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Art Glossary Terms: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

TermDescription

Yaddo Colony

An artist retreat in Saratoga Springs, New York, it was housed in a 55 room mansion on nearly 400 acres of land, and described as "something like a swanky monastery." It was founded in 1900 by financier Spencer Trask and his poet wife, Katrina Trask, whose fortune came from investment in railways and Thomas Edison experiments. Their written purposes included creating "a practical force in the world for all time. . . .a permanent home for a select group of men and women chosen for their good and honest work." From 1926, the first official season, to 1969, Elizabeth Ames was the Director and 'housemother'. She became a self-assigned chaperone who sent guiding behavior notes to some of the residents. Still in operation in the 21st century and adhering to the same schedule of its inception, Yaddo has enforced quiet, meaning isolated time from 9:00 AM to 4:00 PM and after 10:00 PM. Nearly 5000 writers, composers and visual artists have spent time there, and residents have compiled 63 Pulitzer Prizes, fifty eight National Book Awards, and eight Emmy Awards. During World War II, it was also a sanctuary for creative persons fleeing the Nazis. Among the visual art residents have been Jacob Lawrence, Martin Puryear, Marion Greenwood, Alice Baber, Clifford Still and Philip Guston. Source: Emma Allen, 'Making Art and Mischief---ARTTALK', "ARTnews", October 2008, p. 44; "American Art Review", February 2009.

Yale School of Fine Art

One of 12 schools within Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut, it grants Masters of Fine Arts Degrees to students of graphic design, painting, printmaking, photography and sculpture. The school dates to the Trumbull Gallery of 1832, founded by Colonel John Trumbull (1756-1843), early American artist. In 1869, the school opened with its current name, and was the first art school in America affiliated with a University. Among its alumnae are Jennifer Bartlett, Vija Celmins, Chuck Close, Eva Hesse, Brice Marden, James Bakkom and Reginald Marsh. Sources: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yale_School_of_Art; AskART biographies; AskART biographies

Yankee Stonecutters

Described as the first American school of sculpture, it was developed by early 19th century sculptors who were carvers in marble and who were finacially successful because of the wealth of their patrons. As a group, work by these sculptors is represented by the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Many of the carvers were noted for work in private collections, for public monuments, and for tombstone art in cemeteries. As an ongoing influence, the Yankee Stonecutters, a description they did not call themselves, had only moderate ongoing influence other than value as social, historical and cultural documents. Among these sculptors, many who lived much of their life in Italy where they had access to quality marble, were Antonio Canova, Hiram Powers. Horatio Greenough, Thomas Crawford, John Rogers and Erastus Dow Palmer. Source: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=54006121

YBAs

See Young British Artists

Yellowing

An effect on oil paintings, it is usually caused by one of three reasons: excessive use of a linseed oil medium, application of varnishes prone to yellow with age, or most often, an accumulation of dirt embedded into the varnish. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"

Yonkers Art Association

Founded in the 1910s by George Stengel, who also served as its first President, it was a primary influence in petitioning the Yonkers, New York City Council to turn the Glenview Mansion into the Hudson River Museum. This transition occurred in 1924. The Association no longer exists. Source: Questroyalfineart.com

Young Artists Association, China

One of many Chinese artist organizations formed in the mid 1980’s marking the end of the Cultural Revolution (1976), its formation was the beginning of a "New Wave," of artistic freedom and independence from official ideology. Of them it was written: “Openly antagonistic to official culture, they champion individualism, freedom of expression, and a radical overhaul of aesthetic concepts and forms; they reject both Chinese traditional art and socialist realism, deploying instead western modern and post-modern styles such as Surrealism*, Dada*, Pop*, and conceptual art*.” Wei Luan, muralist, was a member of this Association. Source: “Inside Out: New Chinese Art“ (1998) Curated by Gao Minglu in association with the Asia Society and the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art - Compiled by Irene S. Leung and Michael S. K. Siu. Submitted by M.D. Silverbrooke, Art Historian and Collector, West Vancouver, British Columbia

Young British Artists/Britart

A name applied to British conceptual artists, they exhibited together under that name beginning 1992 at the Saatchi Gallery in London. Most of the members, but not all, were graduates of Goldsmiths College in London, and many YBAs became famous such as Damien Hirst, Rachel Whiteread, Mark Wallinger, Marc Quinn and Tracey Emin. Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Young_British_Artists
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