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 Korczak Ziolkowski  (1908 - 1982)

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Lived/Active: Connecticut/South Dakota/Massachusetts      Known for: Indian monument sculpture, portrait

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This biography from the Archives of AskART:

Korczak – Storyteller in Stone

Remembered for his massive efforts as a sculptor of portrait commemorative works, Korczak Ziolkowski was especially noted for his memorial to the Indians and their North American history.  Without Korczak there would be no Crazy Horse Memorial.  Its history always will revolve around his own extraordinary story, which is reflected in his log studio-home, workshop and sculptural galleries at Crazy Horse.  His life and work are an inspiration to many, especially to young people.

Although he became most famous as a mountain carver, he was a noted studio sculptor and member of the National Sculpture Society before he came west.  Crazy Horse represents only the second half of his life, and he said it was the collective experience of the difficult first half of his life which prepared him for Crazy Horse and enabled him to prevail over the decades of financial hardship and racial prejudice he encountered trying to create an American Indian memorial in the Black Hills.

Born in Boston of Polish descent, Korczak was orphaned at age one.  He grew up in a series of foster homes.  As a boy he was badly mistreated, but he learned to work very hard.  He also gained heavy construction and other skills helping his tough foster father.

On his own at 16, Korczak took odd jobs to put himself through Rindge Technical School in Cambridge, Massachusetts, after which he became an apprentice patternmaker in the shipyards on the rough Boston waterfront.

He experimented with woodworking, making beautiful furniture.  At age 18, he handcrafted a grandfather clock from 55 pieces of Santa Domingo mahogany.  Although he never took a lesson in art or sculpture, he studied the masters and began creating plaster and clay studies.  In 1932 he used a coal chisel to carve his first portrait, a marble tribute to Judge Frederick Pickering Cabot, the famous Boston juvenile judge who had befriended and encouraged the gifted boy and introduced him to world of fine arts.

Moving to West Hartford, Connecticut, Korczak launched a successful studio career doing commissioned sculpture throughout New England, Boston and New York.  His Carrara marble portrait, PADEREWSKI, Study of an Immortal, won first prize by popular vote at the 1939 New York World’s Fair.

A childhood dream came true when he was asked to assist Gutzon Borglum at Mount Rushmore during the summer of 1939.  Media reports about Korczak’s World Fair prize and work at Rushmore prompted hereditary Lakota Chief Henry Standing Bear to start writing to the sculptor, appealing to him to create a memorial to American Indians.  The two eventually met and even toured potential carving sites.

Back in Connecticut, Korczak spent two years carving his 13 1/2-foot Noah Webster Statue as a gift to West Hartford.  The work drew national attention but embroiled the community and the sculptor in controversy, foreshadowing what was to come at Crazy Horse.  At age 34, he volunteered for service in World War II.  He landed on Omaha Beach and later, was wounded. 

At war's end he was invited to make government war memorials in Europe.  But he had decided to accept the invitation of Henry Standing Bear and other project supporters and to dedicate the rest of his life to Crazy Horse Memorial. 

Korczak arrived in the Black Hills on May 3, 1947.  During nearly 36 years, Korczak refused to take any salary at Crazy Horse Memorial.  He worked on the project until his death October 20, 1982, at age 74.  He is buried in the tomb that he and his sons blasted from a rock outcropping near where the permanent Indian museum will rise at the foot of the mountain caving.

The second generation of Ziolkowskis began writing a new chapter of the unique Crazy Horse story when Korczak died.  His parting words to his wife were, “You must work on the mountain – but go slowly so you do it right.”  The torch was passed, and Ruth and her sons and daughters, together with the Crazy Horse Memorial Foundation board of directors, now are guiding Crazy Horse and the ongoing progress.

Korczak’s remarkable family is motivated by their individual and collective dedication, determination and courage to carry on Korczak’s work.  They are supported by the great faith and confidence in them, schooled by his years of instruction, toughened by his example and uplifted by his sense of human.  They also are guided by his detailed plans and scale models and inspired by his life, vision, legacy, and most importantly, by what he often referred to as the “the beauty and justice of the Crazy Horse dream.”

Text courtesy of the Crazy Horse Foundation.


This biography from the Archives of AskART:
Remembered for his massive efforts as a sculptor of portrait commemorative works, Korczak Ziolkowski was especially noted for having carved into a mountain the equestrian figure of Crazy Horse as a memorial to Indians and their North America history. His Crazy Horse, shown at the moment,  the designated leader of the Ogallala Sioux people, is "the largest equestrian monument to an Indian" (Reynolds 201) and was begun in 1948 near Deadwood, South Dakota as part of a complex for Indians including a college and medical facility.

Ziolkowski was born in Boston, Massachusetts and was a member of the National Sculpture Society.  He was also Chairman of the Crazy Horse Foundation and an assistant, for a short period of time, to Gutzom Borglum at Mount Rushmore.

He did portraits of non-Indians including marble depictions of musician Paderewski, President John F Kennedy, and Noah Webster.  Another subject, executed in granite, was Wild Bill Hickok, which was installed in Deadwood, South Dakota.  His marble sculpture, Jan Paderewski: Study of an Immortal, won first prize at the 1939 World's Fair, and this honor caught the attention of Sioux Chief Henry Standing Bear and other Indians, who then enlisted Ziolkowski to carve the Crazy Horse monument.

They wanted something to honor Crazy Horse because they believed his story symbolized the history of American Indians who lost their lands to white settlers. Ziolkowski's work with Borglum on Mount Rushmore gave him experience in carving on a mountain.  Although the sculptor died in 1982 before the project was completed, the massive work was continued by his family with the goal of making it 141 feet long and 563 feet in height with a surrounding surface area large enough to allow four-thousand people standing room.  The figure of Crazy Horse is nine-stories high.  Tourist income is designated for scholarships for Indian students and development of the medical center.

Sources include:
Donald Martin Reynolds, Masters of American Sculpture
Who Was Who in American Art

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