Art Terms Glossary   Glossary terms for:  'M'

MacArthur Foundation Grants    Based in Chicago, it is active in 60 countries. Each grant is funded with $500,000. with no strings attached by funds set aside by John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur, publishers of "Reader's Digest" magazine. The grants are directed to Global Security and Sustainability and to persons expressing those themes. Artist recipients include Ida Applebroog, Eva Laramee, David Macauley, Joan Snyder, Kara Walker, Julie Mehretu, and Whitfield Lovel. Sources:; AskART biographies
Macbeth Gallery    Opened in 1892, this was the first commercial gallery in New York City to develop an active and successful business dealing exclusively in American art. Owner was William Macbeth, and his success was doubly important to American painters in that it inspired others to follow in his footsteps. The enormous publicity that these sales generated were a major factor in creating demand for contemporary American painting. Of his exhibits and those by other small galleries with the same purpose, Macbeth was quoted as saying in the publication, "Art Notes", January 1897, that they "offer to picture lovers the best opportunity for properly studying the work of individual groups or schools of painters." Artists who exhibited at Macbeth Gallery include Arthur Davies, Colin Campbell Cooper, Katherine Dreier, Robert Henri, William Keith, and Edward Hopper. Sources: Jack Becker, essay: 'Championing Tonal Painting', "The Poetic Vision: American Tonalism", Spanierman Galleries LLC, Exhibition Catalogue, 2005; AskART biographies
Macchiaioli    An impressionist Italian style of painting, the name is derived from the Italian word "macchie", meaning blotches and dabs in English and associated with a group of artists who met at the Caffè Michelangelo in Florence around 1860 and rebelled against prevailing academic strictures. Also, they were living at a time when many Italians were crusading for democracy, and the Academy was symbolic of resistance to those ideas. The name "Macchiaioli" became ‘official’ after a critic of the Italian newspaper, "Gazzetta del Popolo", used the term to deride the style’s willfully sketchy, indefinite qualities. Sources: Excerpted from writing by Clarice Zdanski for the AskART Bulletin Board section of the artist Jerry Ross; Wikipedia,
MacDowell Art Colony    Located at Peterborough, New Hampshire at the home property of Marian and Edward MacDowell, it was established in 1906 as a memorial to Edward. Aware he was dying, his wife commissioned Helen Farnsworth Mears to do a bas-relief portrait of him, and while Mears worked, the couple planned the art colony, which they intended to be a retreat for people in all the arts. Notably successful, it has become a place where writers, poets, artists and musicians can work quietly for long periods of time in natural surroundings. Underlying Marian MacDowell's special interest in the retreat was her belief that her husband's health problems resulted from the noise and tensions of New York City, where he had spent so much of his career. In 1907, Helen Farnsworth Mears, and her sister, Mary, became the first recipients of a MacDowell Fellowship. Other artists who have been awarded the Fellowship are Charlotte Blass, Paul Burlin, Lawrence Calcagno, Raymond Jonson, Nan Sheets, John Raimondi and Helen Wilson. Sources: AskART database; Charlotte Rubinstein, "American Women Artists", p. 102
MacDowell Club     Organized in 1905 to support the MacDowell Colony, the fine arts retreat in New Hampshire and "to nurture the fine arts and protect them against the coldness of a commercial age", the organization had branches around the country as part of a social movement to promote music and art in America. In New York, the old Metropolitan Opera House was the first location, and was replaced by several more spacious accommodations including the old Marquand stable buildings at 166 East 73rd Street where a massive fire broke out in 1935. Exhibiting members included Edward Hopper, George Bellows and Helen Farnsworth Mears. Source: Wikipedia,; "New York Times", May 14, 1911
MacDowell Fellowship    See MacDowell Art Colony
MADI Movement    An international art movement embracing all branches of art and promoting geometric abstraction and irregular shapes, it started in Buenos Aires in 1946 with Gyula Kosice, Hungarian-Argentinian artist and poet, and Carmelo Arden Quin, painter, sculptor and writer of Uruguay. The name is derived from the Republican motto in the Spanish Civil War of "Madri, Madri, no pasaran". Meaning in English, "Madrid, Madrid, they will not make it", it was the response of citizens to invading French forces. Source: Wikipedia,
Magic Marker    See Felt-Tip Pen
Magic Realism    A rather vague term that describes a painting style intended to stir mystery and aesthetic challenge because of combining easy-to-understand realistic images with unlikely juxtapositions or the invasion of "something too strange to believe". (Wikipedia) The phrase originated in 1923 when German critic Franz Roh used it to describe the "dreamlike symbolic art of de Chirico and his Italian cohorts." (Duncan) In the 1943 exhibition of the Museum of Modern Art titled "American Realists and Magic Realists", the term became more widely known as a description of a fantastic, exaggerated imagery by artists such as Paul Cadmus, O. Louis Guglielmi, Philip Curtis and Ivan Albright.; Source: Michael Duncan, 'Heretics of the Heartland', "Art in America", February 2006; p.98; Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; 'Magic Realism', "Wikipedia"
Mahl Stick    A stick or thin pole about three feet in length, made of bamboo or a dowel, with a ball shaped pad at one end, it is useful in oil painting for avoiding the touching of the surface. It is used by resting the ball end on the edge of the canvas or easel or a dry place on the canvas, holding the other end up with the non-painting hand, and then supporting the brush on the stick while painting. Source: Painting, (For illustration see Photo of Winston Churchill with Mahl Stick in his AskART record)
Mahlstick Club    A short lived Toronto artists association, it was an offshoot of the Toronto Art Students League and a predecessor to the Graphic Arts Club (later the Canadian Society of Graphic Art). The Mahlstick Club (AKA: Maulstick Club) was formed in 1899 and folded in 1903. Its objectives included bringing members together for life drawing and sketching classes, the promotion of distinctly Canadian art, and organizing exhibitions. The meetings also included extracurricular activities such as sing-songs and martial arts – boxing, fencing and singlesticks. Its members included John William Beatty, Frederick H. Brigden, Thomas Garland Greene, Fred Haines, Robert Holmes, Charles Jefferys, J.E.H. MacDonald, Thomas Wesley McLean, Norman Price, and Albert Henry Robson. Sources: Canadian Art - Its Origin and Development” (1943), by William Colgate; and “A National Soul: Canadian Mural Painting, 1860s – 1930s” (2002), by Marylin Jean McKay (see AskART book references). Prepared and contributed to askART by M.D. Silverbrooke.
Mail Art    Small-scale art whose senders used the U.S. Mail for distribution, it consists of envelopes that are drawn or painted on or contain collages or the like, on which there may be "artistamps" (stamps designed by an artist and not valid for postage) or rubber-stamping. Participants in mail-art networks generally accept the unwritten rule that mail art is freely exchanged and if shown in exhibitions, the exhibitions are non-juried and open to everyone. Works are generally not returned to the artist. Mail artists include Eleanor Antin, On Kawara, Yoko Ono, Sarah Jackson, and Tom Marioni, who sent mail-art announcing his fictitious 1973 appointment as Director of the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art. Sources: Daniel C. Boyer, Artist; Robert Atkins, "Art Speak"
Majorelle Blue    A very intense shade of blue invented and trademarked by Jacques Majorelle, French painter, it was inspired by the 12 acre botanical garden he created in Marrakech, Morocco in the 1920s. The color appears in many of his paintings of the garden. Source: AskART biography of Jacques Majorelle
Mall Galleries, London    See Federation of British Artists
Manchester School of Painters    Formed by a number of disgruntled young vanguard English painters in the 1870s, they were deeply influenced by the artist, Joseph Knight(1837-1909) who was a successful painter, etcher and photographer. He was the founder member of the group. Knight painted how “he” desired and refused to conform to traditional Art School rules (like those taught at the Manchester School of Art), and this rebelliousness appealed to his young admirers. Twice weekly they would meet at Knight’s studio in York Place behind the Union Chapel in Oxford Road, Manchester to discuss new ways to develop their techniques. Other members of the group were Joshua Hague, James Davies, Frederick Jackson and John Herbert Partington. Submitted by V. Bianco, whose source was Wikipedia,
Mandala    Traditionally a Hindu and Buddhist spiritual, ritual symbol for the Universe. The basic form is a square with four gates containing a circle with a center point. Each gate is in the general shape of A T, and overall these Mandalas often exhibit radial balance. In common use, it has become a generic term for any diagram, chart or geometric pattern that represents the cosmos or a microcosm of the Universe. Chin Shek Lam and Jack Wise are 20th century artists known for painting Mandalas. Source: Wikipedia (Mandala)
Manifesta    The European hosted Biennial of Contemporary Art, it was first held in Rotterdam in 1996 with 72 artists from 30 selected countries and representatives from 16 museums and 36 public spaces. Manifesta continues, and the 1912 event was held in the region of Limburg, Belgium. In 2010, the Manifesta was described in the "Wall Street Journal" as "stunning in its scope and uncompromisingly experimental in its approach. Source:
Manifesto    In art, a public declaration or exposition in print of the theories and directions of a movement which invariably challenges the status quo. Manifestos related to art are credited to William Blake, English visionary artist, who mounted painted prints in a London hosiery shop to encourage public patronage of art, something that he believed was being ignored. In 1855, Gustave Courbet challenged academic authorities with a manifesto exhibition of paintings counter to Salon rules. In the 19th, 20th and 21st centuries, manifestos issued by artists are a familiar method including assertions by futurists, expressionists and dadaists such as Man Ray. Source: Robert Atkins, "ARTSPEAK"
Mannerism    A term coming from Italian 'maniera' or 'in style', it was applied to art of late 16th and early 17th-century Europe, which revealed the 'manner' or personal expression of the artist. Characteristic was exaggeration, and expression of emotion---a turning away from the humanism of the High Renaissance. The artwork is characterized by a dramatic use of space and light and a tendency toward elongated figures such as in the painting of El Greco. The movement occurred after the Sack of Rome in 1527 and developed among the pupils of two masters of the integrated classical moment, with Raphael's assistant Giulio Romano and among the students of Andrea del Sarto, whose studio produced the quintessentially Mannerist painters Pontormo and Rosso Fiorentino." Source:
Maquette    In sculpture, it is a small-scale model in wax or clay, made as a preliminary sketch or prototype of the planned finished work. If the proposed completed work was a commission or competition piece, the "maquette" was often presented to the client or the competition judges for decisions before further work was done. Maquettes have become collectible, especially if by well-known artists, and one of the museums specializing collecting them is the Museo dei Bozzetti in Pietrasanta, Italy. Sources: with permission of Michael Delahunt;
Marble    A limestone of high quality, it ranges from granular to compact in texture and is capable of taking high polish. Marble is used especially in architecture and sculpture, and Carrara marble, a pure white stone, from the Appenine Mountains in Carrara, Italy is regarded by many sculptors as the finest in the world. Donatello, Michelangelo and Antonio Canova used Carrara marble for their masterpieces during the Renaissance in Italy. Nineteenth and twentieth-century American sculptors noted for marble carving include Isamu Noguchi, Augustus Saint Gaudens, Hiram Powers, Thomas Crawford, Hezekiah Augur and Edmonia Lewis. Sources:; database; Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.
Marblehead Pottery    Begun in 1904 in Marblehead, Massachusetts by Dr. Herbert J. Hall, it was a small pottery studio for teaching ceramics as a convalescing activity for his Devereax sanitarium patients. The company lasted to 1938 and grew into a highly successful pottery business. Arthur Baggs became the Director in 1905, and under his influence the signature style was "hand-incised or surface painted geometric designs on grounds of lightly contrasting colors." In 1915, Baggs became the owner, and in 1920, the focus was directed to making production art pottery with pebbled matte finishes in blue, green, pink, yellow, brown or gray. Quality control was maintained, and employee numbers seldom exceeded more than six to eight people. Sources:; Schiffer Books;
Maritime Art Association, Canada    Founded in 1935 by Walter Abell a professor at Acadia University (Wolfville, Nova Scotia) and the MAA’s first President and by Harry McCurry assistant director of the National Gallery of Canada, it had funding by the Carnegie Corporation. The Maritime Art Association's stated intentions were: (1) to carry out promotional and educational activities in the Canadian maritime provinces (east coast),(2) to increase the general public's knowledge and appreciation of art, and (3) to encourage art activities by uniting all interested groups and individuals. Throughout its existence the primary activity of the MAA involved the organization and circulation of exhibitions. It organized an annual traveling exhibition of its members' works, as well as bringing in exhibitions from galleries and associations outside the region – such as the National Gallery of Canada and the Canadian Society of Painter-Etchers & Engravers. Additional activities included the publication of the magazine "Maritime Arts" in the early 1940's (it became “Canadian Art Magazine in 1943, artscanada in 1967 and ceased publishing in 1983), and the book "Maritime Artists Vol.1" in 1967 (a proposed second volume never made it past the planning stage). By the 1960's, with a number of artists and gallery administrators critical of the quality of some of the work in MAA exhibitions, the debate arose as to what facet of the artistic community the Association should represent. In 1980 the executive stated its intention to represent the interests of working professional artists throughout the entire Atlantic region. The Association appears to have folded at that point. Its artist members included: Miller Gore Brittain, Elizabeth Styring Nutt, Dorothy Oxborough, and Leroy Judson Zwicker. Sources: Archives Canada; National Gallery of Canada; Denis Longchamps, Administrator at The Gail and Stephen A. Jarislowsky Institute for Studies in Canadian Art, Concordia University; and “The History of Painting in Canada” (1974), by Barry Lord (see AskART book references). Prepared and contributed to askART by M.D. Silverbrooke.
Mark Hopkins Institute    See California School of Design
Maroger    A medium that Fairfield Porter is said to have made well known, it was 'discovered' by Jacques Maroger and publicized in his book, "The Secret Formulas and Techniques of the Old Masters". The goal of Maroger and then Porter was to create an effect with oil paintings similar to that of the Old Masters. Maroger's 'secret' formula was using white lead as the main ingredient combined with linseed oil, which acts as a drying agent and preservative of the oil paint color layers. White lead is also helpful in conserving paintings in varying environmental conditions. Porter's recipe was cooking a mixture of 1 part lead carbonate, 1 part bees wax, and 10 parts of linseed oil. According to Justin Spring in his biography, "Fairfield Porter: A Life in Art," Porter met Jacques Maroger at Parsons School of Design, and Maroger had developed the medium as a slow-drying, stable medium. Today it is available in art-supply stores. Sources: "American Artist" magazine, 12/2002; Chapellier Galleries label.
Marouflage    From a French word meaning 'sticky' in English, it is a technique of adhering a completed canvas painting to a panel or wall with a thin coat of adhesive so that the image can become a mural. Glues for this process, which dates back at least 3,000 years, have been from rabbit skin or white lead ore. A positive of this process rather than direct application of paint to fresco is that the painting can be removed with minimal damage. Many of J.M.W. Turner's paintings in the Tate Gallery, London, have been 'marouflaged'. Source:
Marquetry    See Inlay/Intarsia/Marquetry/Parquetry
Marshall Collection    An American art collection of Nancy and William Marshall of Peoria, Illinois, the focus is paintings by artists who studied abroad and whose style reflects the period between Impressionism and Modernism, late 19th and early 20th centuries. Subjects are quiet, picturesque landscapes and portraits, especially children of artists painted by the artist. In 1999, the collection toured with the opening exhibition at the Washington County Museum of Fine Arts in Hagerstown, Maryland. Other venues were Huntsville Museum of Art, Albrecht Kemper Museum and Lakeview Museum of Arts and Sciences in Peoria. An accompanying catalogue, "The Marshall Collection", was co-authored by Richard Love, Chicago Art Dealer, and William Marshall with an introduction by Jean Woods, Director of the Washington County Museum. Following this exhibition, a portion of the collection was loaned to the Residence of the American Ambassador in Dublin, Ireland. Sources: "The Marshall Collection"; personal interview with William Marshall.
Martha's Vineyard Art Association    Founded in 1954 on Martha's Vineyard at Edgartown, Massachusetts at what is now the Old Sculpin Gallery, painter Ruth Appledoorn Mead (1894-1994) was the organizing force. From 1933, she and several friends began gathering regularly to paint by an Edgartown shack across the street from the boat-building shop of Manuel Swartz Roberts. At first they had no thought of exhibiting their work, but when Manuel Roberts offered to sell them his building for several thousand dollars, Mead spearheaded the purchase and the ensuing exhibition Association. Material provided by the Old Sculpin Gallery in 2005 states that "Ruth Mead's teaching, lively paintings, and her vision and leadership set a high standard for the arts on the Vineyard that continues with the work of the Martha's Vineyard Art Association today." Source: Scott Wilder, art researcher.
Marvel Comics    Founded in New York City as "Timely Publications" in 1939, it has become a blockbuster success with comic-book superheroes. The company began with comic books featuring "Captain America" and the "Human Torch". Stan Lee was hired in 1939, and from 1941 to 1972, he served as editor of the Marvel Comics line. Jack Kirby, hired in 1961, is credited as ushering in "The Marvel Age of Comics" with The Fantastic Four: Incredible Hulk, Iron Man, Might Thor and X-Men.
Mary Smith Prize    An annual prize of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, it had a one-hundred dollar stipend until 1960 and three-hundred dollars from that time forward. It was established in 1879 by Russell Smith in honor of his deceased daughter, who had been a student at the Academy and whose dying wish was an Academy prize in her name. Selection criteria was the best painting by a woman resident of Philadelphia regardless of the subject. Recipients include Susan Macdowell, Cecilia Beaux, Jessie Willcox Smith and Martha Walter. Sources: Stephanie Strass; Peter Hastings Falk, "The Annual Exhibition Record of the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts".
Maryland Institute/College of Art    Offering courses in art and design and exhibition galleries, it is one of the oldest art colleges in America, having been founded in 1826 with the name Maryland Institute for the Promotion of the Mechanic Arts. The main campus is located along Mount Royal Avenue near downtown Baltimore, and has evolved from several structures with the first one destroyed by fire in 1835. Founder was John Latrobe, son of Benjamin Latrobe who was architect of the United States Capitol. Claribel and Etta Cone were especially active patronesses, and under their auspices, the Institute galleries hosted in 1923 the first public showing in America of work by Henri Matisse. Students include William Rinehart, Lee Gatch Jr., Robert Gwathmey, William Leigh, and Morris Louis. Among the teachers have been Israel Hershberg, Eugene Leake, and Alfred Jensen. Sources: Wikipedia, Maryland Institute College of Art; AskART biographies
Masonite    A brown building board one-eighth inch thick, it is perfectly smooth on one side and criss-crossed with marks of a wire screen on the other. It was invented by William Mason in 1924, first went into production in 1926 by the Masonite Corporation of Chicago, and by 1929 was being widely used. It is sometimes marked Genuine Masonite Presdwood. Masonite is made without binder and by exploding wood fiber under a steam pressure of 1000 pounds per square inch. Refined pulp is then pressed with heat, and interlocking fibers form a permanent hard mass. During the process, the fibers are impregnated with a small amount of sizing compound made of parafin, which provides a water-proof quality. Artists like to paint on masonite because of its durability, and moisture resistance. Source: Ralph Meyer, "The Artists Handbook"; Masonite International Corporation as Submitted to askART by M.D. Silverbrooke, Art Historian and Collector
Mass    Three-dimensional form, often implying bulk, density and weight
Mass Drawing    Illuminating a solid with a dark background, the focus is then on rendering nature in value gradations that reveal the three-dimensionality of a form. Mark G. Mitchell, "Sight-Size and More at SORA", Drawing, Summer 2007
Massachusetts College of Art and Design    See Massachusetts School of Art
Massachusetts Normal Art School    See Massachusetts School of Art
Massachusetts School of Art    The nation's first independent public college of art and design, it opened in 1873 as Massachusetts Normal Art School. The goal was to educate students in the creative process, which in turn would lead to mind, body and spiritual development. It continues today as Massachusetts College of Art and Design. Among its students are Donald Demers, Z.S. Liang and Losi Mailou Jones. Source:;
Mat/Matting    Material used to protect and present works of art on paper, it is constructed from sheets of stiff paperboard. Mats usually are hinged and joined together with tape so that the bottom part, usually quite thin and smooth, supports the work; and the other, often textured and colored, provides the window or opening for viewing. Poor quality wood-pulp mat board made from bleached, unrefined wood pulp, is the most common matting, but should be avoided because it darkens and becomes brittle. Persons wishing quality Matting should request conservation-quality mat board that has a neutral or alkaline pH of 7 or above when manufactured. There are three kinds: rag board made from cotton rags, buffered rag board that has calcium or magnesium carbonate to neutralize acidity, and conservation board made from chemically purified wood pulp. Source: Arthur W. Schultz, "Caring for Your Collections", Harry N. Abrams, Publishers, p. 42-43.
Matte    Flat, non-glossy; having a dull surface appearance.
Matte Artist    Matte Artists, Assistant Matte Artists and Apprentice Matte Artists use traditional and digital tools to create a scene employing photographic-like painting combined with live action to create the illusion of reality without having to build an entire structure or going to a specific location for a necessary background or terrain. The photographic painting executed by the Matte Artist will contain this visual information. The Matte Artist may work with the producer, director or Production Designer to determine what portion of the scene requires painting and how the final product should appear. Often a preliminary concept sketch is required. Matte Artists also work with previs and with the VFX supervisor during the pre-production design of the effects shots, completing the work in the post-production phase. In traditional Matte Painting, the Matte Artist must ensure that certain requirements are met at the time the live action "plate" is shot; e.g., placement of the camera, lens choice, camera steadiness and lack of action crossing the matte line separating the live action plate and painting. After the plate is shot, the matte painter must create the painting and supervise the combining of painting and plate by selecting exposures for correct color matches. Most contemporary Matte Painting consists of digital set extensions and the creation of virtual environments. The digital Matte Artist, often working with a team of other computer artists, is no longer confined to 2D painting and static composition. A modern Matte Artist creates in a 3D virtual environment that permits and encourages camera movement and perspective changes. The Matte Artist is knowledgeable about composition, lighting, atmosphere, color, perspective, camera lenses, story, and movement or action and has training in art, photography and computer software. Source: "Illustrators, Storyboard Artists and Matte Artists,"Art Directors Guild,
McKnight Distinguished Artist Award    Recognition of artists, it is given to those who have chosen to make their lives and careers in Minnesota, thereby making our state a more culturally rich place. Although they have the talent and the opportunity to pursue their work elsewhere, these artists have chosen to stay — and by staying, they have made a difference. They have founded and strengthened arts organizations, inspired younger artists, and attracted audiences and patrons. Best of all, they have made wonderful, thought-provoking art. The goal of McKnight’s arts funding is to support working artists who create and contribute to vibrant communities. The program is grounded on the belief that Minnesota thrives when its artists thrive. The McKnight Distinguished Artist Award, which comes with $50,000, goes to one Minnesota artist each year. ABOUT THE MCKNIGHT FOUNDATION The McKnight Foundation seeks to improve the quality of life for present and future generations. Founded in 1953 and independently endowed by William and Maude McKnight, the Minnesota-based Foundation had assets of approximately $2.2 billion and granted about $87 million in 2016. Of that total, about $9 million went to support working artists to create and contribute to vibrant communities. Source: Website of the McKnight Foundation
McKnight Foundation    See McKnight Distinguished Artist Award
McMicken School of Drawing and Design    In Cincinnati, the school was established in 1869 with a grant of one million dollars to the city from Charles McMicken. Shortly after the University of Cincinnati absorbed the school, but in 1887, the school changed its name to Art Academy of Cincinnati and also changed affiliation from the University to become the school of the Cincinnati Art Museum. Artists who studied at the School include Robert Blum, Kenyon Cox and Claude Hirst. Sources: Ohio History Central, An Online Encyclopedia; AskART Biographies
Mec-art    Short for Mechanical Art, it was a movement that surfaced in 1963, uniting a handful of artists including Gianni Bertini, Pol Bury, Mimmo Rotella and Alain Jacquet. They employed photographic methods to transfer to canvas a composition or collage with an iconography taken directly from magazines. This method allowed reproducing mechanical images through painterly means and enabled its practitioners to produce numerous versions of the same picture, dealing a decisive blow to the notion of an “original work”. Source: Archivio Gianni Bertini:
Mechanics' Institute, New York City    Opened as a tuition-free day school in 1820 in New York City by the General Society of Mechanics and Tradesmen for the children of its members, it was a forerunner of the public school system. With the advent of the public school system and meeting the need of educating persons in the building and construction industries, it received the name Mechanics' Institute in 1858. Still in operation and remaining tuition free and supported by endowment, the school has nearly 200,000 alumni and offers curriculum of Construction Documents, Design, Electrical Technology, Historic Preservation, Plumbing Design, Project Management and Facilities Management. Among the alumni are Arthur Saaf, Samuel Armstrong and Walter Steinhilber. Source:; AskART biographies
Medal Collectors of America    See Society of Medalists
Medallic Art Company Ltd.    A major source of U.S. commemorative medals and awards, and the oldest and largest private mint in the United States, it was founded in 1903 in New York City by Henry Weil, a French sculptor. In 1972, the company headquarters were moved to Danbury, Connecticut, and in 1997 to its present location of Dayton, Nevada, close to the famous Comstock Lode silver mines and Nevada gold fields. Among artists who have worked for the Company are Alexander Sterling Calder, Robert Aitken, Cyrus Dallin, and Janet De Coux. Sources: Susan Luftschein, "One Hundred Years of American Medallic Art";
Medallic Art/Medals    Relief prints called medals, usually in bronze and made from a metal engraving plate, Medallic art was an outgrowth of the realist figurative sculpture movement in the late 19th century. It was facilitated by the development of the reducing machine combined with sophisticated methods of engraving. Henri Chapu, who had refined low relief, taught medallic art at the Academy Julian in Paris. His American students John Flanagan, Hermon MacNeil and Bela Lyon Pratt brought medallic art to America, along with Olin Warner and Augustus Saint Gaudens. In 1893, Saint Gaudens created the award medal for the Chicago Exposition, which set a precedent for medals to be awarded at future national events. Also the reproduction of medals became a model for marketing of small-scale sculpture. Medals are a flat piece of shaped metal with design and often inscription and are given as special recognition. They reached their height of popularity between 1900 and World War I, when soldiers received medals for bravery. Tiffanys and Gorham were among the companies that mass produced them. Source: Donald Martin Reynolds,"Masters of American Sculpture;" Kimberley Reynolds, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"
Medallion/Medal    A circular object "that has been sculpted, molded, cast, struck, stamped or some way rendered with an insignia, portrait" or other artistic expression," it often serves as a commemorative object. Persons creating medallions are known as medalists, and many were/are well known sculptors such as Edward Bartholomew, James Earle Fraser, Glenna Goodacare, and Augustus St. Gaudens. Sources: Wikipedia, "Medallion"; AskART biographies.
Media Art/Video Art    An American art movement, it began in the 1970s and was directed towards mass media such as television, commercial posters, videos and billboards. The term Media Art, in this context, does not reference media in the traditional use of the word as it relates to oil, bronze, etc. Media Art is a descendant of Pop Art and its artists tend to be highly critical of mass media, presenting it primarily as a bad influence, a propaganda tool. Media Artists include Chris Burden and Jenny Holzer. See Video Art. Source: Robert Atkins, "Art Speak"
Medieval Art    Art of the Middle Ages ca. 500 A.D. through the 14th century, it was a time period immediately prior to the Renaissance and covers a vast scope of both time and place including Europe, the Middle East and North Africa. Art historians attempt to classify medieval art into major periods and styles, often with some difficulty. A generally accepted scheme includes Early Christian art, Migration Period art, Byzantine art, Insular art, Pre-Romanesque and Romanesque art, and Gothic art, as well as many other periods within these central styles. In addition each region, mostly during the period in the process of becoming nations or cultures, had its own distinct artistic style, such as Anglo-Saxon art or Norse art. Medieval art was produced in many media including sculpture, illuminated manuscripts, stained glass, metalwork, mosaics, fresco wall-paintings, textiles, including tapestry. Especially in the early part of the period, works in the so-called "minor arts" or decorative arts, such as metalwork, ivory carving, enamel and embroidery using precious metals, were probably more highly valued than paintings or monumental sculpture. Artists working at this time had little sense of their own art history, and Renaissance historians have tended to dismiss it as barbarous and the period as the "Dark Ages", a time between Classical and Renaissance. However, scholars have learned that many pieces created during this period are worthy of respect and much more sophistication that traditionally thought. Source: 'Medieval Art', "Wikipedia",
Medium    The material used to create a work of art, it can include the binder for paint such as oil and other properties for painting, sculpture and conceptual art such as pastel, watercolor, bronze, aluminum, marble, found objects, mixed media, etc. Source: AskART
Meissen Porelain/China    The first European developed hard-paste porcelain, it began in 1708 with the creativity of Ehrenfried Walther von Tschirnhaus. After his death that same year, Johann Friedrich Böttger continued his work and brought porcelain to the market, often earning credit for the invention. Meissen porcelain production near Dresden, started in 1710 and attracted artists and artisans whose product dominated the style of European porcelain until 1756, and is still in business in the 21st Century with the name Staatliche Porzellan-Manufaktur Meissen GmbH. Its signature logo, the crossed swords, was introduced in 1720 to protect its production; the mark of the crossed swords is one of the oldest trademarks in existence. Source:
Memory Painting    Paintings with themes of 'memories of youth' and 'disappearing life-styles', these expressions are by artists who see life getting increasingly complex, which, in turn causes them to think back sentimentally to days that were more simple. American Memory Painters include Clementine Hunter, Annie Wellborn and Aaron Birnbaum. Source: Chuck and Jan Rosenak, "Contemporary American Folk Art: A Collector's Guide"
Memphis Academy/College of Art    Deliberately kept small, independent, private and not-for-profit, it has an enrollment of about 300 students. It was founded in 1925 as The Memphis Academy of Art and was first housed in Memphis, Tennessee in the Goyer-Lee House in Victorian Village. In 1959, it moved into its current Overton Park location at 1930 Poplar Avenue behind the Memphis Brooks Museum. Known since the 1980s as the Memphis Collage of Art, it offers degrees of Bachelor and Masters of Fine Art. Sources: Wikipedia, "Memphis College of Art"; Frederic Koeppel, "The Commercial Appeal', newspaper, 2/3/2009.
Metadata    Data that describes other data. In the context of the art world, Metadata is information about artworks, artists, designers, and architects that serves to identify and classify them. For example, artwork dimensions, exhibition history, and price all fall under the category of metadata. Why It Matters: Thanks to the Art Genome Project and galleries who upload artworks to make their listings discoverable for collectors, you can find metadata for many artists listed on their artist pages. When researching a prospective work, collectors often like to know as much information as possible about the history of the artist and the piece. Providing this information helps collectors contextualize and better connect with the work they are interested in, increasing the likelihood that they will add it to their collection. In fact, according to the 2018 Hiscox Online Art Trade Report, “90% of new buyers said that price transparency was a key attribute and criteria when buying art online.” Source: '12 Online Art Terms to Know in 2018', Website of "Artsy", July 31, 2018
Metal    Any of various opaque, fusible, ductile and usually lustrous substances that are good conductors of electricity and heat, it is a material used by many American sculptors and craftspersons working in contemporary styles such as Alexander Calder, Thomas Markusen, John Chamberlain, Alexander Liberman and Alfred Baker. Sources: Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, biographies
Metropolitan Museum of Art    With increased economic prosperity after the Civil War, the American art scene burgeoned in New York City. One of the most important private picture galleries in the Village belonged to John Taylor Johnston. In 1870 he and a group of friends met there to found the Metropolitan Museum of Art, with Johnson as its first president. After opening briefly in temporary quarters, the museum was transferred in 1873 to No. 126 West 14th Street, where it remained until 1879, when it moved to its present home uptown on Central Park. Source:
Mexican Artistic Renaissance    Started in the 1920's by the Mexican School of Art, this renaissance began with the San Carlos Academy movement whose leaders were Ignacio Asúnsolo and Jose Clemente Orozco. It emerged out of the students’ and teachers’ discontent with traditional paintings methods (Academicism). Driving the movement was close contact the young artists had with the problems of Mexico and its people. Resulting was marked critical realism by the painters of the time including Raul Anguiano. Source:
Mezzotint    An engraving technique, it is on a copper plate that has been worked with a tool called a rocker, a crescent-shaped instrument with sharp teeth on the curve of the crescent. Marks cover the entire plate, and are made with a rocking motion. Then the copper plate is burnished or smoothed in areas by the artist. When the mezzotint is made, only the scored areas retain the ink and create the design. The smooth areas are the non-colored part of the image. Gatja Rothe, working with Edward Weston, was especially noted for mezzotint. Source: "Joel Oppenheimer" 35th Anniversary Catalogue, 2004, of the Natural Art Gallery;
Middle Ground    That portion of an artwork between the foreground and background.
Midwest Art Exhibition    Founded in Lindsborg, Kansas in 1899, it developed from the Easter art exhibition and is held annually at the Birger Sandzen Memorial Gallery. Founders were Birger Sandzen, Carl Lotave and Gustav (G.N.) Malm. Source: Malm biography on, submitted by Birger Sandzen Memorial Gallery.
Milwaukee Art Institute    Founded in 1916, it was an outgrowth of the Milwaukee Art Society that began in 1910 to foster the arts in the city. Samuel Buckner was first president of the Institute, located at 456 Jefferson Street and then 772 North Jefferson Street. In 1957, the old building was demolished and replaced by the Milwaukee Art Center, which in the 21st century housed about 30,000 works of art in over 40 galleries. Source: Peter C. Merrill, "German-American Artists in Early Milwaukee; Milwaukee Art Museum website,
Milwaukee Art Students League    See Art Students League of Milwaukee
Mimbres Pottery    Named for the Mimbres Valley, this pottery was created by Mogollon peoples, an ancient culture on the southern periphery of the Anasazi in what is now the state of Arizona. It is commonly decorated with designs of animals and human figures and has large geometric designs. Often the black and white bowls are associated with death and called mortuary bowls because they have a hole in the bottom. Archaeologists think this hole was made after they were fired as a symbolic killing of the object to be buried with a dead person. Sources:'Mimbres Pottery', "Wikipedia", // (Accessed 5/18/2013; "Native American Art of the Southwest" by Linda Eaton
Mimeogram    Artwork created when a mimeograph sheet is peeled apart, the backing is thrown away and the front is the artwork. Peeling the sheet apart makes very strange and interesting patterns. You can see some reproductions of mimeograms in Penelope Rosemont's book, "Surrealist Experiences". Source: Daniel C. Boyer, Artist
Mineral Painting    See Stereochromy
Mingei    A Japanese folk art movement in Japan during the 1920s and 1930s, it was founded by Japanese philosopher Yanagi Soetsu (1889-1961), who was inspired by a 1916 visit to Korea, where he observed the native crafts. By 1926, he had launched the movement in Japan, culminating in 1936 with the establishment of the Japanese Folk Crafts Museum in Meguro, Tokyo. Among "mingei" artists are Keisuke Serizawa and Sadao Watanabe. Some scholars credit as a major influence William Morris and the western Arts and Crafts Movement. Other scholars refute the east-west connection of the movements. Source: 'Mingei',"Wikipedia",//; Askart biographies
Miniature Artists of America    The first invitational organization to honor outstanding miniature artists, it was founded in Clearwater, Florida in 1985. Members are chosen from award winners in major U.S. non-profit miniature exhibits and from candidates nominated by three Signature Members and elected after a jury review. No more than ten candidates are selected in a given year. MAA does not have open competitive exhibits but circulates traveling exhibits of members' works. Primary goals of MAA are to further understanding of miniature art and encourage artists and art lovers to join in the miniature art resurgence. MAA played a major role in recent efforts to bring together miniature art societies world-wide, which resulted in formation of World Federation of Miniaturists in London in November 1995. Members of MAA include Dean Lamont Mitchell, Carlton Plummer and Douglas Downs and Wes Siegrist. Sources: //; AskART biographies
Minimalism    A mid 20th century style, emphasis is on lines, shapes, and sometimes colors with the goal of countering with bare essentials elaborate lines and colors of geometric abstraction. Minimalist works characteristically look and feel sparse, spare, restricted or empty. Art historian Barbara Rose is credited with first using the term in an article titled 'ABC Art' in the October 1965 issue of "Art in America." She described "art pared down to a minimum." Among Minimalist artists are Agnes Martin, Robert Ryman, Carl Andre, Dan Flavin, and Frank Stella. Although the general public seems never to have warmed to Minimalism, corporate collection managers did because the artworks accented many International Style office buildings, which were built in the mid 20th Century. Source: Robert Atkins, "Art Speak"
Minna Walker Smith Prize    In memory of Connecticut Impressionist painter Minna Walker Smith (1883-1960, the Prize was awarded by the American Watercolor Society for excellence in watercolor painting from from 1964 until 1994. Source: AskART biography of the artist, courtesy of Edward K. Bentley
Minneapolis College of Art and Design    See Minneapolis School of Fine Arts
Minneapolis School of Fine Arts    Founded in 1886 with the name School of Fine Arts, the first class had 28 students of which 26 were women. In 1910, the name was changed to Minneapolis School of Art, and in 1970, changed again, becoming Minneapolis College of Art and Design. In the 21st Century, the school offers degrees of Bachelor of Fine Arts, Bachelor of Science and Master of Fine Arts. The campus is at 2501 Stevens Avenue next to the Minneapolis Institute of Arts. Alumni include Adolf, Wanda Gag, James Rosenquist, and Peter Seitz. Source: Wikipedia
Minnesota Museum of American Art    See St. Paul School of Fine Arts
Mir iskusstva    In English translation, meaning World of Art, "Mir iskusstva" was the name of the magazine, which was the 'voice' of an early 20th century movement, which revolutionized and upgraded Russian art. It was founded in 1898 by a group of students including Leon Bakst, Alexandre Benois, Konstantin Somov, Eugene Lansere and Dmitry Filosofov. Their goal was to promote artistic individualism, raise artistic standards in an industrialized society, adopt the principles of Art Nouveau, gain an understanding of earlier art eras such as 18th century Rococo, and create a light airy effect in their paintings with watercolor and gouache. They held exhibitions, the last being 1927, and were generally successful in making change, which spread to ballet and theatre. Source:
Miss General Idea    See General Idea
Mission School    An art movement of the 1990s and 2000s, it was centered in the Mission District of San Francisco. Adherents were associated with the San Francisco Art Institute and was a regional expression of "lowbrowism." Followers took inspiration from urban bohemianism, street culture of the Mission District and practiced urban mural painting, folk art, cartoon and graffiti art. For media, Mission School artists used spray paint, ballpoint pens, found objects and correction fluid. Many of the artists used a pseudonym such as Ruby Neri (Reminisce); Margaret Kilgallen (Meta) and Barry McGee (Twist). Source: Wikipedia
Mixed-Media/Multi Media    In painting, the term has traditionally been applied to combined media in two-dimensional work such as acrylic and watercolor or gouache and tempera. However, with the many experiments of contemporary artists, especially sculptors, the term Mixed-Media or Multi-Media is now applied to the combining into a single work of art a variety of materials, many of them groundbreaking. Examples of combinations that fall into the newer definition are wood, pebbles, bones, glass, plastic, paper, oil paint, found objects and metals. Source: Lonnie Dunbier, AskART.
Mobile Commerce    Involves the use of wireless handheld devices, such as cellular phones, tablets, and laptops, to make transactional purchases online. Why It Matters: Collectors’ use of mobile devices to inquire upon and purchase works online is growing rapidly. According to the 2018 Hiscox Online Art Trade Report, “the use of mobiles to buy art has increased significantly in recent years, rising to 20% in 2018 (up from 4% in 2015).” On Artsy, more than 50% of sales (in volume and value) come through mobile devices. In fact, the inquiry for Artsy’s highest known sale to date (a $2m work sold in 2018) was made via Artsy’s mobile site. Source: '12 Online Art Terms to Know in 2018', Website of "Artsy", July 31, 2018
Mobile, Stabile    Terms originally coined to describe innovative sculpture created by Alexander Calder, mobiles are hanging, movable sculpture, and stabiles rest on the ground and may have some moving parts but are generally immobile. In the 1920s, Calder began experimenting with constructions that involved motion, and by 1932, he had his first wind-driven Mobiles. Usually Mobiles are hung from ceilings, but some of Calder's are suspended in the air from a base. From the late 1930s, Calder was creating Stabiles, which are characteristically abstract black metal sheets bolted or welded together. By the 1960s, he was doing many of these for outdoor settings, and some were large enough that people could walk through them. Source: "Phaidon Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Art"
Modeling    As a sculpture term, it is shaping a form in plastic material, such as clay, wax, or plaster, and in drawing, painting, or printmaking, the illusion of three-dimensionality on a flat surface created by simulating effects of light and shadow. Source: with permission of Michael Delahunt
Modern Art    A term with elusive meaning, it generally refers to art which is groundbreaking stylistically and/or technically from that which has been accepted historically or is currently prevalent. Spanish writer, Jose Ortega Y Gasset wrote in "Arts Yearbook": "Modern art will always have the masses against it. It is essentially unpopular; moreover it is anti-popular." Now acceptable styles that have been referred to as 'modern art' include Impressionism, Pop Art and Abstract Expressionism. Source: Editors, "Arts Yearbook 1", p. 9 (See Modernism)
Moderne    With several meanings, it can refer to that which is striving to be current in appearance and/or style but is pretentious and lacking in refinement. Also, it can pertain to 1920s and 1930s architecture and design in Europe and the U.S. typified by straight lines and tubular chromed steel frames. Source:
Modernism, Modernist    Focused on a period in western art from the 1860s through the 1970s, it is elusive to define because of pertaining to being non-traditional, which meant a variety of emerging styles especially if it was counter to academic standards espoused by the National Academy of Design, regarded as a "coterie of conservative artists." Early 'modernists' artists such as Gustave Courbet, Paul Cezanne and Edouard Manet in France rebelled against tradition by depicting contemporary life instead of historical subjects. When Modernism came to America, it was shaped by much of what was going on in Europe, especially with Impressionism at the turn of the 19th Century. Modernism took hold full force with the introduction of Cubism, Futurism and other isms at the 1913 Armory Show in New York City, and was then followed by Social Realism as espoused by Robert Henri and other AshCan School painters and their 'indelicate' subjects such as street people, prostitutes and other victims of American poverty. Many modern art themes were based on the new industrialism and secularism and its challenges to middle-class values, which increasingly displaced formal religion. Sources: Robert Atkins, "Art Speak"; Martha Severins, 'What Modern Looked Like', "American Art Review", November 2005, p. 126; Arrell Morrill Gibson, "The Santa Fe and Taos Colonies"
Modernista    See Art Nouveau.
Monhegan Island Artist Colony    Monhegan Island, Maine, 12 miles off the mid-Maine coast and two miles long, became an art colony because of visual attraction provided by its marine and agricultural activity. The first documented artist was Aaron Shattuck, who arrived in 1858. From that time for the next 30 years, the island was an especially active artist colony with residents including Robert Henri, George Bellows, Rockwell Kent, Reuben Tam, Elena Jahn and Jamie Wyeth. The area continues to attract artists, but is less defined as a Colony. Source: Edward L. Deci, 'The Monhegan Island Art Colony',"Traditional Fine Arts Online",
Monochromatic    Having only one color, the term is descriptive of work in which one hue – perhaps with variations of value and intensity – predominates. Source: AskART, Lonnie Dunbier
Monoha     A 1960s Japanese avant-garde art movement, it was Japan's first contemporary art activity to gain international attention. The Monoha school rejected Western notions of representation, choosing to focus on relationships of materials and subjects of the world at large, encouraging the fluid co-existence of numerous beings, concepts and experiences. Ufan Lee was a leader of the group. Source: Wikipedia,
Monotype/Monoprint    A print made alone rather than in an edition of more than one copy, it is usually created by painting on a sheet or slab of glass and transferring this still-wet painting to a sheet of paper held firmly on the glass. The print is created by rubbing the back of the paper with a smooth implement, such as a large hardwood spoon. The painting from which the print is made may also be done on a polished plate, in which case it may be either printed by hand or transferred to the paper by running the plate and paper through an etching press. The purpose of doing a Monotype instead of an original painting is to obtain a special surface quality or texture. Some of the first examples of monotypes by American artists came from Frank Duveneck and his circle including Otto Bacher in Venice. They were printed on Bacher's printing press, and visiting the studio to learn the technique was James McNeill Whistler. Pat Martin Bates is a contemporary Canadian artist who specializes in monoprints. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"
Monster Roster    See Chicago Imagism
Montage    A picture composed of other existing illustrations, pictures, photographs, newspaper clippings, etc.,it is arranged so they combine to create a new or original image. In filmmaking it was a technique created by Sergei Eisenstein (1898-1948) a Russian who worked in silent films. He arranged and edited series of short shots "to condense space, time and information." Source: "Montage" and "Sergei Eisenstein", Wikipedia
Montreal School of Fine Arts    See Ecole Des Beaux-Arts, Montreal
Montserrat College of Art/School of Visual Arts    Founded in 1970 in Beverly, Massachusetts by the North Shore Community Arts Foundation at the suggestion of Joseph Jeswald, it was first called Montserrat School of Visual Art. It's name changed when it became a four-year residential college in the mid 1980s affiliated with the Association of Independent Colleges of Art and Design. The name is from the Montserrat section of Beverly where the school was located. Among its alumni are sculptor Carlos Dorrien; book illustrator Giles Laroche; and Massachusetts painter, T.M. Nicholas. Source: Wikipedia,; AskART biographies
Monument    A defined space to honor a person, event, or concept, the word is derived from the Latin "monere", meaning to remind. Monuments are reminders of collective values, beliefs and traditions, and often focus on the mysteries of life such as death and war and deities. Monuments that make the most lasting impressions tend to have compelling balance between architecture, sculpture and location such as the Lincoln and Jefferson Memorials in Washington DC. In Western history, religious expression was the first incentive for building monuments and included ziggurats (built on a platform), pyramids, obelisks, domes, columns and allegorical and representational sculpture. Twentieth-century monument builders sometimes depart from these traditions by using abstract sculpture, gardens, or unadorned space to encourage contemplation such as the Vietnam Memorial in Washington DC. Americans noted for monument sculpture include Alexander Stirling Calder, Augustus St. Gaudens and Daniel Chester French. Source: Donald Martin Reynolds, "Masters of American Sculpture"; AskART biographies.
Monuments Men    A group of approximately 345 men and women from thirteen nations, they worked to protect monuments and other artworks from the destruction of World War II. They were especially focused on rescuing and returning to rightful owners artwork confiscated by the Nazis. Monuments Men, which included museum directors, artists, architects, curators and art historians, remained in Europe for up to six years following the War. After this service, many of them became prominent figures in the art world such as founders of the National Endowment for the Arts, National Endowment for the Humanities and the New York City Ballet. Source: website of the Monuments Men Foundation for the Preservation of Art,
Moore College of Art    See Philadelphia School of Design
Mormon Art Missionaries, French Art Mission    Sponsored by the LDS (Latter Day Saints) branch of the Mormon Church in Salt Lake City, male artists in the 1890s traveled to Paris, France to get formal art training at Academie Julian so they could skillfully execute murals and canvas paintings for the Church. Among the group were Herman Haag, Lorus Pratt, John Hafen, Myra Sawyer, Rose Hartwell, Edwin Evans and John B. Fairbanks. Many of them such as Hafen were influenced away from Realism and purely religious subjects by French styles of Tonalism and Impressionism and by French landscape painters. Source: Anthony's Fine Art, Information to AskART
Mosaic    One of the oldest of decorative arts, the method was popular with ancient Romans and Greeks. Earliest found examples date to fifth century BC and are composed of pebbles and shells the Greeks called "tesserae," meaning small arranged pieces. Colored glass, marble, stone and wood have also become mosaics media and are held in place by grout. Churches of Constantinople, Venice and Ravenna have excellent examples of Byzantine mosaics. Although the art is not much in vogue in the 21st century, some American artists are noted for Mosaic designs including murals such as Millard Sheets, Louis Tiffany, Jeanne Reynal, Helen Bruton, Jean Varda, Max Spivak, Ezra Winter and Emmy Lou Packard. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"; Kimberley Reynolds and Richard Seddon, "Illustrated Dictionary of Art Terms"; AskART database
Moscow School of Painting, Sculpture and Architect    One of the largest art institutions in Russia, it was founded in 1865 by the merger of a private college begun in 1832 and the Palace School of Architecture, established in 1749. It has been a competitor of the state-run St. Petersburg Academy of Arts for largest school in the country. Today its art curriculum is part of the Sirikov Art Institute in Moscow and architecture is at the Moscow Architectural Institute, the latter occupying the historical Moscow School. Source
Moscow Society of Artists    Founded in 1928, the artist members worked with Soviet subject matter and tried to convey the material diversity of the world by organically uniting color and form and by combining bold, energetic brushstrokes and chiaroscuro. The organization had exhibitions in 1928 and 1929 but broke up because of some of the members leaving to join the Association of Artists of the Revolution. Source: Website of "The Free Dictionary
Mountain School of Art    A short-lived art school, it was in Salt Lake City, Utah in the early 1930s. Gordon Cope was a teacher there. Source: Anthony Christensen, Anthony's Fine Art, Salt Lake City.
Mountie Artists    See Potlatch Collection
Multiculturalism    In the visual arts, it is the opposite of ethno-centricity, which is fear of supporting many cultures, familiar and unfamiliar. Multi-culturalists want to reach out beyond American and European subjects to Asia, Africa and non-white cultures within and outside the United States. The movement began in the late 1980s to reach out to persons who are part of the tremendous migration of non-whites to America, and to counter the racist responses of some US citizens. Since then, many American museum curators have held exhibitions on the basis of the artists' ethnic, racial and gender identities. In New York in 1990, the most comprehensive American Multicultural exhibit was held, with simultaneous presentations at the Museum of Contemporary Hispanic Art, the New Museum of Contemporary Art and the Studio Museum of Harlem. Conservatives assailed the shows for promoting the lowering of artistic standards of quality. Source: Robert Atkins, "Art Speak"
Multiples    Three-dimensional artwork produced in quantity by industrial or serigraphic processes, these copies or reproductions have a long tradition beginning with two-dimensional works. However, in 1955, artists Yaacov Agam and Jean Tinguely suggested to Parisien art dealer, Denise Rene, that a process could be developed for three dimensional works . Four years later, Editions M.A.T. was formed in Paris, and this company produced multiples of one-hundreds for sculptors including Tinguely, Man Ray, Alexander Calder and Marcel Duchamp. From that time, Multiples have been popular for collectors. As opposed to being valued for their uniqueness, Multiples are valued by their conveyance of the visual image. Source: Robert Atkins, "Art Speak"; "Phaidon Dictionary of Twentieth-Century Art"
Muncie Art School    A school of art instruction that operated for two years in Muncie, Indiana, it opened in 1889 and closed in the spring of 1891. William Forsyth (1854-1935) and J. Ottis Adams (1851-1927) were primary instructors. "Despite appealing to the more affluent members of Muncie society, especially the women, the school was not a place of idle pastimes. Its thrity-five pupils worked diligently, and when the Muncie Art School was closed late in spring 1891, the more serious among them sought additional training." (85). Among the students were Winifred Brady who married her teacher, J. Ottis Adams and became a well-known still life painter. Source: Judith Vale Newton and Carole Ann Weiss, "Skirting the Issue"
Munich Academy of Fine Arts, Royal Academy of Munich    Founded in 1808 by Maximilian I of Bavaria in Munich, it is one of the oldest and is the Royal Academy of Germany, especially known for teaching emphasis on Academic Realist. Many American artists studied there including William Merritt Chase, Frank Duveneck, Augustus Dunbier, Josef Albers and Joseph Henry Sharp. In 1953, the name changed to Academy of Fine Arts, Munich. Sources: Wikipedia; AskART biographies
Munich School of Painting    A style innovated by American artists led by Frank Duveneck in Munich in the 1870s and 1880s,it was realism combined with "dashing brushwork of quickly applied blocks of color, omitting the careful blending of traditional methods. Among the artists' favorite subjects were young boys or older men from working class neighborhoods. The style, a precursor to Social Realism, was a major influence in overthrowing the Hudson River School style of painting. Source: Traditional Fine Arts Online,
Munich Secession    The name for a landmark modernist art movement in Germany begun in 1892 in Munich, it focused on replacement of traditional methods and representational styles with Abstraction. Among artists involved were Lovis Corinth, Paul Klee, Franz Von Stuck and Wassily Kandinsky. Special attention occurred in 1899 when Kandinsky wrote a widely-circulated essay on the subject and described the group's "bold negation of aged models." Munich Secession was the first outside of France of a number of modernist art groups including Berlin, Austria and Belgium, which separated from what the artists regarded as oppression from the traditional academies. George Hirth, editor of Jugend (youth in English) coined the term to represent rebellious spirit. Sources: 'Secession', "Wikipedia";; (See Secession Art)
Mural    Any large-scale wall decoration done in painting, fresco, mosaic, or other medium.
Mural Town    The modern "mural town" tourism industry began in 1982 in the sawmill-based Canadian town of Chemainus (Pop.3,500) on Vancouver Island. Planned closure of the sawmill, its main source of employment, was a major economic threat, but that was softened but the ingenuity of resident Karl Schutz. Drawing from his observations in Romania where nuns raised funds by showing visitors old murals in their convents, he suggested Chemainus do the same by creating its own historic murals. Today the town attracts between 350,000 and 450,000 visitors a year, thanks to its murals painted by invited contemporary artists. Some of the first murals were painted by Harry Heine, Harold Lloyd Lyon, Ernest Marza and Paul Ygartua (see all in AskART). The saw mill reopened in 1985. As of 2009 the town has 42 murals with more in the works. Other mural towns include Stony Plain, Alberta; Ely, Nevada; Ottawa, Illinois; Katikati, New Zealand; and Prestonpans, East Lothian, Scotland. Source: "The Chemainus Murals" (1998), by Cynthia Bunbury and Gregg Perry, published by The Chemainus Festival of the Murals Society, Chemainus, B.C. ( 90 pgs, colour). Submitted to askART by M.D. Silverbrooke, Art Historian and Collector, West Vancouver, BC
Museum    A building, place or institution devoted to the acquisition, conservation, study, exhibition and educational interpretation of objects having scientific, historical, or artistic value. The word Museum is derived from the Latin muses, meaning “a source of inspiration,” or “to be absorbed in one’s thoughts.” Source: