Art Terms Glossary   Glossary terms for:  'H'

Hagenbund (Hagen Society)    An art collective in Vienna that formed in 1899, it was active until 1930. After 1918, the formal language of the Hagenbund came to dominate artistic activity in Vienna, and in the 1920s it provided the most important focus for new artistic currents. Among its members during this period were Oskar Laske, Anton Hanak, Carry Hauser, George Merkel, Sergius Pauser, Otto Rudolf Schatz, Albin Egger-Lienz and Oskar Kokoschka. The group favored a distinct Art Nouveau style based on folk art such as the work of Aubrey Beardsley, and their lasting influence was largely through their illustrations. The name is from Herr Haagen, the landlord of an inn where artist members often met. Early members were Heinrich Lefler and Joseph Urban, who originally had worked and exhibited within the conservative Vienna Künstlerhaus, but now, like the Vienna Secession, rebelled against the establishment and formed their own organization. Source: Richard Rhoda Fine Art; Oxford Grove Art
Hague School    A late 19th century, 1860 to 1890, group of painters in The Hague, they were heavily influenced in style by the Tonalism of the French Barbizon school, which led to them also being referred to as The Gray School. Of special focus were light, atmospherics and realism as perceived by the 'first generation' group including Anton Mauve, Joseph Israels, Willem Maris, Hendrik Willem Mesdag and Willem Roelofs. The name was coined in 1875 by critic Jacob van Santen Kolff, who also used descriptions of paintings by its artists as having "bad weather effect" and "gray moods." The movement had much anti-academic influence throughout the Netherlands and on American art because of the many artists such as Henry Ward Ranger and Colin Campbell Cooper who joined Hague School descendant artists at colonies at the peasant communities of Laren and Oosterbeck. These places were appealing when the The Hague with its city environment lost its appeal. Many Hague School successor artists became Impressionists. Source: Wikipedia.
Haida Art    A term referencing art of the indigenous people of the Northwest coast of North America whose ancestral home was known as "Haida Gwaii". It is located in the Queen Charlotte Islands off the coast of British Columbia and the southern half of Prince of Wales Island in the Alaska Panhandle. Haida art is the major component of Northwest coast Indian art, and its most recognized element is the totem pole. Abundant red cedar, fishing, and wild animals were the mainstay of the culture. The population died off from exposure to smallpox brought by foreign visitors in the 18th Century. Today much of the population lives on reservations on Graham Island, one of the Charlotte Islands. Many contemporary Haida artists, intending to revive the traditions based on these Haidic peoples, are in west-coast cities such as Vancouver, Victoria and Prince Rupert. Of this group, the best known master Haidic artist of the 20th Century was Bill Reid, whose grand father was a Haida silversmith. Other modern Haida artists are Jim Hart, Robert Davidson, Todd Jason Baker, Joe David, Glen Wood and Glenn Schworak. Sources: M.D. Silverbrooke, Art Historian and Collector, West Vancouver, British Columbia.;;
Hairy Who    See Chicago Imagism
Halftone    A term with several meanings, the first is a reference to a process patented in 1881 by Frederick Eugene Ives that allowed photographic reproduction of images by photographing the original art through a screen. The word referred to the value of the resulting color, which was a shade of grey, or ‘half’ white and ‘half’ black. The earliest Halftone method was limited to ‘tones’ of blacks and whites and revolutionized illustration art because it preserved the integrity of the original art and omitted block printing and the need for engravers. Later in that decade, development of the four-color process allowed the first use of full color in books and magazines. A second definition of Halftone is that of a transition color that a painter uses to move from light to dark. It is basically a unifier of the light and dark sides of an object in a painting. In watercolor, the Halftone is accomplished with a clean semi-moist brush with which the artist blends or softens the edge where needed. In oil, Halftones are achieved by mixing light and dark colors together. Sources: Editor, ‘American Illustration’, “American Arts Quarterly”, Winter 2006, p. 40; Ralph Mayer, “A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques”; Lydia A Miniter, Oradell New Jersey, “American Artist”, 6/2002
Hamilton King Award    Created in 1965 in memory of Hamilton King, it is one of illustration's most prestigious honors. Presented each year to a Society of Illustrators member for outstanding accomplishment and repeated excellence, the award selection is made by former recipients of the award and it spotlights one of the artist's best works for that year. It can only be received once in their lifetime. Past winners include Carol Anthony, Bernie Fuchs, Mark English, Doug Johnson, Wilson McLean, Robert Peak and Edward Sorel. Source: The Society of Illustrators. Submitted to askART by M.D. Silverbrooke.
Hammer Price    The winning bid for an auction lot, meaning the price committed for the work at the time the auctioneer uses the hammer to indicate the bidding is closed. Source:
Handicraft Guild of Minneapolis    A cultural outgrowth of economic expansion in Minneapolis in the 1880s and 1890s, the HGM was organized in 1904 by a group of women whose "emphasis was on the handcraft process and truth to materials." In 1907, a building was constructed for the Guild at 89 South 10th Street in downtown Minneapolis, and in 1918, the Guild's program was incorporated into the Art Department of the University of Minnesota. Education was a primary focus of the Handicraft Guild, and among the teachers were Mary Moulton Cheney, a graphic designer and Director of the Minneapolis School of Fine Art; and Ernest Batchelder from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Other activities included exhibitions and sales of work by members. With egalitarian motives, they signed their pieces only with the cipher HG and not their own names. Work included metal pieces, ceramics, jewelry, prints, weaving and baskets. Source:
Handmade Paper    A hand-crafted support used for drawing, printmaking and water-based painting, it has become popular among 20th-Century American artists including Roland Poska, Mary Judge and Raquel Rabinovich. Each sheet of paper is unique and has slight variations of thickness, color and texture. The best quality Handmade Paper is a European invention made from pure linen rag pulp. The process begins by dipping individual screens or moulds into vats of the pulp. Removed, the screens are manipulated so the pulp is evenly spread across the mesh; excess water is removed and the pulp is dried with the screen's edges being framed by a deckle, a screenless frame resting above the mold. The removal of the deckle creates a ragged edge on the paper---an identifying characteristic of Handmade Paper although the ragged-edge effect is replicated commercially. Sources: Kimberley Reynolds & Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"; AskART database
Hanna Barbera Studios    Opened in 1957 in Los Angeles by Bill Hanna and Joe Barbara, former MGM animation specialists, it was an animation studio "that dominated North American television animation during the second half of the 20th Century." It lasted until 2001 when it was absorbed into Warner Bros. Animation. Artists who worked for Hanna Barbera include Gary Niblett, Pete Alvarado, Alex Toth and Robert Caples. Sources:; AskART database
Happenings    Description of unplanned multi-media theatrical events intended to break down the division between art and life, it was a movement that took hold in America in the 1950s, but had been practiced in Europe and Japan. The term was explained by originator Allan Kaprow as "an assemblage of events performed or perceived in more than one time and place. . . . an environmental artwork activated by performers and viewers." Composer John Cage was a strong influence with his classes at Black Mountain College in North Carolina and then at the New School for Social Research in New York. Kaprow first used the name to describe his show in 1959 at Reuben Gallery in New York, calling it "18 Happenings in 6 Parts". The 'happening' occupied three rooms and included persons reading texts, posing mime-like, playing music and painting on canvas. On cue, the audience was moved through the rooms and became active participants rather than passive viewers. Kaprow also challenged them to make sense of seemingly disconnected events, offering involvement but little assistance in resolution. Artists who became part of Happenings did not have formal organization, which likely led to more diversity of expression. Names linked to the movement in addition to Kaprow are Red Grooms, Claes Oldenburg, Jim Dine, Carolee Schneemann and Robert Whitman. Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns and Alfred Leslie participated in the first Happening with Kaprow. A forerunner of Happenings is the Dada movement "with their chance-derived arrangements". Related to Happenings are Fluxus and Performance Art, and a successor is Pop Art. Source: Robert Atkins, "Art Speak";
Hard Edge Painting    A term descriptive of paintings whose surfaces are treated as a single flat unit with emphasis on symmetry and geometry and limited areas of color that are separated from one another by 'hard edges'. The phrase was first used as a formal description in Los Angeles in 1958 by critic Jules Langsner to describe West Coast painting by artists rebelling against the prevalent East-Coast subjective styles of Expressionism and Gesturalism, exemplified in New York by Jackson Pollock and other Abstract Expressionists. Hard-Edge Painting was popular through the 1950s, and was practiced by such painters as Kenneth Noland, Ellsworth Kelly, and Karl Benjamin, Ad Reinhardt, Leon Polk Smith, Barnett Newman, Mark Rothco and Alexander Liberman. Source: Robert Atkins, "Art Speak"; "Phaidon Dictionary of Twentieth Century Art"
Harlem Renaissance    A movement among African-American painters, writers and theatre persons, it celebrated their unique culture and in turn, stirred social revolt against racism. It was centered in the Harlem section of New York City from 1920 through the economic Depression of the 1930s and was a response to a time of civil unrest when many blacks were moving from rural areas to cities. The term "The New Negro", coined by sociologist Alain LeRoy Locke, became rallying words. The movement began with literary discussions in Greenwich Village in south Manhattan, and remained more a literary force than expressions of painters and sculptors although many were active including Jacob Lawrence, Augusta Savage, Ernest Crichlow, Hale Woodruff, John Biggers, Lois Mailou Jones, Raymond Barthe, E Simms Campbell, Aaron Douglas, Richard Nugent, James Van Der Zee and Charles Alston. Sources:; Paul P. Reuben, “Harlem Renaissance-A Brief Introduction”,; Robert Atkins, "Art Spoke".
Harmon Foundation    An outreach entity in New York City to encourage artistic achievements of Black Americans, the Foundation was created in 1922 by William E Harmon (1862-1928). He was a Caucasion real-estate developer whose interest was promoting not only the fine arts but accomplishments in business, education, farming, literature, music, race relations, religious service and science. In addition to serving as a patron of the arts entity, the Harmon Foundation flourished as a business that subsidized, marketed, and profited from its sales of African-American works of art. A 1944 Harmon Foundation exhibition, "Portraits of Outstanding Americans of Negro Origin,", had the goal of reversing racial intolerance by showing the accomplishments of contemporary African Americans. With entries by 148 artists, it opened at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington DC on May 2nd, and then traveled around the United States for the next ten years. The exhibition, the first one in America devoted to African-American painting, is credited with improving public perception of Black Americans. Participants included Archibald Motley, Aaron Douglas and Augusta Savage.
Harmon Foundation Award    Established in 1926 by William E. Harmon (1862-1928), it was a cash prize from his Foundation, set up in 1922, for emerging African-American artists. Harmon was intrigued by the talent he was seeing among this group, especially in Harlem of New York City. Prizes were $400.00 each and were in the categories of music, literature, visual arts, science, industry, education and race relations. This attention brought much prestige to the recipients who included William H. Johnson, Augusta Savage, Aaron Douglas and Palmer Hayden. In 1928, the Foundation held the first art exhibition devoted exclusively to African-American artists. Source: artsedge.
Harper's Weekly/Monthly/Magazine    Published from 1857 to 1916, it carried illustrations of many of the most famous American artists of that period, which, in turn, had major influence on the American public’s perceptions of public figures and events. "Harper’s Weekly" is named for brothers who together established a New York printing firm, Harper & Brothers: They were James, John, Joseph and Fletcher, and they became the largest book publisher in the country. Fletcher Harper, aware of the popularity of the “London Illustrated News”, began “Harper’s Monthly” in 1850, and initially the focus was on publishing writings by established English authors such as Charles Dickens and William Thackeray. With the first press run of 7,500 copies selling out immediately, the publication became so successful that in 1857, “Harper’s Weekly” was launched. Three years later, the circulation reached 200,000 copies. “Harper’s” association with illustration began with the hiring of Thomas Nast, who did caricatures of political figures that played a major role in people’s perceptions of politicians. Other illustrators who worked for the magazine were Winslow Homer, Charles Dana Gibson, Howard Pyle, James Flagg, Maxfield Parrish and Frederic Remington. Edwin Austin Abbey worked for them for years, having risen through the ranks and then being sent by Harper's to England to research settings for a novel. He lived there the remainder of his life and for many years, continued to send illustrations. The descendant of “Harper’s Weekly” is “Harper’s Magazine”, which is published into the 21st Century. Sources:;'s_Magazine; Walter Reed, "The Illustrator in America, 1860-2000".
Harvey Awards    Named after Harvey Kurtzman and founded in 1988, the recognition is one of the comic book industry's oldest and most respected awards. Called 'Harveys', they recognize outstanding achievements in over 20 categories, ranging from Best Artist to the Jack Kirby Hall of Fame. They are the only industry awards both nominated by and selected by the full body of comic book professionals. Courtesy, M.D. Silverbrooke. Source: The Harvey Awards –
Harwood Foundation    The first gallery of Taos, New Mexico, it was established in the early 1920s by Elizabeth Harwood, Paris trained artist, in memory of her artist husband, Bert Harwood. The couple had settled in Taos in 1918, and upon his death in 1923, she created on their home site the Foundation, which had a large exhibition gallery, library, studios and meeting room for use by Taos artists as well as the general public. Upon the death of Elizabeth Harwood, the University of New Mexico took over administration in accordance with her will. Source: Arrell Morgan Gibson, "The Santa Fe and Taos Colonies"
Haskell Institute/Haskell Indian Nations Universit    A Lawrence, Kansas learning institution for post-high school education of United States Indian Tribe members, the school was formed as an industrial training facility in 1884, and originally was a boarding school. Curriculum emphasis was on Indians becoming 'constructive' members of white society. Named for Dudley Haskell, U.S. Congressman from Kansas, it began offering college level classes in 1927, and in 1970 became exclusively a college level school, which continues into the 21st Century. With 12 historic buildings, it became a National Historic Landmark in 1961. Graduate Indian artists include Allan Houser, Fred Beaver, William Standing and Doc Nevaquaya. Source: Wikipedia; AskART database
Hastings School of Art    An art school in Hastings, England, it is at Brassey Institute in the Library building. In 1982, this art department, with its many Victorian casts, moved to Sussex Coast College Hastings. Students include Harold Gilman, Frank Dobson and Jean Rees. Source:
Hatching    A technique of modeling, it indicates tone and suggests light and shade in drawing or tempera painting by using closely set parallel lines. If done skillfully, the effect is subtle and complementary to the artwork, and if overdone, it can look like amateurish like "fancy pyrotechnical linework." (Gheno) German Renaissance artist and etcher, Albrecht Durer, was known for skillful hatching, a method he used of weaving lines around his faces and figures and short strokes to emphasize wrinkles and bony. With him one stroke led to another, and the hatching became almost spiritual. In his drawing, Italian artist Michelangelo did hatching that emphasized bony, hard muscles and appeared almost burnished looking. Charles Dana Gibson is an example of a 20th-century American artist who effectively used hatching. Also illustrators Frank and Joseph Leyendecker stirred much attention for a cross-hatch method they perfected from a secret recipe which utilized oil but combined the speed effect of pencil with the visual impact of color. This method allowed them to work more quickly than their peers, which stirred much jealousy. Sources: Dan Gheno, 'Making Better Lines, Making Better Lines', "Drawing" magazine, Spring 2006, pp.39-56; AskART biographies
Haystack Mountain School of Crafts    A crafts school in Montville on the coast of Deer Isle, Maine, it was founded in 1950 on Haystack Mountain, a former location, and was designed by architect Edward Larrabee Barnes. The school has no permanent faculty nor does it offer academic degrees, but it offers workshops of one to three weeks in ceramics, fibers, glass, metals, wood and graphics. Teachers include founder Francis Merritt, Judith Salomon, Alice Spencer, and Jonathan Leo Fairbanks. Among Artists who have attendeded are Sean Albert, Victor Cicansky and Jane DeDecker. Sources: Wikipedia,; AskART biographies
Heatherley School of Fine Art, London    Named after Thomas Heatherley, who served as principal, the school was founded in 1845 and is one of the oldest independent art schools in London. Its focus is portraiture, figurative painting and sculpture. Among its attendee names are those of Burne Jones, Kate Greenaway, Cyril Power and Walter Sickert. Source: Wikipedia,
Heidelberg School    An important late 19th century Australian art movement, it has been described as Australian Impressionism. Sidney Dickenson, art critic, coined the term in 1891 when reviewing paintings done in the Heidelberg area east of Melbourne by Arthur Streeton and Walter Withers. Since that time, "Heidelberg School" has taken on broader meaning to refer to "plein-air" impressionists painters of the late 19th century. Source: Wikipedia,
Helene Wurlitzer Foundation    See Wurlitzer Foundation
Heliconian Club-Toronto    A club founded in 1909 of elected members, their purpose was to provide mutual social and intellectual support for women actively engaged in the arts professions: Art, Drama, Music and Literature. The name is a reference to Mount Helicon, the mythical abode of the Greek Muses. The meeting place is an historic building at 35 Hazelton Avenue in Yorkville on the outskirts of Toronto. Source:
Helvetica Typeface    The most common typeface in American society, "you see it on police cars, on garbage trucks. You know a typeface has arrived when it appears on a garbage truck." It is also the official typeface of the New York subway system. "For many graphic designers, the decades-old rule still holds: When in doubt, use Helvetica." It is "sans serif", meaning no accentuating lines or decorative touches, and is simple and plain and easy to read. Max Miedinger of Switzerland created this typeface in 1957 for the Haas'sche Schriftgiesserei type-design foundry in Switzerland. The name is the ancient Roman word for Switzerland. The typeface Ariel is a near clone of Helvetica, and is the Microsoft alteration intended to avoid licensing fees. Source: Bob Bahr, "Drawing" magazine, Spring 2006, pp. 83
Heraldic Art, Heraldist    Pertaining historically to the art of designing, displaying, describing, and recording coats of arms and badges of military heroics, the term has come to include family crests, bookplates and symbolic images for corporations and other public and private entities. Origins of heraldry date back over 900 years and "lie in the need to distinguish participants in combat when their faces were hidden by iron and steel helmets." An artist who emblazons these insignias is a heraldist, and is someone whose skills remain in demand. William Barton, 1754-1817, was the heraldist who designed the U.S. Coat of Arms. Other 18th to 21th century heraldic artists are Henry Hays, Jr., Martha Bessey, John Coles Sr., Edwin Adney, and John Christopher Gore who comes from a family of heraldic artists. Source:; AskART biographies
Heroic Statues    Sculpted figures depicting important persons within their culture, they are often life-size or bigger and placed in public venues. Commissions supported many 19th-century sculptors in an era called the Gilded Age, which was a period of celebrating male power, especially high profile political leaders and military figures. Prominent American sculptors noted for heroic statues are Daniel Chester French, who did several studies of Abraham Lincoln including the sitting Lincoln at the Lincoln Memorial; Augustus St. Gaudens, whose work included many Civil War figures such as Admiral David Farragut and William Tecumseh Sherman; and Rudolph Evans who did the over-life size bronze statue of Thomas Jefferson at the Jefferson Memorial. Sources: Donald Martin Reynolds, "Masters of American Sculpture"; AskART biographies
Herron School of Art    See John Herron Art Institute
Hesketh Hubbard Art Society    See Federation of British Artists
High Renaissance    See Renaissance
High Style    See Historical Painting/High Style
Highwaymen    A group of 26 young African-American landscape and skyscape painters, these artists painted their way out of the despair awaiting them as workers in Florida citrus groves and packing houses of the 1950s. Original members were James Gibson, Alfred Hair, Harold Newton and Livingston Roberts. The only female member was Mary Ann Carroll. Their major influence was Albert Backus (1906-1991), a white man often referred to as the Dean of Florida painters who had a fanciful formula involving huge cumulus clouds billowing over the ocean. The Highwaymen created hybrid versions of his style, and their work is sometimes characterized as motel art. Typically they painted on inexpensive materials such as Upson board, a roofer's material, and they sold their work out of the trunks of their cars. With paintings still wet, they loaded their vehicles and traveled the state's east coast, selling them door-to-door and store-to-store, in restaurants, offices, courthouses, and bank lobbies. In succeeding decades, however, Highwaymen paintings were consigned to attics and garage sales. Their work has been rediscovered in the mid 1990's, and today is recognized as the work of American folk artists. Sources: Neal Auction Company; Art Link International; AskART biographies
Historical Painting/High Style    Known as "high style", Historical Painting dominated European and American art in the 18th and early 19th centuries and was 'fathered by the rising scientific spirit' of the times. Its earliest proponent was Johann Winckelmann (1717-1768), art theorist, described as "yoking the art of the past to bourgeois needs." It was a replacement of the religious subjects of the Renaissance with grand-scale historical heroes, accuracy of time and place, reverence for the ancients of Rome and Greece, appeal to reason rather than emotion, banishment of anything sensuous, cold colors and purity of outline. The goal was betterment of humankind through lofty subjects, which meant that still life, genre, and portraits were mundane and unacceptable. High Style American painters were Benjamin West, John Trumbull and Ralph Earl. Source: James Thomas Flexner, "History of American Painting", Vol. III
Hite Art Institute    Founded in 1946 by the bequest of Allen R. and Marcia S. Hite, it is part of The Department of Fine Arts at the University of Louisville, Kentucky. Degrees from B.A. to Ph.Ds are offered in a variety of disciplines including painting, sculpture, curating, fiber, graphic and interior design. Source: "The Hite Art Institute",
Hite Art Scholarship    An award from The Hite Art Institute, a department of the Department of Fine Arts of the University of Louisville, Kentucky. Recipients are funded for study at the Institute's studio art program. Source: "The Hite Art Institute",
Holbein Studio Building, The Holbein Studios    Located at 154 West 55th Street in New York City, the studio location was created in the late 1880s across from a row of stables built by financier Charles T. Barney between 6th and 7th Avenues. They were "far enough away from 5th Avenue that the noises and smells were unobtrusive; yet near enough to prevent a long wait for one's carriage." Barney was a collector of 12th to 15th century European art and had only disdain for 'upstart' American artists. But sculptor Jonathan Scott Hartley persuaded Barney that he could get income by converting the unused upper levels of the stables into artist studio space. The venture proved so successful that Barney funded construction of a studio building in 1888 on the opposite side of the street. It was named the Holbein Studio Building. Designed by Bassett Jones, it was a three-story Romanesque Revival style structure with steep mansard roof, excellent lighting and handsome features such as massive doors with ornate iron hardware. Over the entrance was a large terra-cotta sign with the word 'Studio'. "Struggling and not-so struggling artists rented the studios" including E. Leon Durand, Bruce Crane, J. Mortimer Lichtenhauer, Edward Dufner and August Franzen. In the 1920s, the building was converted into a movie theatre and playhouse, and in the 1980s the ground floor was gutted and became a truck entrance, leaving only the facade of the upper story. Source: "Daytonian in Manhattan: The Stories Behind the Buildings", John Newberry []
Hoosier Salon    Created in 1925 by a group calling themselves Daughters of Indiana, these original founders were Chicago women who determined that artists of Indiana needed more encouragement. They organized exhibitions as a method for recognition and painting sales. The leader was Estella King, a native of Peru, Indiana, who chaired the Art Committee. They chose the name, Hoosier Salon, to combine the slang name for Indiana with the more formal name used for art exhibitions. The first exhibition of the Hoosier Salon was March 1925 in the art galleries of Marshall Field & Company in Chicago. From that time, the exhibitions have had generally high attendance and financial success except during the Depression and World War II. The exhibitions continued at Marshall Field department store galleries from 1925-1941. Succeeding venues were William H. Block Company, 1942 to 1977, and L.S. Ayres & Company, 1978-1989. In the 1990s and forward, the Hoosier Salon exhibitions were at the Indiana State Museum, and beginning 2013, the Salon will open every August at the Eugene and Marilyn Glick Indiana History Center. Exhibitor names include John Ottis Adams, Johann Berthelsen, Daniel Garber, Ada Shulz and Hale Woodruff. Source: Judith Newton and Carol Weiss, "A Grand Tradition: The Art and Artists of the Hoosier Salon, 1925-1990"; Tracey Frugoli, 'The Hoosier Salon', "Fine Art Connoisseur", December 2012.
Hoosier School of Painters, Hoosier Group    Moving into the Midwest, Impressionism was promoted by The Hoosier School of painters, based in Indianapolis, Indiana. This movement was at its height of importance between 1890 and 1907. Members are credited with deliberately promoting an American style of Impressionism, rather than one that leaned heavily upon the French influence. The most prominent member and leader was Theodore Steele. Other painters associated with that locale and movement were Otto Stark, William Forsyth, John Ottis Adams, and Richard Buckner Gruelle. Primary subject matter was the Indiana countryside, especially nearby Brown County, where they did plein-air painting. Steele, who lived until 1926, built a Brown County home known as the “House of the Singing Winds”. This place became the gathering spot of many Hoosier School adherents. Source: William Gerdts, "American Impressionism, Henry Gallery"
Horizontalism    Horizontalism, a 21st century abstract art movement, began in 2010 in Bellport Village, NY. A group of artists in residency at Gallery 125 realized they all worked from above, in a horizontal fashion, on the floor or a table. The Horizontalists distinguish themselves as a group that pours, paints, drips, scrapes, and abrades pigments on horizontal surfaces as they bear down from above onto floors or tables rather than on easels or walls. They also generally use non-traditional implements, i.e. not brushes, but action, trowels and hawks, gravity, centrifugal force, sanders, glues, glass pipes, etc. to draw and paint. Horizontalism is also characterized by the fact that the art transcends self-reflective, cathartic processes. The Horizontalists are not just trying to work out their emotions and thoughts. They are questioning everything about our world, in a subtle, often minimalist way. They arose along side the socio-political movements that germinated as a result of the new forms of internet-based social organization, similar to the way the activist of the Occupy movement formed in the wake of the 2008 global financial crisis. As the world becomes increasingly more flat, and globalization now infiltrates more and more of our lives, these artists are examining the ramifications of this and creative processes with no geographic barriers. The Horizontalists have grown in an electronic grassroots fashion, connecting via the internet and social media, which is the way they believe new powerful movements in art will be defined in the future. Says Horizontalist John Perreault, one of the founding members, "When their paintings made on the horizontal are tilted to the vertical and hung on walls, the viewer sees aerial abstractions, maps of process, beautiful bird’s-eye views, and glimpses of spatial, psychological, and semantic disorientation. We are not turning painting upside down; we are turning painting on its side." Credit for this essay is given to Lisette Ruch
Hors Commerce    Meaning before business, it is a sculpture and graphic reference to casts and pulled prints, which were designated for business use only such as promotional advertising, sales examples, exhibitions and competitions. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms"
Hospitalfield, Allan-Fraser Institute    Scotland's first school of fine art, it is a center for education for artists, musicians and writers and is located on the estate of the Frasers of Hospitalfied, owned by the family of the wife of artist Patrick Allan (1813-1890. Moving to the estate, which dated to the medieval era, he added his wife's family name, and directed a massive building and maintenance program. On Allan-Fraser's death, the place became a trust to insure the continuance it original purpose. Beneficiaries include Scottish painter Joan Eardley and Canadian painter Adam Sheriff Scott. Source:
Houston Art League/Houston Public School Art League    Organized in 1900 as the Houston Public School Art League, four women were founders: Mrs. Robert S. Lovett, Miss Lydia Adkisson, Miss Roberta Lavender and Miss Cara Redwood. Their idea was to bring art education to school students by showing examples of fine art in the classrooms. One 'masterpiece', a replica plaster of Paris nude "Venus de Milo" was offered to Central High School and brought accusations of moral corruption. In 1913, League members shortened their name to Houston Art League, setting its sights on raising money to open a fine arts museum in the city. Resulting was The Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, which opened in 1924. Emma Richardson Cherry was the first woman to have a solo exhibit at the museum. Source: The Heritage Society, Houston, Texas
Hudson River School    A term referencing both an early 19th-Century style of landscape painting and the region where the style began, it embraces the Hudson River Valley of New York state, and the styles of Realism, Luminism, and Romanticism. Typical paintings had dramatic mountain vistas and bucolic, serene country views. The School, originating in the early 1800s, was the first truly American school of painting, emphatically divorced from European influence. The name first appeared in the "New York Tribune", by a derisive critic who tagged the work as provincial. However, the term survived as a description of unmistakably American painting and of enduring aesthetic quality. About seventy artists are linked to the movement, which began with Thomas Cole in 1825 and includes Albert Bierstadt, Frederic Edwin Church, Asher Durand, John Frederick Kensett and Jasper Cropsey. The region of the Hudson River School of painters expanded far beyond the Hudson River Valley to include the Berkshires of New York, the White Mountains in New Hampshire, shorelines of New Jersey and Rhode Island, and meadow lands in New York, eastern New Jersey, eastern Pennsylvania and Delaware. Source: James Flexner, "History of American Painting", Volume III, pp. 220-221, 241.
Hudson Valley Art Association    Primary Art Association of the Hudson River Valley region of New York state, this organization was located in Yonkers. It was founded in 1928 by artists of the region in the studio of Jasper Cropsey, 1823-1900, Hudson River Valley painter. For many years, the Association functioned as a local art society, but later it became regional, attracting exhibitors from the New England states, and others in the eastern United States. Only realistic style art is accepted in the exhibitions, and each spring the Association holds a show in the Exhibition Galleries of the Newington-Cropsey Foundation at Hastings-on-Hudson, New York. Members include Max Bieberman, Clarence Chatterton, Frank DuMond and Aldro Hubbard. Source: AskART biographies;
Hue    See Value/Hue
Hugo Award    A annual recognition sponsored by the World Science Fiction Society, it is given to illustrators for excellence in Science Fiction. It is named for Hugo Gernsback, described as "The Father of Magazine Science Fiction". Recipients include Fran Frazetta, Michael Wheland, George Barr and John Schoenherr. Sources:; AskART biographies
Hugo Boss Art Prize    An award of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York City, it is recognition to artists worldwide for profound contributions to contemporary style art. The name and the funding is from the Hugo Boss clothing designer company of New York. The first prize was given in the 1990s, and among American winners are Matthew Barney (1996), and Rirkrit Tiravanija (2004), and Anicka Yi, 2017. Source: Joan Young, Curator, Solomon Guggenheim Museum;
Hull House School of Art    Founded in the 1890s at the Hull House in Chicago, the Art School furthered one of the goals of Hull House founders Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr to reach out and create a sense of community and cultural enhancement through educational program, especially for the poor in slum dwellings. Starr became the force behind the art education curriculum and organized art classes starting with just drawing classes several evenings a week. Then the program expanded by adding painting, sculpture, clay modeling, basket weaving, bookbinding, etc., creating a combination of practical application and creative aesthetic challenges. Many visiting artists and Hull House residents worked or volunteered for the Art School training with some being professors at the nearby universities and art schools in the area such as from the Art Institute of Chicago. Women were especially active. The Butler Art Gallery, created in 1891, was the first addition to the old Hull Mansion and became the venue for regular exhibitions and for the art classes. By 1892, the fine arts program was primarily under the direction of Enella Benedict, who established the actual School of Art in the Hull-House. The School lasted until the mid 1960s when the House was demolished. Artists associated with the School included Emily Edwards, Myrtle French and Alice De Wolf Kellogg. Source: Illinois Women Artist Project,
Hussian School of Art    Founded in 1946 and incorporated in 1965 in Philadelphia at 5th and Market Streets by John Hussian, lecturer at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, it is dedicated to both commercial and fine art education. Former students include Peter Sculthorpe. Source:
Hyperrealism, Hyperrealistic    A 20th and 21st century style of painting and sculpture that gives the appearance of "a high resolution photograph", it is realism more 'real' visually than photo realism. However, many artists such as Chuck Close, Don Eddy and Ralph Goings are described interchangeably as hyper-real and photo-real. The term, Hyperrealism, was coined by Frenchman, Isy Brachot in 1973. Source: