictures in books, newspapers and journals before the invention of photo-mechanical methods of reproduction, but was also occasionally used by artists, such as Edward Calvert, as an original printmaking medium. Source: Tate Collection, England. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke, Art Historian and Collector, West Vancouver, British Columbia

Woodblock/Woodcut

Relief print methods using inked blocks of wood with a design incised with a graver, tint tool or scorpor, they were some of the earliest methods used for making relief prints. They were first used for book illustration in China in 7th Century A.D., and in Europe, first appeared in the 15th century. They differ from each other in that a woodblock has a transverse cut or end grain of the hardest part of the block. A woodcut is a cut longitudinally and has parallel grain. Woodblock and woodcut engraving differ from other print methods in that the design is from the positive space and not the negative. Americans began to use this art form in the last quarter of the 19th century as a result of the influence of Japanese prints. Arthur Dow was the most famous American artist to promote this method. Sources: Peter Falk, "Who Was Who in American Art";"Joel Oppenheimer" 35th Anniversary Catalogue, 2004, of the Natural Art Gallery; Anne Gilbert, "American Illustrator Art".

Woodland School of Art

Identified by black outlined figures, x-ray perspectives, vivid colors similar to stained glass, and usually a solid color, the 'school' is actually a style promoted originally by Norval Morrisseau. It is based on traditional Ojibwa imagery such as petroglyphs, pictographs and sacred Midewiwin (religion) birch bark scrolls, as well as from the myths and legends of his people. It is predominantly practiced by members of the First Nations (Indians) of Canada and the U.S.A. who live in the region around the Great Lakes. The first exhibition of Woodland Art was at the Pollock Gallery, Toronto in 1962. Source: Michael David Silverbrooke, Collector and Art Historian, British Columbia, Canada.

Woodstock Art Colony

Located in the Catskill Mountains of New York, it is one of the oldest and best-known artist colonies in the United States. Now less than three hours drive by car from Manhattan, it was described by an early chronicler as a 'refuge and a center for the race of dreamers.'(Wagner 29) Seeking a contemplative, creative environment, members, beginning with the colony's founders in 1902, relished the splendid isolation of the area. Founders first organized an arts and crafts community. Bolton Brown, print maker and teacher, assisted the wealthy Ralph Whitehead with finding a suitable location, which came to be known as Byrdcliffe. That colony soon "burst out of Byrdcliffe and spilled over much of Woodstock, losing its original social objective and taking on a lustier, sometimes even rowdy, character as it spread."(Smith, 18) Subsequently art schools were founded including the summer school of the Art Students League. The Colony became so popular that it rivaled artist colonies in Gloucester, Massachusetts; New Hope, Pennsylvania; and Shinnecock, Long Island. Artist and writer Anita Smith became a leading figure in Woodstock and wrote a respected history: "Woodstock History and Hearsay". Sources: "American Art Review", April 2003, pp. 96-98; David Wagner, "Pike's Peak Vision: Broadmoor Art Academy"; Anita M. Smith, "Woodstock History and Hearsay"

Work Print

From the camera original, the work print is made to allow the editor to cut the film, handle it, and run it through various machines, without damaging the original. The work print includes the edge numbers, which would eventually be confirmed to the camera original. Source: Internet, Karl Spreitz Film Collection, Maltwood Museum

Works on Paper

A very broad term whose common denominator is paper, it embraces Old Master drawings to silkscreen prints to bits of decorated paper by children. Criteria for inclusion are vague but include prints, watercolors, collages, drawings with pencil, charcoal and chalk, and pastel paintings. Professionals dealing with preservation of Works on Paper have an understanding of the methods by which the paper was made, its expected lifespan, and processes that can be followed to extend that lifespan. Problems often result from overexposure to light and acidity from pollution and improper framing. Source: Arthur W. Schultz, General Editor, “Caring For Your Collections”, Harry N. Abrams Publishers, p. 41-42

World Federation of Miniaturists

Established in 1995, the purpose is to encourage communication between miniature art societies of the world, and to introduce this art form to the public. Aims include: 1)Sharing knowledge and techniques among members 2)Promoting the fine art of miniature painting and sculpture 3) Exchanging information between members on all aspects of the promotion, creation, exhibition, and sale of contemporary miniature art 4) Assisting in and encouraging the setting up of new miniature art societies 5) Publishing information on all aspects of miniature art 6) Holding a World Exhibition of miniature painting every four or five years, 7) Developing a repository of information about miniature art, including exhibitions, workshops, galleries and educational material. Source http://www.worldfm.org/wfmaims.htm

World's Columbian Exposition

See Chicago Exposition of 1893

Worpswede Art Colony

In Lower Saxony, Germany northeast of Bremen, it is a small town whose environs have attracted artists since the end of the 19th century. In its heyday, over 130 artists were working there including Fritz Mackensen, Clara Westhoff and Otto and Paula Modersohn. Its origins as an art colony are attributed to Mimi Stolte, daughter of a Worpswede shopkeeper, who met Fritz Mackensen when he was a young art student. Because he was poor she invited him to spend the holidays with her family in 1884, and five years later he settled there. Source: 'Worpswede', "Wikipedia", http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Worpswede

WPA/Federal Arts Project

An acronym for Works Progress Administration, WPA was a federal program established with a budget of thirty-five million dollars by the U.S. government in August 1935 during the Depression. The program, which lasted until April 1943, provided employment for millions of people including artists under its division called Federal Arts Project. The WPA was an idea of artist George Biddle, who proposed it to his friend and schoolmate, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, then President of the United States. FAP artists, about 2500 and many whom had no other source of income, were assigned the goal of decorating public buildings with themes related to American life. They produced over 15,000 works of art including oil paintings, murals, sculptures, watercolors, etchings and drawings. Nearly every known artist of the period, except those who had regular teaching jobs, became involved, and well-respected artists headed divisions reflecting their special skills: Burgoyne Diller for Murals, Girolamo Piccoli for Sculpture, Ernest Limbach and Gustave Von Groschwitz for Graphics, and Alexander Stavenitz for Teaching. Using resumes and data showing financial need, these section heads determined artists’ eligibility. Once accepted, artists were allowed to transfer among various divisions, and the most popular areas were easel painting, teaching, murals and printmaking. Numerous prints of the two-dimensional works remain in circulation, and many are highly collectible as are works with initials "WPA" after the artist’s signature. When the Federal Arts Project terminated in April 1943, reportedly artists were not alerted until they showed up for their weekly checks. Unprepared financially, many of them desperately scrambled to find work. Also much of the artwork they had produced was thrown away or “purchased in bulk by junk dealers”.(Hendler) The reason for termination of the Federal Arts Projects was that many government officials feared that participants would organize labor unions or work for communists, producing propaganda. However, the overall result of the FPA was positive in that many murals remain in public buildings, especially post offices; artists were generally able to subsist during the Depression; the program was a valuable learning experience for the participants; and it aroused a much greater public interest and appreciation in American art, which led to the establishment of the National Endowment for the Arts twenty-five years after the WPA ended. Sources: Jeanette Hendler, “WPA/NYC Artists”, Essay for AskART, 2004; Roberta Maneker, 'Sleeping Giants', "Art & Antiques", June 2005; “Phaidon Dictionary of Twentieth Century Art”; Source: Robert Atkins, "ART SPOKE"; AskART database.

Wynne Prize

Art prize in Australia for landscape painting or figure sculpture, it was created in 1897 from the bequest of Richard Wynne. It is given concurrently with the Sir John Sulman Prize and the Archibald Prize at the Art Gallery of New South Wales in Sydney. Recipients must be an Australian resident for the last year. Winners include Hans Heyse, Sali Herman and William Dobell. Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wynne_Prize
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