A style that evolved from French Impressionism, it was brought to the United States by many of the American art students who were in Paris in late 19th century France when the movement began. However, the Americans tended not to be as deviating from realism as the French. Chief exponents were William Merritt Chase, who in 1878, founded one of the first outdoor painting schools, which was at Shinnecock on Long Island; and his student, Charles Hawthorne, who founded the Cape Cod School of Art at Provincetown in 1899. They espoused painting 'en plein aire' (finishing the work on location in the open air), and depicting the changing effects of light with masses of color while modeling and defining the forms with distinct color variations.  Source: Cynthia McBride, McBride Gallery, Annapolis, MD