|This biography from the Archives of AskART:|
|Following is a New York Times exhibition review of murals by Hale Woodruff|
"In Electric Moments, History Transfigured
Hale Woodruff’s Talladega Murals, in ‘Rising Up,’ at N.Y.U."
By ROBERTA SMITH
Published: August 15, 2013
There is nothing in American art quite like the elegant, urgent, boldly colored murals that Hale Woodruff painted between 1938 and 1942 for Talladega College, a historically black institution in Alabama. Clear in hue, form and narrative, these six canvases constitute the heart of “Rising Up: Hale Woodruff’s Murals at Talladega College,” a stunning exhibition at the 80WSE Gallery on the campus of New York University.
This is the first time the murals are being seen in New York, and possibly the last. Precipitated by their removal from Talladega for conservation, the show was organized at the High Museum of Art in Atlanta by Stephanie Mayer Heydt. At the close of a three-year, eight-museum tour, they are to return to Talladega, where they are a revered part of the college’s history.
Crowded with vigorous, brightly attired individuals and spiced with telling details and background scenes, these imposing paintings — two measure 20 feet across — confer an inspiring optimism on different moments from African-American history. Each is a one-act play unto itself.
The strongest of the six are three murals related to the 1839 uprising aboard the Spanish ship Amistad, when a group of West African captives led by Joseph Cinque overwhelmed the crew. The murals depict the mutiny, the trial of the rebels in New Haven and, finally, their repatriation to Africa after their acquittal.
The fourth mural focuses on the Underground Railroad, cast as a panoramic epic of runaway slaves, Northern Abolitionists, plunging vistas and modes of transportation. The remaining two are devoted to the history of Talladega College, founded immediately after the Civil War by two former slaves. One scene is crowded with students, teachers, workmen and the farm animals offered in lieu of tuition; the other depicts an interracial crew’s construction of Savery Library, for whose walls Woodruff painted the murals. The opening of the library in 1939 was timed to the 100th anniversary of the Amistad rebellion.
The Talladega murals teach history by making it visually riveting. The magnetism of the medium makes the message accessible and thrilling. The undeniably powerful impact of form (deliberately deployed color, shape, composition, style) on highly specific subject matter makes this show doubly important; we live in a moment when form, and formalism, are often disparaged as passé diversions, if not downright socially irresponsible. The centrality of form to the strength of these images could not be timelier.
Woodruff’s murals may be the greatest to emerge from the American Social Realist and mural movements of the 1930s and ’40s. This notion will raise eyebrows among admirers of Thomas Hart Benton, who led those movements and exerted an important influence on Woodruff. But this exhibition suggests that Woodruff supersedes Benton in every way — in visual and narrative force, in his assured synthesis of history and also in his humanity.
This is the first New York museum exhibition devoted to Woodruff’s art since the Studio Museum in Harlem mounted a small retrospective of his work in 1979, the year before the artist’s death at the age of 80 in Manhattan. While not a retrospective, it has considerable sweep, supplementing the murals with some 40 additional works by Woodruff: smaller paintings, wonderful mural studies and terse linocut prints that date from roughly the same period. The show could have been much larger, but the smaller works give some indication of where Woodruff was as an artist by 1938, when the Talladega commission materialized.
Born in Cairo, Ill., and raised in Nashville, he studied art in Indianapolis and at the Art Institute of Chicago before spending four crucial years (1927-31) in Paris. Hired as an art instructor at a college in Atlanta, he began trying to bend the lessons of European Modernism, especially Post-Impressionism and Cubism, into a socially aware art. A Cubistic painting of an Atlanta shantytown from 1933-34 is one result; a more bucolic but nonetheless charged landscape indebted to van Gogh is another.
In 1936, Woodruff spent time in Mexico, working as an apprentice to Diego Rivera, the leader of the Mexican mural movement, who taught him the basics of fresco painting. Although it was a medium he would never use, its high-keyed colors clearly influenced the palette of the murals. Rivera’s influence is also visible in Night Blooming Cereus, a depiction of two opulent white blooms and a fleshy bud. It suggests a conscientious botanical work by the 19th-century landscape painter Martin Johnson Heade, but as executed by the more emphatic hand of the Modernist Marsden Hartley.
The works make it clear that the Talladega commission spurred a substantial artistic leap in Woodruff’s career. Almost overnight, he seems to have gone from being primarily a landscape painter to an artist at ease with large, multi-figure compositions that draw inspiration from all over the art historical spectrum, most prominently African art, Cubism, Social Realism and Renaissance painting, as Ms. Heydt explains in her catalog essay.
Woodruff was not familiar with the story of Amistad when he was invited to do the mural, so he traveled to New Haven to study the trial. There he also found an admiring portrait of Cinque by Nathaniel Jocelyn (1796-1881) and fine pencil likenesses of each of the other defendants by William H. Townsend (1822-1851). These contribute to the power of the trial scene, where the captives, layered in shallow space like angels in a Fra Angelico painting, are extremely expressive and individualized. (Woodruff included a self-portrait in the crowd.)
Though working in oil on canvas, Woodruff adopted a high-keyed, white-backed palette like that of Renaissance frescoes by painters like Signorelli and Pontormo. He also persisted in the practice evident in his smaller paintings of making every square inch of canvas contribute actively to the whole. Thus the marvelous array of detail: the wood grain of the schooner, the top hats across the foreground of the trial scene, the parrot-like carpetbag peeking out near the lower left corner of the repatriation mural, the rope-like gingham-covered basket to one side in the Underground Railroad scene.
Nothing from the inanimate world enlivens Woodruff’s painting as much as the garments. The artist, who looks quietly natty in photographs, painted many of his figures in bright, often patterned, almost dandyish attire, with soft drapes and folds that catch the light, making it seem as if many of them were clothed in silk. Widespread use is made of windowpane plaids, stripes and especially dotted neckerchiefs. (One is worn by the most raggedly dressed figure in the murals, the young man seated, ready to register for school, in Opening Day.)
The runaway slave who kneels like one of the Magi at the center of “The Underground Railroad” wears a shirt of green-on-green polka dots. A handsome man in pinstriped red trousers, a phthalo blue waistcoat and a lime-green vest, gracefully posed like one of Pontormo’s princes, welcomes new students in Opening Day at Talladega College. He echoes the near-center position and presence of the regal, well-turned-out figure of Cinque in The Trial of the Amistad Captives and, especially, The Repatriation. Some of these garments have the starchy look-at-me presence of clothing in limner folk-art portraits from the early 19th century.
In their easy drapes and swirling folds, these garments add visual intensity to the actors in these dramas; moreover, they hint at the bodies beneath them and the complex souls within. They are part of the indomitable optimism that is the glory — and the content — of Woodruff’s great murals.
“Rising Up: Hale Woodruff’s Murals at Talladega College” runs through Oct. 13 at the 80WSE Gallery at N.Y.U. Steinhardt, 80 Washington Square East, Greenwich Village.
|This biography from the Archives of AskART:|
|Hale Woodruff was a black artist who sought to express his heritage in
his abstract painting. Of his artwork he said: "I think abstraction is
just another kind of reality. And although you may see a realistic
subject like a glass or a table or a chair, you have to transpose or
transform that into a picture, and my whole feeling is that to get the
specatator involved it has to extend that vision" . . ." (Herskovic 358)|
Woodruff was born in 1900 in Cairo, Illinois. After high school he drew
political cartoons part-time for the black newspaper, the Indianapolis
Ledger. His art studies included the John Herron Art Institute in
Indianapolis; Art Institute of Chicago; Harvard's Fogg Museum School;
and Académie Moderne in Paris with Herny Ossawa Tanner in 1927.
was a black American living in France where discrimination was not as
pronounced as in the United States. Woodruff, like most young
painters, was an artist in search of himself. Traveling in
Europe, he was supported in part by New York dealer, Edith Halpert, who
in turn solicited nearly $700.00 from Abby Rockefeller, wife of John D.
Rockefeller, Jr. In Paris, Woodruff
painted landscapes, black genre and Cubist pictures. As he
matured, Woodruff, after a period of history painting, would ultimately
end up an abstractionist emphasizing African symbolism.
artist returned to America in 1931. He established the art
department at Atlanta University in the depths of the Depression,
beginning a forty-year teaching career. He created the Atlanta Annuals,
exhibitions for black artists. In the late 1930s, he painted
black history murals for Atlanta's Talledega College Slavery Library
that reflect the influences of the great mural painters of the age,
Thomas Hart Benton and Diego Rivera. Woodruff had recently
Mexico with Rivera. Woodruff may be best known for these
works. In addition to murals the artist also produced, at this
time, prints and watercolors of black lynchings
and poverty, which some critics referred to as the Outhouse School
because so many latrines dotted his landscapes.
In 1943, Woodruff went to New York City for two
years on a grant from the Rosenwald Foundation. Though he would
return for a year to his Atlanta teaching position, this essentially
marked the end of that experience and the start of his life in New York
as an abstract painter and member of the faculty at New York
University. He would retire from NYU in 1967.
Hale Woodruff died
in New York City in 1980. He was a member of the New Jersey
Society of Artists, New York State Council on the Arts and the Society
of Mural Painters.
Woodruff's paintings can be seen at Atlanta University and Talledega
College, Atlanta, Georgia; Detroit Institute of Arts; Newark Museum,
New Jersey; Howard University and Library of Congress, Washington, D.C;
New York University and New York Public Library, New York City.
Michael David Zellman, 300 Years of American Art
Marika Herskovic, American Abstract Expressionism of the 1950s
Lindsay Pollock, The Girl With The Gallery
|Biography from Michael Rosenfeld Gallery:|
|Hale Woodruff was born in Cairo, Illinois and studied at the John Herron Art Institute in Indianapolis, the School of the Art Institute of Chicago, and the Fogg Art Museum at Harvard University. |
Encouraged by a bronze award in the 1926 Harmon Foundation competition, Woodruff traveled to Paris to study at the Académie Scandinave, the Académie Moderne, and with Henry Ossawa Tanner.
In 1931, Woodruff returned to America for a teaching position at Atlanta University (1931-45). Throughout the Great Depression, Atlanta was his home, and Woodruff consistently turned to the Georgia landscape for inspiration. In 1936, he spent the summer in Mexico studying mural painting with Diego Rivera, and in 1948, Woodruff teamed with Charles Alston to work on the Golden State Mutual Life Insurance company murals in California, illustrating the contribution of African-Americans to the development of the state.
His most famous public art commission, Art of the Negro (1950-51), a series of murals in the library at Atlanta University, celebrates the contributions of African-Americans to all the arts. A founding member of the Spiral Group, he died in 1979 after having created a diverse body of paintings and prints that span from realism to abstraction. In 1979, The Studio Museum in Harlem organized a major retrospective of his work entitled, "Hale Woodruff: 50 Years of His Art".
|Biography from The Johnson Collection:|
|A first generation artist of the New Negro Movement, Hale Woodruff created paintings, prints, and murals that depict the historic struggle and perseverance of African Americans. Though some of his work, such as his Afro Emblems series, is entirely abstract, Woodruff is perhaps best known for his American scenes that combine a representational style with a modern idiom and African aesthetic. He believed it was important to “keep your artistic level at the highest possible range of development and . . . [simultaneously] make your work convey . . . what we are as a people.” It was a philosophy that Woodruff lived by and one that he passed on to his students at Atlanta University.|
A native of Cairo, Illinois, Woodruff began his career as a political cartoonist, first for a high school newspaper in Nashville, Tennessee, and later for an African American newspaper in Indianapolis. It was not until he enrolled in the John Herron Art School in Indianapolis that Woodruff learned about African and African American art. The gift of a book about African art from a local gallery owner piqued Woodruff’s interest. An encounter with William Edouard Scott, who had just returned from Europe, inspired Woodruff to study art, including African art, abroad. Financed in part by an award from the Harmon Foundation, in 1927 Woodruff began a four-year sojourn in Paris, where he became part of what he designated the “Negro Colony.” This group of expatriated African American artists and intellectuals included Henry Ossawa Tanner, Augusta Savage, Alain Locke, and the recently arrived Josephine Baker. Though they did not directly engage with the Parisian artist circle comprised of Gertrude Stein, Picasso, Matisse, and others, Woodruff and his friends were nonetheless aware of their artistic innovations and dealt with similar aesthetic issues in their own work. At the same time, Woodruff explored the ethnographic market with Alain Locke and studied African sculpture in books.
Economic uncertainty brought on by the Great Depression induced Woodruff to accept a teaching position at Atlanta University in 1931. In a 1968 interview, Woodruff recalled his return to the American South as “coming home.” In Atlanta, Woodruff founded an art department that became known as the “Atlanta School” or the “Outhouse School.” The latter designation was inspired by Woodruff’s realist approach that demanded the inclusion of all visible forms in his students’ landscape paintings, including less picturesque elements such as privies. In 1942, Woodruff initiated the Atlanta University Art Annuals, which not only offered a forum for African American artists nationwide to exhibit their work, but also enabled his students to experience African American art in a way that they could not otherwise. This exclusively African American art exhibition continued until 1970.
It was during his tenure at Atlanta University that Hale Woodruff discovered American Regionalism. Eager to create art that spoke to the black experience, the artist’s penchant for abstraction soon gave way to a more representational and socially conscious art. During the 1930s, Woodruff created a series of woodcut prints that depict African American life in the South—from brutal lynchings to daily chores. Following a 1938 trip to Mexico during which he studied fresco painting with Diego Rivera, Woodruff began incorporating public art into his oeuvre. He created several powerful murals, including his highly acclaimed The Amistad Mutiny, 1839 at Talladega College and Art of the Negro in Atlanta University Library.
Hale Woodruff was a lifelong advocate of African American art and artists. Although he spent his later years in New York where he helped establish the Spiral Group (with fellow artists Charles Alston, Romare Bearden, and others) and taught at New York University (where his students included Arthur Rose, Merton Simpson, and Leo Twiggs), his impact on his Southern home was deeply felt. The Atlanta University Art Annuals led to the creation of an extensive African American art collection at that institution. Woodruff’s paintings can found in the collections of such prestigious institutions as the Cleveland Museum of Art, Detroit Institute of Arts, Metropolitan Museum of Art, and National Gallery of Art, among others.
The Johnson Collection, Spartanburg, South Carolina
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Hale Woodruff is also mentioned in these AskART essays:
Black American Artists