Art Terms Glossary   Glossary terms for:  'R'

Railway Painters-Canada    A group of Canadian artists who, beginning in the late 19th Century, they "traveled through western Canada on a commission from the Canadian Pacific Railway." Among them were Frederic Marlett Bell-Smith, Thomas Mower Martin, Lucius O'Brien and Marmaduke Matthews. Source: M.D. Silverbrooke, Art Historian and Collector, West Vancouver, British Columbia.
Raku    A ceramic-making method, it is an ancient Japanese technique defined by the process of rapid heating and cooling. It dates from the 15th century when tile makers discovered they could be more productive if they removed hot objects, made from clay, with tongs and cooled externally rather than letting them cool slowly in the kiln. The method evolved to be used for the production of everyday objects as well as fine art expression. Source: Merriam-Webster Dictionary
Ray College of Design    See Ray-Vogue School
Ray Vogue Art School/Ray College of Design    Founded in Chicago in 1916 as The Commercial Art School, it was one of the first applied art and design schools in America. In the 1930s, it was named the Ray-Vogue Art School and had professional programs in fashion, art and design with a campus on the Wabash Avenue on the Near North Side. In 1981, the school was acquired by the Education Management Corporation, which, in 1983 established a second campus in suburban Schaumburg. In 1995, EMC brought both campuses under the auspices of Illinois Art Institutes, the statewide system of colleges offering courses in creative industries. The campus of the former Ray-Vogue School/Ray College of Design was renamed The Illinois Institute of Art-Chicago. The suburban campus was renamed The Illinois Institute of Art-Schaumburg. Teachers include Wade Ray, son of the founders, who became President of the Ray College of Design in 1969; and Judy Morris Petacque. Sources:;
Ray-Vogue School    Founded in 1919 by William F. Ray as part of The Commercial Art School, in the 1920s and 30s it became widely known as Ray School and then Ray-Vogue School. Operation continued with Ruth Wade Ray as president, and curriculum included fine art, design photography and fashion programs. In 1981, it was renamed Ray College of Design, and in 1995, the school merged into The Illinois Institute of Art. Source: "Illinois Institute of Art-Chicago," Wikipedia, 2017
Rayonism    A short-lived but highly influential abstract art movement in Russia beginning 1911, it was developed by Mikhail Larionov and Natalia Goncharova after hearing a lecture on Futurism. Rayonists built on "styles of the past and then sought an art that floated beyond abstraction outside of time and space, and that broke barriers between the artist and the public." The name is linked to lines of reflected light and the crossing of those rays. Source:
RBC Canadian Painting Competition    Established in 1999, the RBC Canadian Painting Competition, with the support of the Canadian Art Foundation, is an initiative to help nurture and support promising artists in the early stages of their careers. A regional jury panel of distinguished members from the arts community select five paintings from their regions as follows: Eastern (Quebec, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, PEI, Newfoundland and Labrador); Central (Ontario); Western Canada (Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia, Yukon, Northwest Territories, Nunavut). The three jury panels then select one national winner and two honorable mentions from the 15 semi-finalists. The national winner receives a purchase prize of $25,000 and the two honorable mentions each receive $15,000. The list of previous winners includes Kim Dorland, Regina Williams, Chris Dorosz and Etienne Zack. Sources: Royal Bank of Canada website; and “RBC Canadian Painting Competition: Ten Years” (2008) by Robin T. Anthony, et al (see AskART book references). Submitted to askART by M.D. Silverbrooke.
Ready-Made    Ready-made is the term used by the French artist Marcel Duchamp to describe works of art he made from manufactured objects. His earliest ready-mades included Bicycle Wheel of 1913, a wheel mounted on a wooden stool, and In Advance of the Broken Arm of 1915, a snow shovel inscribed with that title. In 1917 in New York, Duchamp made his most notorious readymade, Fountain, a men's urinal signed by the artist with a false name and exhibited placed on its back. Later ready-mades could be more elaborate and were referred to by Duchamp as assisted ready-mades. The theory behind the ready-made was explained in an article, anonymous but almost certainly by Duchamp himself, in the May 1917 issue of the avant-garde magazine The Blind Man run by Duchamp and two friends: 'Whether Mr Mutt with his own hands made the fountain or not has no importance. He CHOSE it. He took an ordinary article of life, and placed it so that its useful significance disappeared under the new title and point of view ¿ created a new thought for that object.' There are three important points here: first, that the choice of object is itself a creative act. Secondly, that by cancelling the 'useful' function of an object it becomes art. Thirdly, that the presentation and addition of a title to the object have given it 'a new thought', a new meaning. Duchamp's ready-mades also asserted the principle that what is art is defined by the artist. Duchamp was an influential figure in Dada and Surrealism, an important influence on Pop art, environments, assemblage, installation art, Conceptual art and much art of the 1990s such as the Young British Artists [e.g. Damien Hirst]. Source: Tate Modern Glossary Submitted to askART by M.D. Silverbrooke, West Vancouver, British Columbia
Realism*     Any art in which the goal is to portray forms in the natural world in a highly representational manner, specifically it is an art style of the mid 19th century, which fostered the ideas that everyday people and events are worthy subjects for important art.
Recisionism    (See also PRECISIONISM)
Recto    A printing and publishing company term, it refers to the page or folded sheet of a book or pamphlet that is on the right side. Source: Wikipedia
Red Rose Girls    A name given by illustrator Howard Pyle to three of his female illustration students, they were Jessie Willcox Smith, Elizabeth Shippen Green and Violet Oakley. In 1900, they decided they could be most productive in their careers if they distanced themselves from distractions, so they established their home in Philadelphia in a rambling country estate home called the Red Rose Inn. Reinforcing each other and hiring a domestic helper, Henrietta Cozens, each woman had a tremendous career boost during the next eight years that they were together. Willcox became a highly successful illustrator and children's portrait painter; Oakley received numerous public mural commissions, especially for Pennsylvania state capital buildings; and Green became well established as an illustrator, including numerous assignments from "Harper's Magazine". Of this alliance, a reviewer of the book about them wrote that: "For eight years the four led an almost idyllic existence of genteel lifestyle and artistic productivity, but eventually the group disintegrated, with Green's marriage causing an especially painful break." The definitive book about the three women's 'retreat' is "The Red Rose Girls: An Uncommon Story of Art and Love" by Alice A. Carter. Source: of the book.
Red Wing Pottery    Founded in the mid 1900s in Red Wing, Minnesota, the company continues making pottery and operating a salesroom into the 21st century. Two styles of pottery are made, the first and original being a salt-glazed stoneware with grey or tan clay body and cobalt blue decoration. The second style is Bristol glaze ware, which has a uniform smooth glaze and copies the pots made originally. Source:
Reed and Gross Panorama Studio Campus    Located along the Rock Island Railroad tracks in Englewood ibefore it was annexed to Chicago in 1889, the company produced units of the dioramas of the "Battle of Gettysburg" and "Jerusalem on the Day of the Crucifixion." It was called a campus because it was large, 20,000 square feet, and people who worked in the building came from many directions. Many commuted by train from Chicago. Source: Gene Meier, Illinois historian of dioramas in America.
Refraction    A scientific concept, it references what happens with the turning or bending of light when it passes between mediums of varying density. The over-riding value is light, and in painting, Refraction refers to the effect that one mass of color has on an adjoining mass according to the human eye. Artist Birge Harrison wrote of this phenomenon in his book "Landscape Painting", 1911 and described the "lost-edge appearance and a general diffusion of tone, thus giving paintings their atmospheric quality." Source: Richard McKinley, 'Overcoming Obstacles', "The Pastel Journal", October 2005.
Refus Global    "Refus Global" was an artistic, political, religious and social manifesto, the principal essay of which was written by Paul-Émile Borduas and signed by 15 members of Les Automatistes group. It included texts by Bruno Cormier, Claude Gauvreau, Fernand Leduc and Françoise Sullivan and illustrations of works by members of the group. It was launched at the Librairie Tranquille in Montréal on August 9, 1948 in a first edition of 400 copies at $1.00 each (in 2009 first editions sell at auction for $5,000.00). Refus Global not only challenged the traditional values of Québec but, also fostered an opening-up of Québec society to international thought and artistic freedom. It is considered by many to be the most important and controversial artistic document in Canada. The signatories were artists and intellectuals, in addition to Borduas, they were Jean-Paul Riopelle, Fernand Leduc, Françoise Sullivan, Marcel Barbeau, Pierre Gauvreau, Marcelle Ferron, Jean-Paul Mousseau (see all previous in AskART), Madeleine Arbour, Bruno Cormier, Claude Gauvreau, Muriel Guilbault, Thérèse Leduc, Maurice Perron, Louise Renaud and Françoise Riopelle. Sources: Francois-Marc Gagnon in “The Canadian Encyclopedia” (1985), Hurtig Publishers Ltd.; “A Concise History of Canadian Painting” (1973), by Dennis Reid; and "Documents in Canadian Art" (1987), edited by Douglas Fetherling (see AskArt book references). Submitted to askART by M.D. Silverbrooke, Art Historian and Collector, West Vancouver, Canada
Regionalism    A term used generally to describe an artist's depiction of a certain geographical area, in American art history it pertains specifically to a movement founded by Thomas Hart Benton of Missouri, with fellow mid-westerners Grant Wood and John Steuart Curry in the 1930’s. Charles Burchfield is sometimes categorized with them as well. As painters they extolled the virtues of living in small town or rural America, and they sought metaphors for prime human experiences in the ordinary people and simple ways of that rural culture. For some, it was a patriotic reaction against the avant-garde experimentation of contemporary European artists, especially Parisians such as Picasso and Braque with Cubism and Max Ernst and Andre Breton with Surrealism. It was also a rebellion against industrialism. Of this movement Benton wrote: "The name Regionalism was taken, I believe, from a group of southern writers, poets and essayists, who in the late twenties called themselves 'agrarians.' These, turning from the over-mechanized, over-commercialized, over-cultivated life of our metropolitan centers, were seeking the sense of American life in its sectional or regional centers. But this Regionalism was not a clear term. Neither Wood, Curry, nor I ever held ourselves, either in space or time, to any American region... (We) thought of ourselves simply as American or Americanist painters, sectional at one moment, national and historical at others. If we dealt largely with 'agrarian' subjects, it was because these were significant parts of our total American experience." Regionalism abated with the attitudes of international outreach that developed among the citizenry after World War II. Sources: Reece Summers, Curator, Great Plains Art Collection, Lincoln, Nebraska; "Phaidon's Dictionary of Twentieth Century Art".
Rehoboth Beach Colony    On the coast of Delaware, Rehoboth Beach attracted painters, many of them from the Wilmington area and nearby Philadelphia. Ethel Pennewill Brown Leach established a summer studio at the resort in 1922 and began the annual summer exhibitions. Leach was also a key person in establishing the Rehoboth Art League. The degree of art activity became so intense that Art League members established a permanent home for exhibitions in 1938. Leach was named Honorary Life President. Source: AskART biography of Ethel Pennewill Brown Leach
Reid-Stone Art School    Founded by Albert T. Reid and George M. Stone in Topeka, Kansas in the 1890s, it, along with The Topeka Art School became the basis of the art curriculum for Washburn University. Source:
Reimann School of Commercial and Industrial Art, London    The first commercial art school in Britain, it was founded in 1936 by H.E. Reimann, a German plastics designer and educator, who had recently emigrated to London, England. The ‘goal of the school was to connect art and industry and to provide students with very practical training in the applied arts – display, commercial art, fashion, dressmaking and interior design.’ Austin Cooper (see AskART) it’s first principal explained, “… each student is encouraged to think of the school as the beginning of his business career.” The school building was bombed and destroyed during the Blitz and it was not reopened after the war. Reimann retired to Vancouver, Canada and Cooper went on to a distinguished career as an abstract expressionist. Sources: “Imponderable Joys: The Work of Austin Cooper” (1993), by Timothy Ray, published by the Art Gallery of Southwestern Manitoba; “Modernism, Commercialism and Display Design in Britain”, by Yasuko Suga, Journal of Design History (Summer 2006), published by Oxford University Press; and the London Transport Museum. Submitted to askART by M.D. Silverbrooke.
Relative Apparent Size*     Objects appear smaller as their distance from the viewer increases.
Relief    Sculpture in which figures or other images are attached to a flat background, they are raised from the plane of the composition. Often this work is described as bas-relief or haut-relief. Source: "The World's Greatest Paintings", The Teaching Company
Relief Print    An image created by cutting away parts of a matrix such as a cork, wood or linoleum block leaving a raised area, it is then inked and transferred to a paper. Some relief prints are made by printing presses and others by hand. Relief printing has become an experimental process for artists such as Boris Margo and Arthur Deshaies who create prints with lucite, cardboard or celluloid dissolved in acetone. Other American artists doing Relief Prints include Milton Avery, Leonard Baskin, Misch Kohn, Will Barnet, Karl Schrag, Adja Yunkers and Naum Gabo. Until the 1930s, most American artists were indifferent to innovative relief printing, but Barnet as well as Werner Drewes and Louis Schanker “discovered that printmaking served their expressive needs and individual styles.” Schanker did “energized” abstractions, many of them circular designs, and Drewes also created abstractions linked to Native-American hieroglyphics. Some exquisitely crafted relief prints were used for book illustrations. Source: “Antiques and the Arts Weekly”, Bee Publishing, November 25, 2005, p. 11.
Renaissance/High Renaissance/Northern Renaissance    Meaning “rebirth” and referring to the period in Europe from the 14th to the 16th century, it was characterized by renewed interest in Classical art, architecture, literature and philosophy. It began in Italy and gradually spread to the rest of Europe. Its mature period is the High Renaissance from 1500-1525, and then led to the prevalence of Italian Humanism. In art, it is most closely associated with Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Titian, Tintoretto, Veronese and Raphael. The Northern Renaissance, meaning north of Italy, has variety within it but a shared characteristic is a "fondness for meticulous rendering of details" and "generally less of the classical ideal" of the Renaissance. Source:
Replica    A work of art, it is an exact copy or model and is often smaller. Source: Oxford Dictionaries
Repousse    A metalwork technique for decorating surfaces, it is achieved by hammering the reverse of the object. It is a method to create relief panels from sheet metal and copper. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"
Representational*     Works of art that closely resemble forms in the natural world, it is the opposite of Abstract and synonymous with the term Naturalistic. Source: Oxford Dictionaries online
Reserve Price    The minimum price confidentially agreed upon between the seller and consignor, it is usually about 80 percent of the low estimate. If not achieved, the lot shall not be sold, and should not exceed the low estimate. On behalf of the consignor, auctioneers may bid against the audience up to the reserve. Source includes:
Resins (Natural and Synthetic)    Hydrocarbon secretion of many plants, especially coniferous trees, it is the source of natural resins, and comes from vegetation fossil deposits. Synthetic resins including alkyd and epoxy are created by chemists and often have greater durability and dry faster. Sources: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"
Retrospective    A living artist’s showing of his/her works of a lifetime or major part of a career, it is usually depicted chronologically, but can also be shown by theme. Source: //
Reuben Award    Annual recognition of the National Cartoonists Society, the award originated in 1946 with the name of Billy DeBeck Memorial Award and changed to Reuben Award in 1954. The Award is given at the Society's annual gala to the "Outstanding Cartoonist of the Year". Among recipients are Al Jaffee, Ernie Bushmiller, Charles Schulz and Pat Oliphant, and in 1985, Lynn Johnston, the first woman to receive the award. Source: Wikipedia: Reuben Award; AskART biography
Reverse Glass Painting    An ancient art form of applying paint to glass with the intention of it being viewed from the reverse side, it is an ancient art form, widely used for sacral painting since the Middle Ages, and especially with icons of the Byzantine Empire. Among contemporary artists who do Reverse Glass Painting are Romanian artist George Huszar and Iranian artist, Monir Farmanfarmian. Sources:; AskART biography
Reynolda House    A museum of American art incorporated in 1964 and opened in 1967 in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, the original building was a 1917 bungalow belonging to tobacco family members Katharine and R.J. Reynolds. In 2005, a 30,000 square foot expansion, the Mary and Charlie Babcock Wing, was completed. The collection focus is on both exhibition of the collection of American art, including Southern regionalism, and the innovative multi-disciplinary study of American Art in the contexts of literature, music and history. A major purpose is rediscovering American artists who once were well known but whose reputations were submerged with the advent of abstraction---artists "long out of the public eye." A core value was art reflecting every-day genre and the importance of life in daily living. Among artists whose work is represented are William Harnett, Charles Willson Peale, Martin Johnson Heade, Joseph Blackburn, William Sydney Mount and Frederic Edwin Church. Today Reynolda House is credited with helping to "lead the national conversation on the rediscovery and rehabilitation of American art through prescient acquisitions. Source: Thomas Andrew Denenberg, 'American Art at Reynolda House', "American Art Review", June 2005.
Rhino Horn    A maverick, renegade group of mid to late 20th century American painters, participants described themselves as being "tough skinned" like a Rhino Horn in their crusade for socially conscious art. It was rebellion against the cool objectivity of Pop and Minimalist art, and a stance for expressions of social realism and the "poignant nature of reality." Rhino Horn artists included Peter Dean, Benny Andrews, Bill Barrell, Peter Dean, Leonel Gongora, Jay Milder and Peter Passuntino. Source:
Rhode Island School of Design    Located at 2 College Street In Providence, Rhode Island, it is a fine arts and design school founded in 1877 in connection with the Brown University campus. "It is widely perceived as an Ivy League equivalent in art schools". In the 21st Century, the school has nearly 800 faculty and staff members, students from 50 countries, and 16 undergraduate majors and 17 graduate course majors. Among its student alumni are Roni Horn, Shepard Fairey, Arshile Gorky, and Jenny Holzer. Teachers include Mabel Woodward, George Morrison, and Mabel Woodward. Sources: AskART biographies; Wikipedia
Richmond School of Painters    A group of landscape painters who exhibited and painted together, they were from Richmond, Indiana a small town that had tremendous artistic vitality in the latter decades of the 19th and early decades of the 20th century. John Elwood Bundy was a key figure and one of the founders in 1898 of the Art Association of Richmond, whose collection has many of the works from the Richmond School. Source: "American Art Review", 8/2002
Ridgefield Artist Colony, New Jersey    Incorporated in 1892, the town beginning around 1897 became a thriving colony of artists, many from Greenwich Village who were attracted to the wild scenic beauty and diverse views. The Colony continued into the early 1900s with many artists living in the Ridgefield Heights section on streets they named such as Studio Road, Art Lane and Sketch Place. Among these were William Sartain, Gary Melchers, Bernard Karfiol, Van Perrine, Grant Wright and Man Ray, who lived there in a little shack from 1913 to 1916. Source:
Rinehart Scholarship    Established by the Peabody Institute in honor of sculptor, William Henry Rinehart, the scholarship is for gifted young sculpture students to study in Europe. Source of funds is invested monies from the estate of Rinehart, who died in 1874. By 1891, the fund had reached $100,000. First recipients were Alexander Phimister Proctor and Hermon Atkins MacNeil. Source: Thayer Tolles, "American Sculpture in The Metropolitan Museum of Art", p. 106.
Ringling Art School/College of Art and Design    Named for Sarasota, Florida circus owner, John Ringling and his deceased wife, Mable, it was conceived by Dr. Ludd Spivey, then President of Florida Southern College. Its earliest name was the School of Fine and Applied Art of the John and Mable Ringling Art Museum. It opened in 1931; within two years had 75 students; and renamed Ringling School of Art, it became a member of the Florida Association of Colleges and Universities. American artists who were students include Lanford Monroe, Stan Davis and Stephen Young. Among teachers were Lucile Blanch and Wilmer Richter. Sources: Wikipedia; AskART database
Robert Lougheed Memorial Award    A $1000 cash prize it is given at the Prix de West, the annual exhibition of the National Cowboy and Western Heritage Museum in Oklahoma City. Recipients are artists with the "best display of three or more works". It was established in 1988 and named for Robert Lougheed (1910-1982), a leading western artist who served as friend and mentor to many of the exhibiting artists. The award is sponsored by the Robert S. and Grayce B. Kerr Foundation, Inc. Winners include Dan Gerhartz, John Moyers, Clyde Aspevig, Clyde Afsary, Richard Loffler, and Loren Entz. Sources:; AskART biographies
Roberts Gallery, Canada    The oldest gallery in Canada and still in existence, it represents both historical artists such as J.E.H. MacDonald and J.W. Beatty, and contemporary artists including Ariane Dubois and Alan Stein. The Gallery location is 641 Yonge Street, Toronto. Source:
Rochefort-en-Terre Artist Colony    Located in the French medieval Brittany village of Rochefort-en-Terre, the colony was established around 1905 by Alfred Partridge Klots, Baltimore portrait painter, and his wife, Agnes. They built a chateau on the site of an earlier one that had been destroyed during the French Revolution, and this building became their home and his studio and the center of activity for resident artists. Trafford Klots, their son and an artist, spent much of his career there, and he and his wife, Isabel, activated the colony after World War II. After her husband's death in 1976, Isabel established the Alfred & Trafford Klots Artist Residency Program in memory of her husband and father-in-law, and in the late 1980s that program was taken over by the Maryland Institute College of Art. Source: Maryland Historical Society,; AskART biographies.
Rochester Art Club    Founded in 1877 in Rochester, New York by artists dedicated to "mutual assistance in art study", the Club expanded to cultivate fine and industrial arts and to "promote social involvement of members. Founders included painter James Hogarth Dennis; architect Harvey Ellis; sculptors J. Gurnsey Mitchell, John Z. Wood and James Somerville. Annual exhibitions became a tradition, and from the beginning the Club offered art classes until some years later the Rochester Institute of Technology took over art instruction. The Club, which continues today, supported the founding of the city museum, Memorial Art Gallery, and continues to be active today. Source:
Rocker    A crescent-shaped tool with sharp points used in printmaking, especially mezzotints, it is used with a rocking motion to make marks all over the copper plate. The finished product usually has some of these marks polished or burnished so they do not retain ink and to achieve a positive/negative effect when ink is applied. Source:"Joel Oppenheimer" 35th Anniversary Catalogue, 2004, of the Natural Art Gallery
Rockport Art Association    An association officially dating to 1921, it includes some of America's best-known painters who found inspiration in Rockport, Massachusetts. Among the first members were Winslow Homer, Childe Hassam, Edward Hopper, John Sloan, Maurice Prendergast, and John Twachtman. No one seems certain of the identity of the first painter, but by 1900, many artists were working in summer studios on Bearskin Neck. Most of them were communal, and on July 22, 1921, a group of them officially created the Rockport Art Association. In 1929, the Old Tavern on Main Street became their permanent gallery where paintings, graphic art, sculpture, and photography continue to be sold year round. Source:
Rocky Mountain School of Painting    The name given to Hudson River School of painting in the Western United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, it included many artists of the eastern School such as Thomas Moran and Albert Bierstadt. With focus on grandeur of natural environment, they depicted panoramic views and naturalist subjects using luminous, Tonalist and Tonalist-impressionist styles. However, in the mind of some art historians, the School is not considered as successful in terms of long-range scholarly interest because the Rocky Mountain group tried to copy the Hudson River School approach of depicting realistic details in an environment that was rugged and not conducive to detailed, 'accurate' depiction. Other names associated with the Rocky Mountain School are Sanford Gifford, Thomas Hill, John Kensett, George Ottinger, Danquart Weggeland, Alfred Lambourne, George Beard, Worthington Whittredge and Henry Culmer. Sources: Vern Swanson, "Utah Art"; Andrew Wilton & Tim Barringer, "American Sublime"; James Flexner, "History of American Painting", Vol. III; Look Smart Internet.
Rocky Neck Artist Colony    On the North Shore ocean side along a picturesque rocky coast in an inlet of Gloucester, Massachusetts harbor, it was founded more than 200 years ago and claims to be America's oldest working art colony. In the 'colony' are about 30 galleries, artist studios and restaurants for tourists. In addition to artists, the Colony organization has business and other community members. The goal is to promote free expression of the arts and celebrate the culture of Rocky Neck through residencies, workshops and exhibitions. Artist participants have included Milton Avery, Edward Hopper, John Sloan, and Childe Hassam. Source:
Rococo    A style of art popular in Europe in the first three quarters of the 18th century, Rococo architecture and furnishings emphasized ornate but small-scale decoration, curvilinear forms, and pastel colors. Rococo painting has a playful, light-hearted romantic quality and often pictures the aristocracy at leisure. Rococo artists include Antoine Watteau, Francois Boucher and Jean Honore Fragonard. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques".
Rodin Studios, New York City    A New York City landmark at 200 West 57th Street, it was designed by architect Cass Gilbert and built in 1916 and 1917. It is called a "terra-cotta lover's paradise" because of the material of its abundant "fanciful mythic figures and cathedral style motifs". The building of 14 stories was organized by three artists so they could have living quarters and studios in one space. They were Lawton Parker, Georgia Timken Fry and her husband, John Hemming Fry. Dedicated to French culture, they named the building for Auguste Rodin, the famous French sculptor. Source:
Rogers Groups    Created by sculptor John Rogers (1829-1904), these were small bronze, inexpensive genre figure groups representing everyday American life. Because they were affordable and size-friendly for homes, they succeeded in popularizing fine art by making it accessible and understandable. Titles of some of the 'groups' were "Checkers Up at the Farm" (1875), "Weighing the Baby" (1876) and "Coming to the Parson" (1870), which showed a bride and groom before a minister. This 'group' became especially popular as a wedding gift. Source: Thayer Tolles, 'John Rogers', "American Sculpture in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Volume I"
Rogue Taxidermy Movement    Founded in 2004 as the brainchild of Sarina Brewer of the Twin Cities, Minnesota, it is a form of "fine art that utilizes the various elements of traditional taxidermy." It combines pop surrealism with mixed-media sculpture that combines conventional taxidermy materials with an unconventional result such as the head of a goat with the body of a fish. Other artists involved are Scott Bibus and Robert Marbury. Source: Website of Sarina Brewer.
Roman Bronze Works    Established in 1897 by Ricardo Bertelli, it became the foremost bronze foundry in the United States. Its early major client was Tiffany Studios, and in 1927, the foundry moved to Tiffany's red brick factory in Corona, New York. The foundry made the bronze accessories for Tiffany lamps and other decorative items, and also did foundry work for many 20th-century sculptors including James Earle Fraser, Laura Gardin Fraser, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Frederick Remington, Charles Russell and Daniel Chester French. The company was owned by the Philip J. Schiavo family from 1946 until it closed in 1988. Plaster models of many of its famous sculptors were then auctioned, and money was used to restore its historic headquarters, the red brick factory. Sources: Wikipedia: Roman Bronze Works;; AskART biographies
Romanesque    A style of architecture, painting, sculpture and murals, it was dominant in Europe from beginning periods ranging among art historians from the 7th to the 11th centuries. It was superseded by the Gothic period and was based on ancient Roman precedents emphasizing round arches and barrel vault, illuminated manuscripts with linear qualities, and large sculpted figures in profusion in decorative niches. Source: Ralph Mayer, "A Dictionary of Art Terms and Techniques"
Romanticism    A movement in 19th century Western art, it is generally assumed to be in opposition to Neoclassicism and linked in America to Thomas Cole and the Hudson River School of painting between 1820 and 1880. Cole and his followers believed that symbolic meaning could be found in landscape and that its natural features were created by God. Their paintings reflected a quiet, reverence for God in nature, especially in wilderness areas. These Romantic paintings are marked by intense colors, turbulent emotions, complex composition, soft outlines and sometimes-heroic subject matter. Source; Andrew Wilton and Tim Barringer, "American Sublime: Landscape painting in the United States, 1820-1880"
Rookwood Pottery    A pottery company that gained international recognition in the early 20th century, it was first located in a converted garage in Cincinnati, Ohio, and opened in 1889. The founder was Maria Longworth Nichols Storer, a wealthy woman, who, like so many privileged ladies of that era, did china painting as a hobby. However, unlike many of her peers, she became business minded. She began by experimenting with glazes, but was frustrated with the lack of temperature control of the local kilns. So she built her own kiln, which was the launching of Rookwood Pottery. In 1881, she hired Henry Farny, her first full-time decorator. He only worked one year, because he discovered the West and devoted himself to painting western subjects. However, during his year at Rockwood, he used special techniques to create portrait plaques of Indians. These pieces were predecessors to 161 Rookwood pottery Indian images created between 1881 and 1904 by 23 decorators including Matthew Daly (1860-1937). Among the many employees Maria Storer hired were chemists, artists, and designers. The earliest Rookwood pottery was usually decorated in relief on natural colored clays, such as sage green or pink. These "pieces could be gilted, have a simple stamped design or be carved in high relief. These early pieces could also be painted by someone who bought the greenware, an unfinished piece, and then decorated it at home. These personally decorated pieces are not considered to be Rookwood". With the leadership of Maria Nichols Storer, her employees developed many new glazes and decorative methods. The most common glaze that became a signature part of Rookwood Pottery was "deep yellow, orange and red over dark brown with a high gloss, usually in a flower or leaf motif." Subjects in addition to Indians were floral designs, portraits and fish. Rookwood artists credited with particular skill in addition to Farny and Matthew Daly are Carl Schmidt, A.R. Valentien and William McDonald. "Each had a signature mark which can be found on the base of the pieces they decorated." Rookwood was sold in stores including "Tiffany, Ovington and other large department stores in major cities across the country. The company developed an architectural department where large parts to decorate entrances and buildings were made. . . .Financial problems in 1907, the Great Depression, and two World Wars led to a slow decline in quality, and, finally, bankruptcy in 1941. Rookwood was purchased by Walter Schot but closed for good in 1967." Sources: Sources: Magan Holloway Fort, ‘Current and Coming’, “The Magazine Antiques”, November 2007, p. 22;
Rosenwald Fund Grant    Derived from the financial success of Julius Rosenwald (1862-1932), chairman of Sears and Roebuck and Co., this grant activity reflected his commitment to social change and justice. From 1911 to 1928, it focused primarily on black education in the American South by giving start-up money to over 5000 schools. In 1928, Rosenwald’s fortune was redirected to individual scholarships with ‘no strings attached’ in amounts, normally, between $1,500. to $2,000. Recipients were usually young, and judged to have exceptional promise towards meritorious scholarly and/or creative pursuit. Most Rosenwald Fellows, but not all, were African-American. Fund directives by Rosenwald were unique because, unlike the majority of philanthropic funding sources, all the seed money was spent until it was gone, which occurred in 1948. In the previous decade, 34 artists received grants including Jacob Lawrence, Robert Gwathmey, Aaron Douglas, Rose Piper, and Eldzier Cortier. Julius Rosenwald had died in 1932, and his son, Lessing Julius Rosenwald (1891-1979) took over Fund administration. Some of the grants carry his name. Sources: Daniel Schulman, ‘African American Art & the Julius Rosenwald Fund’, “American Art Review”, February 2009;
Roseville Pottery Company    Founded by J.F. Weaver in Roseville, Ohio in 1892, it became an early American art pottery source and a competitor to Rookwood. By 1901 the company had four plants and 325 employees. From 1904 to 1909, Frederick Hurten Rhead was Art Director, and one of his vases created during this time has held the auction price high record for American art pottery. The company closed in 1953, purchased by Mosaic Tile Company. Source: Wikipedia,
Rotogravure    An intaglio printmaking process, meaning incised upon a surface, it is a method of engraving an image onto a cylinder rather than a flat surface. The image is then delivered by a rotary printing press, a method developed in the 19th century and occasionally used in the 21st century. Printmakers using this process included Frederick Humpal, Herndon Davis and Jacob Kainen. Source: Wikipedia,
Royal Academy of Antwerp    Located in Antwerp, Belgium, the Academy was founded in 1663 by David Teniers the Younger, court painter to Archduke Leopold Wilhelm, and Master of the arts and handicrafts Guild of St. Luke. Academy curriculum offers fine arts, architecture and design, and from the 19th century forward has attracted many foreign students including George Maynard, Frances Millet and Lawrence Alma-Tadema. Source: Wikipedia,
Royal Academy of Arts, London    Located at Piccadilly, London in Burlington House, it is the country's oldest art school and ongoing into the 21st century, also has extensive space for exhibitions and ongoing artist education. Chartered in 1768 by King George III as a privately funded institution, it was led by artists and architects "to promote the creation, enjoyment and appreciation of the visual arts through exhibitions, education and debate." Its establishment met the need of providing English artists with a venue to sell their works at a time when European art had a much stronger, more prestigious market. Membership was limited to 40, and founding members included Benjamin West, Sir Joshua Reynolds, and Thomas Gainsborough. The first exhbition was held April 25 to May 27, 1769 with 136 works of art, and established an unbroken exhibition program from that time. Source:
Royal Academy of Fine Arts, Munich    See Academy of Fine Arts, Munich
Royal Canadian Academy of Arts (RCA)    Founded in 1880 with the purpose of promoting the arts in what was then a young country, it is the oldest national organization of Canadian artists.  Organizers were twenty-six of the country's outstanding architects, painters and sculptors along with the Marquess of Lorne, Governor General of Canada. Elected artist members became known as Academicians, and these persons founded and established the core collection of the National Gallery in Ottawa. Before 1949 there was no retirement age in the RCA and its constitution allowed a total of only 40 Academicians; made up of 22 painters, 5 sculptors, 9 architects, and 4 designers, etchers and engravers.  The amount of Associate members was not limited and in 1946 there were 65.  Therefore an Associate had to wait for an Academician to die or resign to have a chance at advancement and a vote.  In 1949 the constitution was amended to increase the number of Academicians to 45 and adopt a retirement age of 70.  In 1973 the constitution was again changed to drop the designation Associate (ARCA) and replace it with RCA elect (RCAe) indicating the member had not yet presented diploma work.  There are currently (2011) over 700 members of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts.  Artist member names include Bertram Binning, Dora De Pedery-Hunt, Yvonne Housser, William Brymner, Maurice Cullen and John Ford Clymer. Sources: Canadian Association of New York; AskART database; "Passionate Spirits: A History of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts, 1880 – 1980" (1980), by Rebecca Sisler (see AskART book references); and the RCA – Courtesy, M.D. Silverbrooke
Royal College of Art, London    See South Kensington School of Art, London
Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, Copenhagen    An institution dating back to 1754 when it gifted to King Frederik V on his 31st birthday, it remains in its original building, Charlottenborg Palace. It is the oldest place of higher learning in Denmark, and, with emphasis on combining research with creative arts, offers classes in painting, sculpture, drawing and architecture. The Danish Ministry of Culture administers the Academy. First Director was Nicolai Eigtved, and famous sculptor Bertel Thorvaldsen served in that position from 1833 to 1844. Source: Wikipedia: "Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts"
Royal Hibernian Academy    Located in Dublin, Ireland, it is a source of education and exhibition for artists, and is funded by the local arts council as well as by exhibitions and patrons. Founded in 1823 by 39 artists who petitioned the government for a charter of incorporation, it included a National School of Art. Landscape painter, William Ashford, served as first president. As a result of challenges by modernist leaning artists, it expanded its mission in the 1970s to reflect both traditional and "innovative approaches to the visual arts." (Wikipedia) Sources: www.royalhibernianacademy; Wikipedia, Royal Hibernian Academy.
Royal Insitute of Oil Painters    See Federation of British Artists
Royal Institute of Oil Painters    Known first as Painters in Oil Colours, London, it was founded by artists dedicated exclusively to painting in oil. In 1909, it was granted royal status by King Edward and took on the name of The Royal Institute of Oil painters. Member names include Keeley Halswell, Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema, Walter Sickert, Henri Fantin-Latour and John Collier. Source: Gary Libby, Art Historian and Writer and website of ROI.
Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours/RIPWC    Initially named New Society of Painters in Water Colours when founded in 1831, it is now a part of the Federation of British Artists, headquartered in the Mall Galleries in London. The RIPWC was in competition with the Royal Watercolour Society founded in 1804, but was disparate in approach because of exhibiting work by non members. Both of these organizations were in defiance of the Royal Academy of London, which refused to recognize watercolour as a legitimate medium for fine art. In 1863, the RIPWC changed its name to the Institute of Painters in Water Colours, and 20 years later moved to its own headquarters at Piccadilly. In 1970, the lease having expired, it was moved to Mall Galleries next to Trafalgar Square. In 1885 the word Royal was added to its name by command of Queen Victoria. James Dromgole Linton (1840-1916) was an active member, and served two terms as President. Source:
Royal Scottish Academy    Founded in 1826 in Edinburgh, Scotland, headquarters have remained the William Henry Playfair Landmark Building. Its goal from the beginning under first president George Watson (1767-1837) has been to promote and cultivate visual arts in Scotland through art training and exhibition. It is independent and privately funded. and in 1838 was given a royal charter to become the Royal Scottish Academy. Source,
Royal Society of British Artists    See Federation of British Artists
Royal Society of Marine Artists    See Federation of British Artists
Royal Society of Miniature Painters and Sculptors    With official name Royal Society of Miniature Painters, Sculptors & Gravers, it was founded in 1896 by Alyn Williams, the first President, a position he occupied until 1898, and again from 1908 until 1941. “The Society's Aims are to Esteem, Protect and Practice the traditional 16th Century art of miniature painting emphasizing the infinite patience needed for its fine techniques.” Its inaugural exhibition, held in 1896 in the Modern Gallery, was the first to be devoted exclusively to contemporary miniatures. King Edward VII granted its Royal Charter in 1905. In 1926 the RMS widened its scope to include other forms of miniature art, which was officially confirmed when Sculptors and Gravers were added to its name (that year) by Royal Command of King George V. Submitted to askART by M.D. Silverbrooke. Source: The Royal Society of Miniature Painters, Sculptors & Gravers –
Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers    Known since 1991 as The Royal Society of Painter-Printmakers, it is a London-based institution established in 1880 and given a Royal Charter in 1888. Its original goal, established by persons emulating a similar organization in Paris, was promoting etching as an art form. Original fellows were Francis Haden, Heywood Hardy, Hubert von Herkomer, Alphonse Legros, Robert Macbeth and James Tissot. (James Whistler refused to join because of a fight with his brother-in-law, Francis Haden.) In 1920, artists of other printmaking media were accepted. Source, Wikipedia,; Free Online Dictionary
Royal Society of Painter-Printmakers    See Royal Society of Painter-Etchers and Engravers
Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours    See Royal Watercolour Society
Royal Society of Portrait Painters    See Federation of British Artists
Royal Ulster Academy of Arts    See Ulster Academy of Arts
Royal Ulster Academy, Ulster Academy of Arts    An artist led organization to raise money to educate the public on contemporary and traditional art through exhibitions, it was founded in 1879 as the Belfast Rambler's Sketching Club. In 1930, it took the name of Ulster Academy of Arts, and in 1956, became Royal Ulster Academy. Unlike other United Kingdom Academies, the RUA has no permanent home. Membership is by peer nomination, and there are four levels: Academician, Senior Academician, Associate Academician and Honorary Member. Academician members include Neil Shawcross, Julian Friers, Helen Kerr and Elizabeth McEwen. Source: Royal Ulster Academy of Arts,
Royal Watercolour Society    Descendant of the Society of Painters in Water Colours and for much of its organization the Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours, it is an English "institution of painters working in watercolors." It should not be confused with a separate organization, the Royal Institute of Painters in Water Colours (see Glossary). Founded in 1804 as the SPWC, which also was called the Old Water Color Society, its founding members had withdrawn from the Royal Academy because of feeling that water color was not given enough respect. Original Royal Watercolour Society members included William Sawrey, William Wells, John Varley, William Gilpin, Robert Hills, John Nattes, Samuel Shelley, Cornelius Varley, William Henry Pyne and Nicholas Pocock. From 1812 to 1820, the name was changed to The Society of Painters in Oil and Watercolours, but then reverted to the original name. In 1881, members obtained a Royal Charter as the Royal Society of Painters in Water Colours, and in 1988, the name was changed to the Royal Watercolour Society. Source: Wikipedia-Royal Watercolour Society.
Royal West of England Academy    Located in 1849 in Bristol, England, it was the first art gallery in Bristol, and was financed by the Bristol Society of Artists and money from the will of Ellen Sharples, portrait painter. In 1913, King George V granted the institution its royal title. An art collecting, teaching and exhibiting institution, in 1966 it became part of the University of the West of England School of Visual Studies. Source: Wikipedia: Royal West of England Academy
Roycroft Shops    An arts and crafts oriented community, it was founded by Elbert Hubbard, who settled in Aurora, New York in 1895. He became a showman, writer, entrepreneur and promoter of the arts and crafts movement. He began his business by writing and publishing pamphlets about historical figures. Shortly after, he established shops for the production of furniture, pottery, ironwork, leather goods and printed materials. Visitors flocked to the area to purchase many of the items, which reflect the arts and crafts aesthetic of being visually attractive, utilitarian, simply designed and with visible workmanship such as pegged joints. A community formed, and by 1910, over 500 persons were employed at the Shops including talented, skilled overseers such as Dard Hunter, book printing; Karl Kipp, copper goods; Frederic Kranz, leather; Louis Kinder, books; and James Cadzow and Albert Danner, furniture making. Hubbard and his wife died in 1915 in the sinking of the "Lusitania". The son, Elbert Hubbard II, continued the endeavor, which closed in 1938 because of lack of interest in arts and crafts items. In 1986, the community of Roycroft, with fourteen buildings and surrounding property, was designated a National Historic Landmark. The Burchfield-Penney Art Center at Buffalo State College in New York houses the major Roycroft collection, which provided the exhibition items for a spring, 2006 traveling exhibition. Source: Allison Eckardt Ledes, 'Roycroft', "The Magazine Antiques", February 2006, p. 18.
Rudolph Schaeffer School of Design    Founded in 1915 in San Francisco by Rudolph Schaeffer (1886-1988), the school operated for 58 years until 1984. It was noted for the training of a large number of designers, architects, interior designers, teachers and colorists. Among students were Dorr Bothwell, Carlyle Brown, Daisy Hughes and Tulita Westfall. Source: AskART biography of Rudolph Schaeffer
Ruskin School of Drawing and Fine Art    Located at Oxford University, it is a visual art school and research institute, which also houses the Ruskin Laboratory with focus on exhibitions and research. John Ruskin founded the school in 1871 at the Ashmolean Museum, and in 1974 it moved to its current location at 74 High Street in Oxford. Source: Wikipedia,
Russian Academy of Arts    Also known as the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts, it opened in 1757 as The Academy of the Three Noblest Arts. Seven years later Catherine the Great named it Imperial Academy of Arts and commissioned a new building, which took 25 years to complete. Academy influence was staunchly Neo-classical, and decision makers sponsored many noted painters to Italy and France to become skilled in that style. In the mid-19th century, Realist art proponents led by Ivan Kramskoi broke with the Academy, and the Russian Revolution of 1917 led to its formal demise. In 1947 it was rejuvenated and located in Moscow. The original building in St. Petersburg is now occupied by the Ilya Repin Institute of Arts but remains informally known as the St. Petersburg Academy of Arts. Source: Wikipedia,